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Oxygen steelmaking: Hot metal pretreatment (25 June / 14:00 - Room 1)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 1:

Effect of graphite on hot metal desulphurisation

F. Schrama
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: Effect of graphite on hot metal desulphurisation


Author:
F. Schrama

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Beunder, H. Visser, R. Boom, J. Sietsma, Y. Yang

Abstract:
During the magnesium-lime co-injection process for hot metal desulphurisation, graphite can precipitate as a result of carbon oversaturation. The formed graphite is known to form a layer between the slag and the hot metal. This potentially blocks the sulphides, that are formed during the desulphurisation process, to reach the slag phase thus hampering the desulphurisation efficiency.

In this research it was aimed to obtain experimental evidence for the postulated hampering effect of graphite on the hot metal desulphurisation efficiency at an industrial process. In 2018 at Tata Steel in IJmuiden, the Netherlands, the carbon concentration in the hot metal was measured after the reagent injection, instead of being calculated assuming carbon saturation of the hot metal. This provides the opportunity to predict graphite formation during the process. Although a correlation is found between graphite formation and specific magnesium consumption, which is a measure for desulphurisation efficiency, the effect could not be directly proven, as too many other parameters could have influenced the desulphurisation process. Data analysis does show that the observed correlation could not be attributed to temperature and initial sulphur concentration of the hot metal, which are the two most important factors for the desulphurisation efficiency. The observed correlation between graphite formation and desulphurisation efficiency is significant at low initial sulphur concentrations (<225 ppm) and insignificant at high initial sulphur concentrations (>225 ppm).

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 1:

Energy efficient steel production with the Primary Energy Melter (PEM)

C. Thiede
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Energy efficient steel production with the Primary Energy Melter (PEM)


Author:
C. Thiede

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
I. Infante, P. Starke, J. Bader, A. Frankenberger

Abstract:
Nowadays new technologies for the steel production are of major importance. New processes focus on solutions which have a low investment cost, are energy-efficient, have low environmental impact (focus on circular economy, lower CO2 emissions, etc.), and are focused on the actual available resources for the production of steel.
To meet this market demands SMS group has developed the Primary Energy Melter.

The PEM (Primary Energy Melter), using primary energy such as natural gas or oil, is a cost-effective, eco-friendly shaft furnace for melting scrap. In the lower part of the shaft the scrap is molten with oxygen/gas burners substoichiometric. In the upper part of the shaft furnace the off gas is combusted completely to preheat the charged scrap column. The molten scrap flows out of the shaft of the PEM into a second vessel for superheating or transport. Depending on the production concept the tapping could be into an open-top ladle, torpedo ladle or directly into an electric arc furnace.

There are two main production applications for the PEM. The first application is the enhancement of production capacities in existing steel plants by providing hot, liquid scrap as charging material for converters.
The other application is the production of steel through the combination of a PEM with an EAF to take advantage of low cost for natural gas and the reduction of electrical energy and graphite electrode consumption.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 1:

Successful start-up of 1st movable KR in India at JSW steel Vijayanagar works

M. Dhami
(Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., India)

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Title: Successful start-up of 1st movable KR in India at JSW steel Vijayanagar works


Author:
M. Dhami

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
There has been a rapid increase in the demand for high-quality steel in India. Desulfurizing units, as part of the treatment process for hot metal, are integral to the stable and efficient production of high-quality steel.
KR is a desulfurizing unit in which a refractory coated impeller (rotor blade) is soaked in hot metal and spun, to mechanically mix the hot metal and desulfurization agent. The impeller is spun at high speeds to promote an efficient desulfurization reaction. It also allows for the use of inexpensive lime as a desulfurization agent, instead of the expensive magnesium, which dramatically decreases operation cost compared with Injection type de-sulfurization process.
KR hot metal de-sulfurization plant has successfully started-up at 2 steel melting shops at Vijayanagar works in JSW steel. These plants has achieved excellent operational performance i.e. more than 95 % of desulfurization ratio with less than 12 kg/t-HM of lime at treatment time of 16 minutes and 10 ppm of [S] after treatment can be attainable.
This plant is the 1st movable type KR in India. Movable type KR has the following benefits.
(1) One movable type KR can desulfurize at multiple stations, which allows for a reduction in equipment cost as compared to owning multiple fixed type KR units.
(2) Movable type KRs can engage in simultaneous desulfurizing and deslagging operations in multiple locations, which allows for a reduction in operation time.
In addition to the above is the fact that these movable type KR units have had very few issues (vibrations, etc.) due to vibration analysis done at design stage.
This report describes feature of KR technology and equipment, metallurgical & operation performance compared with Injection type de-sulfurization process.

Oxygen steelmaking: Automation and on-line process analyses I (25 June / 14:00 - Room 2)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 2:

A customizable robotic cell for maintaining the ladle sliding gate

V. Colla
(Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy)

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Title: A customizable robotic cell for maintaining the ladle sliding gate


Author:
V. Colla

Company:
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy

Co-Authors:
M. Vezzola

Abstract:
Valentina Colla1, Ruben Matino1, Andrea Faes2, Mauro Schivalocchi2, Lea Romaniello3, Antonius Schroeder4
1Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, TeCIP Institute – ICT-COISP Center, Pisa, Italy
2“Polytec Robotics” brand of BM S.p.A – Borgo Chiese – Trento, Italy
3ILVA S.p.A. Taranto Works, Taranto, Italy
4Technische Universität Dortmund, Sozialforschungsstelle, Dortmund, Germany

Abstract
The paper depicts a robotic cell, which has been ad-hoc developed in order to be installed in the steel shop and support the operators during inspection, cleaning and replacement of the refractory components of the ladle sliding gate. This device is allowing opening the bottom of the ladle so that the liquid steel can run into the tundish of the continuous caster. The developed robotic cell represent an innovative attempt to create a cooperative environment where the technicians and a robot interact in a safe and ergonomic way. The most cumbersome operations to the robot are left to the robot, while the capability of the operators to monitor and control the whole process are enhanced with respect to the current manual procedure through the exploitation of a vision system and a smart human-machine interface. This system, which is installed and tested in an Italian integrated steelworks, allows improving both the health and safety condition of the workers and the quality and repeatability of the operations.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 2:

New automation concept for operation of a BOF steelmaking process

J. Thomasberger
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: New automation concept for operation of a BOF steelmaking process


Author:
J. Thomasberger

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Gebert, P. Pietzka

Abstract:
New automation concept for operation of a BOF steelmaking process

As part of a modernization in Canada, the complete process automation of the steel plant has been revamped. The new automation system was able to reduced interventions and improved the synchronization between different Operators. That has led to more reproducible and cost optimized production. All relevant Modules, from Blast Furnace up to Caster, are communicating within existing Level 1/Level 3 automation and were integrated with in the local data cloud. The data cloud provides a safe, standardized and future proof data exchange between old and new parts of the total automation landscape of our costumer.

The integration sequence were followed – also named as the plug and work concept:
1. Software development (including Basic & Detail Engineering)
2. Integrated Test at “Test Center” including costumer training
3. Shadow Mode (PGS runs in parallel to existing system)
4. Hot commissioning (switching to new automation system)

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 2:

In situ continuous measurement of melt temperature for advanced control of liquid steelmaking processes

T. Lamp
(Minkon GmbH, Germany)

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Title: In situ continuous measurement of melt temperature for advanced control of liquid steelmaking processes


Author:
T. Lamp

Company:
Minkon GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
B. Kleimt, T. Kordel, M. Potter, S. Petry

Abstract:
Within the research project RECOBA, which was funded in the SPIRE part of the HORIZON 2020 research programme, the fibre optical temperature measurement system DynTemp for in-situ continuous temperature measurement of the steel melt temperature was successfully applied at different liquid steelmaking processes in secondary metallurgy.
The DynTemp measurement system has an extremely short response time and high precision. Fibre feeding via the top stirring lance at an Argon stirring station allowed a continuous melt temperature measurement throughout the complete stirring treatment. At the RH degasser fibre feeding was performed via a specially armed probe lance to follow the melt temperature evolution for several minutes especially in the beginning of vacuum treatment.
For an enhanced through process temperature control the DynTemp measurement was combined with dynamic predictive process models, to ensure an energy and resource efficient achievement of the narrow target temperature window at the end of the process chain of secondary metallurgy, to deliver the steel melts at a predefined time to the continuous casting plant.
The sensor development was performed by MINKON Poland with support of VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut, which was also responsible for the development and application of process models as well as the set-up of the control techniques. The sensors, process models and control concepts were developed with the support of thyssenkrupp Steel Europe.

Authors:
Mark Potter (Minkon Sp.Z o.o)
Torsten Lamp (MINKON GmbH)
Tobias Kordel, Bernd Kleimt (VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH)
Stefan Petry (thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG)

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 2:

Direct Tapping Model based on artificial neural network

M. Antônio Viana Júnior
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: Direct Tapping Model based on artificial neural network


Author:
M. Antônio Viana Júnior

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The direct tapping is a procedure to tap the molten steel without waiting for end of blow sample result. This process assumes the risk to out of range chemical composition, mainly regarding phosphorus.
This project is about the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) model associated with a decision making algorithm to predict the correct decision to be taken by the BOF operator in the last phase of processing. The decision of direct tap, wait for sample results or reblow the heat is supported by the software. Long and short term process data is used in the process of training the neural and decision making algorithm. The software have completed more than one year supporting the operational decisions and demonstrated to be reliable with an error rate less than 0,5%.

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25 June / 15:20 - Room 2:

The Efficient Control of the BOF Process Under Conditions of Permanent Changing of Technological Parameters

A. Kharchenko
(Zaporizhzhya National University, Ukraine)

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Title: The Efficient Control of the BOF Process Under Conditions of Permanent Changing of Technological Parameters


Author:
A. Kharchenko

Company:
Zaporizhzhya National University, Ukraine

Co-Authors:
R. Sinyakov

Abstract:
The paper presents description of the main functions and capabilities of a computer-aided design system “DesigningMelt” and its operation in a technological control system for BOF from the start of heat to the production of a semi-product with specified parameters. Design begins with a heat task specification. Further, taking into account information about used equipment and materials, the control actions and the process trajectory are computed: changes in the chemical composition and mass of the metal, slag and gas, and their temperature. As actual information on the process flow is received by means of express analysis and temperature measurement, the future state of the process is forecasted: chemical composition of metal and slag and system temperature. Immediately upon, design of the remaining part of the heat is recalculated and control actions are generated: position of the oxygen lance, oxygen blow intensity, the type, mass and time of the input of materials, etc. On this basis, an optimal control is achieved and instantly maintained. System allows to obtain metal and slag simultaneously with a target chemical composition and temperature. Presented computer-aided design system has been implemented as part of BOF heat control system at XuanSteel metallurgical works (PRC).

Oxygen steelmaking: Slag treatment (25 June / 14:00 - Room 14)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 14:

Digitalization drives performance of next generation slag retention system

B. Voraberger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Digitalization drives performance of next generation slag retention system


Author:
B. Voraberger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
G. Wimmer, P. Oberhumer, S. Ollila, T. Palovaara, J. Rosner

Abstract:
The separation of steel and slag during tapping is a crucial part in BOF converter steelmaking to improve steel product quality, steel cleanliness and reduce costs for ladle treatment.
Primetals Technologies innovative pneumatic slag retention system, the Vaicon Stopper, makes it possible to almost completely prevent the carry-over of slag at the end of the tap. For slag detection in the tapping stream the Vaicon stopper is combined with the SlagMon, an infrared camera which enables fully automated operation with no manual interaction and therefore maximum operational safety. Due to the customer benefits of a reliable and fully automated operation the Vaicon stopper is the leading slag retention system in converter steelmaking.
In a continuous improvement process the feedback from operation of close to 150 references was used for the development of an updated, improved version of the Vaicon Stopper. Comprehensive CFD and FE simulations were performed to prove the functionality of the new retaining procedure and to optimize the design. Before market introduction a prototype of the new patent-pending slag stopper was successfully tested at an European steel plant. Considering its more compact design, the further reduced maintenance and cleaning effort and the longer lifetime, the new generation slag stopper opens the door for new BOF customers with no or outdated slag retention systems.
Combined with new and advanced automation packages for automated tapping, ladle freeboard measurement and fast converter upright solutions, the new Vaicon Stopper and the SlagMon are an integral part of Primetals Technologies fully automated steel plant.
The present paper will give an overview of the recent Vaicon Stopper references, the development and testing of the new next generation slag stopper and the related automation packages to meet the requirements of steelmaking in the age of industry 4.0.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 14:

Modeling on secondary refining process of steel

D. You
(University of Leoben, Austria)

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Title: Modeling on secondary refining process of steel


Author:
D. You

Company:
University of Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Under the background of Industry 4.0 and Integrated Intelligent Manufacturing, the process models of secondary refining of steel are necessary to realize the smart production. In the present study, the models of Ladle Furnace (LF) and Ruhrstahl Heraeus (RH) refining are developed based on the concept of linking practical metallurgical models to thermodynamic database. In the modeling, thermodynamic library–ChemApp and ChemSage data-file are applied to perform equilibrium calculation. The ‘effective equilibrium reaction zone (EERZ)’ method is used to account for the interfacial reactions. For LF model, ‘tank–in–series’ model is used to simply consider the mixing phenomenon. The steel/slag reaction, lining dissolution, alloy addition and air absorption are also accounted for. On RH modeling, three reaction sites in RH vessel are defined: bath surface, inside bath and argon (Ar) bubble surface according to the decarburization and degassing mechanism. The treatment on the reactions in the ladle during RH refining process is similar with that in the LF modeling. The proposed models are separately validated by the already published plant data and laboratory experiments. The models also can be linked to each other to simulate the refining process. In the future, the simulations using the developed models are expected to offer reference towards the online operations of the through process quality control of steel refining.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 14:

Successful application of Lhoist's innovative lime based slag conditioner in the BOF process at Dillinger

K. Kortzak
(AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany)

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Title: Successful application of Lhoist's innovative lime based slag conditioner in the BOF process at Dillinger


Author:
K. Kortzak

Company:
AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Noldin, H. Lachmund, M. Nispel

Abstract:
The BOF steelmaking route accounts for the majority of steel production globally, producing sophisticated steel grades for challenging applications. Despite all the advancements observed in the last decades, BOF operators need to daily face increasing cost pressure, more stringent environmental regulations and scarcer access to good quality raw material. Innovation in BOF steelmaking remains vital to keep steel as the material of choice, from equipment, to process model and more efficient use of challenging raw materials.
In such scenario Lhoist launched the development of a new lime based slag enhancer – Booster – to improve BOF steelmaking by increasing the metallurgical effectiveness of slag.
This paper discusses the results of the pilot trials carried out in a 6 t universal converter in BOF mode at MEFOS and successful application using the product in the 190 t BOFs at Dillinger under industrial conditions.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 14:

Modeling and control of the BOF process: Challenges, solutions and latest developments in SMS group

S. Khadhraoui
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Modeling and control of the BOF process: Challenges, solutions and latest developments in SMS group


Author:
S. Khadhraoui

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Odenthal, F. Krause, N. Uebber, W. Klos, P. Monheim, K. Hack, M. To Baben

Abstract:
For an optimal design and control of the BOF converter process, a deep understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the refining reactions is essential. The dynamic of the BOF process is complex, as reactions take place between multi-component and multi-phase systems and involve several reaction zones.

In the present work, an attempt is made to clarify the controversies with respect to the priority of oxidation reactions in the BOF process and why it can be affected by a modification in the blowing conditions. It is found that in many cases, the observed retardation in the onset of decarburisation is not thermodynamically determined but is rather due to CO-nucleation difficulties. Even though the decarburisation delay promotes early slag formation and early dephosphorisation, it increases the risk of excessive foaming and the occurence of slopping. It is suggested in this work that thermodynamic approaches must include a barrier for CO-nucleation for a successful modeling of the initial stage of blow.

In addition, the contribution of the slag to decarburisation kinetics is discussed. It is found that the role of surface tension and the precipitated solid phases may be more significant in the retardation and onset of decarburisation than assumed so far.

Finally, process control strategies developed lately by SMS to ensure a flexible control of decarburisation rate and avoid slopping occurrence based on those findings are presented.

Oxygen steelmaking: Fundamentals, Converter charge materials and their preparation (25 June / 14:00 - Room 15)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 15:

Value creation of dolime compared to MgO alternatives for BOF application

M. Nispel
(Lhoist Recherche et Developpement S.A., Belgium)

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Title: Value creation of dolime compared to MgO alternatives for BOF application


Author:
M. Nispel

Company:
Lhoist Recherche et Developpement S.A., Belgium

Co-Authors:
E. Perrin

Abstract:
For BOF application, the addition of MgO into the converter is a common practice to reduce the refractory wear with the goal to increase the productivity by reducing the standstill times for refractory repairs.
This paper investigates the potential added value of different MgO sources (i.e. raw Dolomite, calcined Dolomite, raw Magnesite, calcined Magnesite, recycled sintered MgO) according to their dissolution kinetics into the slag. This affects the ability to saturate the steelmaking slag with MgO, which influences the chemical erosion of the refractories at the end. It also impacts the thermal balance of the BOF. The additional energy needed to dissolve certain types of MgO sources might force the need to increase the hot-metal ratio or to introduce heating agents such as carbon or ferro-silicone into the converter. The impact on the CO2 footprint of the BOF process is also affected by such modification.
A static and industrially calibrated BOF charge model based on the thermodynamics and metallurgical reactions inside the converter was developed by Lhoist. It was used to calculate the needed amounts of selected input materials at optimized cost to reach certain predefined targets in terms of steel and slag composition, steel quantity and steel temperature. This model bridges the measured refractory protection capabilities, the energies required to dissolve the material and the different CO2 footprints of the individual processes with the economics of the different raw materials to produce steel via the BOF route. Every MgO source calculation was performed keeping the same metallurgical and temperature output targets.
This approach enabled us to evaluate the economical and technical impacts of various MgO sources according to their physical and chemical properties, potential differences in CO2 emission and material cost to determine the most cost efficient MgO source.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 15:

The new highly efficient primary melter CONPRO

A. Frankenberger
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: The new highly efficient primary melter CONPRO


Author:
A. Frankenberger

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The newly developed CONPRO process is opening up new prospects to switch from environmental harmful processes using hot metal to a process using higher percentages of recycling materials (scrap) eventually combined with virgin materials. Thus this process will allow production of all grades of high-quality steels.
With CONPRO proven technologies of both Basic Oxygen Furnace and Electric Arc Furnace have been combined allowing steel production in the most efficient and flexible manner with regard to combination of metallic charge materials and energy sources.
Steelmakers using conventional blast furnace-BOF converter route are facing problems to scope with their CO2-footprint and future requirements on low emission production of steel.
The new CONPRO process is enabling these steelmakers to step out of the environmental harmful process using hot metal for a certain time as charge material, reduce it stepwise down to zero, enabling finally the shutdown of blast furnaces by using the melting equipment CONPRO. High demands on steel quality and cleanliness may be granted by using scrap and solid virgin charge material at the stage of production without hot metal.
With the CONPRO process steelmakers are able to react flexible on large price fluctuations in metallic charge materials, rising costs for CO2 emissions and increased availability of scrap.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 15:

Evaluation of mixing and mass transfer at Ternium Brazil's BOF through cold model experiments

M. Ribeiro
(Federal University of Minas Gerais/ University of Leoben, Austria)

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Title: Evaluation of mixing and mass transfer at Ternium Brazil's BOF through cold model experiments


Author:
M. Ribeiro

Company:
Federal University of Minas Gerais/ University of Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:
D. Carvalho, J. Schenk, B. T. Maia, R. S. Salgado, D. C.O. Silveira

Abstract:
The bottom blowing in the BOF process provides higher metal bath agitation, improving the refining reactions. Steel–slag mass transfer is a key step in the reaction of different steel components, such as phosphorous, manganese and others. In the present work, experiments were carried out in a cold model of Ternium Brazil BOF converter aiming to evaluate bath homogenization and mass transfer. Based on similarity criteria, it is possible to transpose the laboratory results to the industrial practice. It was evaluated the influence of tuyères flow rate and configuration on processes that involve a mass transfer between metal and slag.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 15:

Material monitoring by acoustic fingerprint analysis

A. Rohrhofer
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Material monitoring by acoustic fingerprint analysis


Author:
A. Rohrhofer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
F. Hartl, A. Husakovic, A. Mayrhofer

Abstract:
Intuitively, living beings use sounds in the environment to gain information from it. With Acoustic Expert Primetals Technologies use this seldom applied but very bionic approach for process monitoring in metals industries. One application of this flexible 24/7 acoustic monitoring system is supervision of materials on conveyor belts. Sounds emitted at take over points are recorded and analyzed to get real time information on type and quality of materials. Using several example installations the method is described in detail. Achieved results are provided as well. An outlook about integration in Primetals Technologies condition monitoring system concludes the paper.

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25 June / 15:20 - Room 15:

Mathematical modelling of the effect of reagent particle size distribution on the efficiency of hot metal desulphurisation

V. Visuri
(University of Oulu, Finland)

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Title: Mathematical modelling of the effect of reagent particle size distribution on the efficiency of hot metal desulphurisation


Author:
V. Visuri

Company:
University of Oulu, Finland

Co-Authors:
P. Sulasalmi, T. Vuolio, T. Paananen, T. Haas, H. Pfeifer, T. Fabritius

Abstract:
Sulphur is one of the main impurities in steel. Hot metal desulphurisation constitutes the primary desulphurisation step in blast furnace-based ironmaking and is typically conducted in a ladle or in a torpedo car, using pneumatic injection of desulphurisation reagent with a submerged lance. The ability to predict the course, end-point and thus the efficiency of hot metal desulphurisation treatment is important for process optimisation. To this end, a novel mathematical model was developed, based on the thermodynamic-kinetic fundamentals associated with hot metal desulphurisation in a ladle. In this model, the system is divided into permanent and transitory reaction mechanisms, which differ in terms of kinetic and thermodynamic properties. The objective of this work was to employ the model to study the effect of reagent size distribution on the hot metal desulphurisation, using experimental data for two different lime reagents. The predicted final sulphur contents were in reasonably good accordance with the measured values. The results suggest that with a finer reagent particle size distribution the desulphurisation efficiency of the reagent is higher. For large particles the change of the rate-controlling step was found to take place at higher sulphur contents than for small particles. The results support the previously-postulated general notion that solid-state diffusion is the rate-limiting step at high sulphur contents, while external mass transfer controls the desulphurisation rate at low sulphur contents.

Electric steelmaking: Equipment (25 June / 14:00 - Room 16)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 16:

Increasing the safety and reliability of the EAF: Installation of the EAF roof designed and manufactured with Spray-Cooled™ technology

M. Abel
(tripleS GbR, Germany)

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Title: Increasing the safety and reliability of the EAF: Installation of the EAF roof designed and manufactured with Spray-Cooled™ technology


Author:
M. Abel

Company:
tripleS GbR, Germany

Co-Authors:
L. Wilson, S. Ferguson, F. Boman

Abstract:
In order to increase the availability and safety of its 100t EAF, the Swedish steel producer Ovako Hofors decided to replace its tubular water-cooled roof with a spray-cooled roof. In June 2017, the order was awarded to Systems Spray-Cooled with a short lead time for design and delivery of only six months. Due to market conditions, the winter shutdown was cancelled, and the installation was shifted to the summer shutdown 2018, where the equipment was successfully commissioned on August 10.

The paper will both describe the project and cooling technology and present the results of the installation.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 16:

Development of burner and injector systems for the steel and non-ferrous metals industry

E. Islamoglu
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Development of burner and injector systems for the steel and non-ferrous metals industry


Author:
E. Islamoglu

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Niekamp

Abstract:
Burner and injector systems are used right across the process chain in the steel and non-ferrous metals industry. This paper provides an overview of the various systems developed by SMS group and illustrates their possible applications. The combined SIS Plus (SMS group Injection System) burner injector systems is primarily used for melting scrap, DRI, and HBI, and for superheating the steel melt in the electric arc furnace. When used in an AC or DC EAF with various sizes and product ranges (stainless steel, structural steel, etc.), the system have been operating with successful results all over the world. In the non-ferrous metals industry, too, SIS is an efficient means of introducing process gases and melting raw materials.
The PROX burner is well suited for flexible applications, e.g. heating, melting and superheating a vast range of charge materials. Conventional burners for metallurgical applications are usually designed for a particular power level and a combination of fuel (e.g. natural gas, LPG) and oxidizer (oxygen or air). What makes PROX burner special is its adjustable nozzle openings for the fuel and oxidizer. The adjustable nozzle design allows the flow rate of the relevant medium to be controlled independently of the burner output or air ratio. As a result, different types of gas with varying calorific values can be used effectively. The high-speed oxygen burner is ideally suited for high-temperature applications as well as for heating and melting steel scrap. The melting power of oxygen burners is much greater due to the higher thermal radiation and better energy efficiency. Furthermore, these burners enable a wide variety of air-oxygen mixes to be used as an oxidizing gas.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 16:

Development of pulverized coal burners for electric arc furnace

Y. Miwa
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

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Title: Development of pulverized coal burners for electric arc furnace


Author:
Y. Miwa

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The production of steel scrap in Japan totals approximately 30 million tons per year. Electric Arc Furnaces (EAFs) are commonly used to produce new steel by utilizing such scrap as the raw material iron source. However, the electric power consumption rate is in reality too high for continued efficient EAF operation.
To reduce the electric power consumption rate, auxiliary burners (CxHy, oil, etc.) have conventionally been applied for EAF operation. Nevertheless, EAF operational costs remain high. Considering energy security, pulverized coal (PC) has been proposed as an inexpensive alternative source of energy, and PC-oxygen-air burners have been developed for this purpose. However, unstable combustion process has been detected in PC-oxygen-air burners.
Thus, in this study, a new PC-LNG (liquefied natural gas)-oxygen burner has been developed to address such stability concern and replace conventional burners in EAFs. It is characterized by a nozzle assembly that features a triple tube annular structure through which PC, LNG and oxygen flow. The structure of the nozzle assembly has been modified to include a flow line and combustion fields for LNG in order to improve the flame stability of the burner. Steel plate with heating test was conducted to simulate scrap melting. The test was conducted using PC for blast furnace (PC-BF) and PC of lignite (PC-Lignite). It was found that: 1) PC-BF burner and PC-Lignite burner were confirmed stable combustion without misfiring. 2) PC-BF burner and PC-Lignite has a higher scrap melting ability than LNG burner. 3) PC-BF burner has a higher scrap melting ability than the PC-Lignite burner.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 16:

Development and operation experience of HTT Oxymo TM burner / oxygen injector with moving flame and moving supersonic oxygen jet in two modern electric arc furnaces

J. Brhel
(HTT Engineering spol. s r.o., Czech Republic)

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Title: Development and operation experience of HTT Oxymo TM burner / oxygen injector with moving flame and moving supersonic oxygen jet in two modern electric arc furnaces


Author:
J. Brhel

Company:
HTT Engineering spol. s r.o., Czech Republic

Co-Authors:
S. Lui, A. Viotto, M. Teuber, M. Fennert

Abstract:
Chemical energy efficiency and burner / injectors tools reliability is topic of constant interest of EAF steel makers. HTT developed the new technology to significantly improve efficiency of burner flame as well as of injected oxygen. HTT OxymoTM burner name stands for Oxygen and Motion combination. It enables controlled wide range motion of the flame and supersonic oxygen jet inside the furnace area, while burner body remains static and sealed in the furnace wall. This brings substantial advantages of EAF operation as volume of the scrap preheated by flame increase due to flame ability to move and flame can be better directed to the required spots in the furnace. Further to this, ability to move supersonic oxygen jet speed up scrap cutting in period of transition from solid the liquid phase. These benefits are reached while furnace is still tight sealed and burner body inside the furnace is not moving. This new patented technology has been installed and tested at two major European EAF steel plants - Ferriere Nord in Italy and Feralpi Stahl in Germany. The paper will describe technological principles as well as practical results and experience gained during EAF operation with HTT OxymoTM technology in these two plants.

Oxygen steelmaking: Current status and new developments in converter technology and shopfloor management I (25 June / 15:10 - Room 1)

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25 June / 15:10 - Room 1:

Slag splashing: Proposal of blow parameters equationing

B. Totti Maia
(Lumar Metals, Brazil)

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Close25 June, Room 1 ( 15:10 )
Title: Slag splashing: Proposal of blow parameters equationing


Author:
B. Totti Maia

Company:
Lumar Metals, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The method of repair / prevention of refractories of converters called Slag Splashing has operational aspects such as lance height (DBL), flow of nitrogen blow, static or moving lance, and geometric aspects such as number of lance holes, hole angle, dimensions of the converter, which must be controlled for their highest efficiency. Cold studies carried out, considering a converter with a nominal capacity of 340 tons of the company Ternium Brasil, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, show that at a lance height greater than 3 meters the jet could not reach the surface of the slag, and that when this lance height is decreased, the mass of slag moved increases, which launched the theory about a new factor that would generate a slag bath in the refractory walls of the converters instead of projection. It also increases the mass of slag moved: the increase of the angle of the holes and the increase of the nitrogen flow, but for the effectiveness of the Slag Splashing process to be real, specific analyzes for each case of converter must be made in order to implant procedures like the movement of the lance ("io-iô" effect) that project slag in the most worn areas.

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25 June / 15:30 - Room 1:

Danieli Converter Technology: Joint know-how creating unique opportunities

G. Staudinger
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

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Title: Danieli Converter Technology: Joint know-how creating unique opportunities


Author:
G. Staudinger

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
M. Skorianz, U. Bezerra de Oliveira, E. Engel

Abstract:
Danieli entered the BOF business in 2011 and ramped up rapidly in this highly demanding market. Currently, five converter vessels are operating world-wide and another two are in the project execution phases. Since July 2018 the converter technology is fully integrated into Danieli Corus. With this new set-up of joining experts from iron- and steel-making at the same location, synergies are used and existing technologies can be combined and optimized which is a great opportunity for customer of both disciplines.

On the BOF market, there is growing demand for integrated system responsibility. Which means optimizing converter- and refractory life-time as a system. This is a new challenge for all parties involved (operation of steel plant, supplier for converter hard ware and refractory).

Under this scenario Danieli can offer important features and improvements to the market:
• Maximum increase of converter size respectively inner reaction volume by keeping the main dimensions of the existing plant.
• With the target of keeping components as simple as possible, Danieli developed and patented a new horizontal suspension element. The key parts are flat plates which compensate the thermal expansion of the vessel by elastic deformation.
• For the life time of the vessel shell, Danieli applies in a recent project the features of high creep resistance converter shell material, converter air- and water cooling.
• For monitoring the temperature, Danieli Corus further developed the second generation of the temperature monitoring system Q-temp.
• Another feature is the Danieli Conditioning Monitoring System (DCMS), which is now applied in a converter tilting drive. This system is giving online feedback of the actual condition of the gear components and defines the optimum timing for overhauling, repair or exchange.
• Actually Danieli Corus is further developing the ASCON system (Advanced Slag Control). This detects the slag level inside the BOF and takes countermeasures in case of risk of slopping.

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25 June / 15:50 - Room 1:

Oxygen lance - multiple functions during tap to tap

B. Totti Maia
(Lumar Metals, Brazil)

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Title: Oxygen lance - multiple functions during tap to tap


Author:
B. Totti Maia

Company:
Lumar Metals, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The oxygen lance is well known for its fundamental work in the primary steels refining. This lance over the years began to perform other relevant activities, before and after the blow, to the steelworks productivity, among them: converter sole control, slagsplasing, mouth cleaning. The present work presents and discusses these new blowing lance functions.

Oxygen steelmaking: Plant operation experiences (25 June / 16:00 - Room 14)

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25 June / 16:00 - Room 14:

The 5 mtpy Project for Ternium Brazil BOF - "Challenges & Results"

H. Gomes
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: The 5 mtpy Project for Ternium Brazil BOF - "Challenges & Results"


Author:
H. Gomes

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:
D. Carvalho, L. Demuner, H. Castro, M. Viana

Abstract:
Intensive process and technology improvements related to the BOF converter - the key process to increase Steel Plant productivity and stability - have been performed at Ternium BR. This paper details the roadmap for process developments and investments in equipment technology as well as the results achieved.
The main topics of this development are the process control and optimization systems, slag forming model, oxygen blowing pattern, end of blow point control and slag carryover control. The outcomes of this development are improvements in the reblow rate, end-of-blow oxidation, direct tapping, slag carryover, slopping ratio, metallic yield, lining life and improved productivity.

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25 June / 16:20 - Room 14:

Combined development of high performing ladle slide gate refractory and new generation ladle slide gate mechanism to maximize benefits to customers

S. Sen
(Vesuvius plc, United States)

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Title: Combined development of high performing ladle slide gate refractory and new generation ladle slide gate mechanism to maximize benefits to customers


Author:
S. Sen

Company:
Vesuvius plc, United States

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Slide gate mechanisms are a well-established technology used on ladles in steel making facilities to provide safe operation during flow control of molten metal. Within the refractory stack-up of such mechanism, slide gate plates are subjected to more rigorous wear because of direct steel impingement and frequent throttling. This often limits the plate life, which causes additional downtime of the ladle. Keeping safety as the key attribute, it is therefore important to prolong the life of plates to ensure that ladle cycling is least interrupted. This is also key to reducing energy consumption, as ladles require re-heating to compensate for heat losses due to frequent holding in the make-up area. Furthermore, keeping ladles hot and reducing the extent of thermal cycling has a positive impact on the life of refractory linings, which in turn increases the campaign length and improves operational efficiency.

Our extensive research has shown that there is a strong influence of the mechanism design on the refractory performance. Our vast experience in the field also validates the necessity for a combined approach in which both refractory and mechanism are developed together with the common objective of enhancing operational efficiency.

Vesuvius R&D has developed a series of new designs and materials to further augment the offerings beyond addressing fundamental needs. The main objective was to develop a superior, reliable slide gate refractory composition that can be combined with an FEA-optimized shape in a mechanism that is designed to maximize contact area around the throttling zone. The refractory composition has been carefully tailored to offer strong throttle path integrity to prolong service life. The mechanism on the other hand has been developed to maximize safety by adding new features like infiltration inhibitors, fail-safe refractory installation as well as a force balancing concept with multiple springs.


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25 June / 16:40 - Room 14:

Influence on cleanness level during the ladle opening with immersed shroud in liquid steel for one-strand tundish during continuous casting process

M. Alharbi
(Hadeed Pvt., Ltd., Saudi Arabia)

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Title: Influence on cleanness level during the ladle opening with immersed shroud in liquid steel for one-strand tundish during continuous casting process


Author:
M. Alharbi

Company:
Hadeed Pvt., Ltd., Saudi Arabia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
A reverse taper ladle shroud would allowed an immersed steel bath opening of a new ladle, which helps to reduce the re-oxidation during the new ladle opening in comparison with the conventional open stream above tundish steel bath. This would lead to enhance the slab quality by minimizing non-metallic inclusions entrapment in liquid steel. However, immersed flow might drag some tundish slag to the liquid steel bath and affect the slab quality. Therefore, in this work a mathematical simulation model was developed to evaluate the influence of this shroud design on the cleanness level of the produced steel slab. The model results were used to conduct the comparison between the influence of reverse taper shroud design and the currently used conventional shroud design in the plant. A 3D multi-phase mathematical simulation model results were discussed in this paper; several immersion depths of a ladle shroud in liquid steel were examined.

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25 June / 17:00 - Room 14:

BOF gas cleaning system upgrades for increased efficiency and off-gas quality

M. Meyn
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

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Title: BOF gas cleaning system upgrades for increased efficiency and off-gas quality


Author:
M. Meyn

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
R. Herold, P. Klut, E. Engel

Abstract:
With the consolidation of Danieli group technological expertise on Blast Furnace Ironmaking and BOF Steelmaking within Danieli Corus, experts from both areas have teamed up to accelerate development in gas cleaning for BOF Plants. This article presents the latest results in this area. Jointly, an improved scrubber design based on wet scrubbing technology (RSE–type), widely applied and proven in Blast Furnace Ironmaking is presented. The straight gas flow through wide passages avoids redirection and unwanted pressure drop. Water injection through quick–exchangeable Spiral type nozzles allows for less stringent water quality requirements at improved scrubbing performance. Application of special internal coatings reduces clogging and abrasion, main disadvantages commonly known from Venturi–scrubbers. Also, the application of an advanced, multi–stage mist eliminator design with proven track record in other industries is presented. The effective droplet–separation further reduces particulate emissions and helps with operational problems and damages of Induced Draft fans. The elaborated design offers great advantages over conventional axial droplet–separators.

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25 June / 17:20 - Room 14:

Oxygen lance blowing stage - advances at Ternium Brazil

B. Cerchiari
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: Oxygen lance blowing stage - advances at Ternium Brazil


Author:
B. Cerchiari

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:
D. A. G. Carvalho, W. R. Lima, M. S. L. Guerra, F. S. Garajau, B. T. Maia, R. Formage, P. R. Neves

Abstract:
Ternium Brazil has two BOF converters with tapping capacity of 338t with a good geometry and specific volume, however, displays typical steelworks problems related to the oxygen lance skulls formation. This paper describes the main actions to reduce these effects through improvements in the operational practices and introduction of new technologies such as Slagless associated with slag removal device. Lance life has been increased, promoting operational safety due to the reduction of lance skulls as well as the reduction in the lance exchange ratio.

Oxygen steelmaking: Modelling and simulation (25 June / 16:00 - Room 16)

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25 June / 16:00 - Room 16:

Ladle circuit optimization through simulations for reduced refractory wear, energy consumption and carbon emissions

S. Chatterjee
(Dastur Innovation Labs, India)

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Title: Ladle circuit optimization through simulations for reduced refractory wear, energy consumption and carbon emissions


Author:
S. Chatterjee

Company:
Dastur Innovation Labs, India

Co-Authors:
A. Mukherjee, A. Adak, K. Sinha, T. Mandal, A. Senguttuvan, A. Biswal

Abstract:
The continuity in ladle circulation across various steelmaking unit operations is critical for the attainment of operational efficiency of a plant. Every steel plant with a certain capacity, process flow, operations philosophy and product mix has a certain velocity of flow across the steel circuit. Disruption in the flow velocity due to external and internal events leads to suboptimal operations in terms of thruput, quality, costs, energy and emissions. Any delay event, such as purging failure, ladle puncture, extended nozzle/porous plug cleaning amongst others, can cause major roadblocks to smooth steelmaking operations. These events disrupt ladle circulation leading to increase in steel residence time, steel/slag/refractory interaction, refractory & energy consumption, temperature drop, carbon emission as well as decrease in productivity and yield, which makes it important to identify and minimize ‘delays’. A simulation-based framework, consisting of an extensive process & operations database along with embedded heat transfer and logistics models, has been developed to evaluate impact of delays and to predict production, ladle holding times, ladle turnaround time, percentage utilization of resources, temperature drops, energy & refractory consumption, carbon emission and associated cost impact. The results allow formulation of operating recommendations that help achieve the target levels of refractory consumption, energy consumption & carbon emission that are possible for a certain plant configuration while maintaining the flow through the steel circuit at its optimum level.

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25 June / 16:20 - Room 16:

A mathematical model for AOD refining process of 80t 20Cr-8Ni stainless steel casting

Q. Wang
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Title: A mathematical model for AOD refining process of 80t 20Cr-8Ni stainless steel casting


Author:
Q. Wang

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Heavy stainless steel castings, e.g. 80t 20Cr-8Ni stainless steel casting, are commonly used for important industries. However, during melting of castings, especially AOD refining process, large size inclusions sometimes appear resulted from unreasonable decarburization and deoxidation, which reduce mechanical property and shorten service life. So, higher standards on steel cleanliness have been put forward. In this article, a mathematical model for AOD refining process of 80t 20Cr-8Ni castings would be proposed and validated based on data of two trails steel from industry. And the oxygen content and inclusions after decarburization in AOD would be compared and discussed. As the results showing, the temperatures of two trails after decarburization in AOD are 1797℃ and 1668℃ separately, oxygen contents are 0.12% and 0.052%, and inclusions are mainly Cr2O3. Through deoxidation of AOD refining process, the oxygen contents are 0.0049% and 0.0045% separately, and inclusions quantities of two trails are 13.44mm-2 and 3.4mm-2, especially 0.34mm-2 and 0.16mm-2 for inclusions larger than 8μm. Those mean that a mathematical model could control steel composition and temperature accurately, lower oxygen content, decrease quantity of inclusions, especially large size inclusions, and lead to improvement of steel cleanliness.

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25 June / 16:40 - Room 16:

Hybrid model associating thermodynamic calculations and artificial neural network in order to predict molten steel temperature evolution from blowing end at BOF for secondary metallurgy.

M. Antônio Viana Júnior
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Close25 June, Room 16 ( 16:40 )
Title: Hybrid model associating thermodynamic calculations and artificial neural network in order to predict molten steel temperature evolution from blowing end at BOF for secondary metallurgy.


Author:
M. Antônio Viana Júnior

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The developed model is an association of thermodynamic calculations for dissolution of alloys, slag formers and deoxidation reaction in the molten steel with two artificial neural networks (ANN) models trained with industrial data, to predict the molten steel temperature drop from the blowing end at BOF until the first measurement at secondary metallurgy. To calculate the associated energy for deoxidation, an experiment was designed to set up the parameters for oxygen partitioning among deoxidants, with the aluminum timing of addition during teeming being the main parameter. The temperature control in the teeming stage presented a standard deviation for the error of prediction of 5.46 oC, for transportation from rinsing station to the secondary metallurgy of 2.79 oC and the association of all calculations presented an error standard deviation of 7.49 oC. The operational validation presented a superior accuracy compared with the current method for controlling the temperature, resulting in a reduction in the aluminum consumption for heating at secondary metallurgy with a potential economy of U$ 4.07 million per year for a steel shop producing 5 million tons of steel yearly. The artificial neural network model confirmed its capacity for modeling a complex multivariable process and the separation of thermodynamic calculation provides a better adaptability to different steel grades with different teeming strategies.

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25 June / 17:00 - Room 16:

CAE in metallurgical plant engineering

H. Odenthal
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: CAE in metallurgical plant engineering


Author:
H. Odenthal

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
N. Vogl, D. Mangler, F. Krause, A. Kemminger

Abstract:
Steelmaking processes are so complex that it is almost impossible to gain a detailed insight into the metallurgical processes while production is underway. Today, plant suppliers and operators are using computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools; sub-fields are, among others, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA). Both methods are indispensable tools to design plants and develop new technologies. As a result of the huge increase in computational capacity and the continuous refinement of algorithms it is now possible to simulate phenomena which would have been unimaginable some years ago. In this work, the huge potential of CAE is discussed by means of selected metallurgical processes: Inert gas stirring in the steelmaking ladle, stress formation in the mold induced by thermal loads, atomization of hot metal for powder production, and NOx formation of a burner-injector-system.

Oxygen steelmaking: Automation and on-line process analyses II (25 June / 16:05 - Room 2)

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25 June / 16:5 - Room 2:

Recent developments in reducing AOD converter vibrations

C. Imiela
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Recent developments in reducing AOD converter vibrations


Author:
C. Imiela

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
During blowing with tuyeres AOD converters are subject of vast vibrations which result in severe damage like failure of bearings, bullgears, pinions and foundation at plants all over the world. The AOD converter is excited by bath movements with a broad spectrum which hit the resonance frequency of the vessel and trunnion ring combination, which is typically between 2.5 and 3.5 Hz. Therefore the plant will be operated at resonance condition which is definitively not desirable.
In this paper, a brief explanation of the theoretical reasons for the vibrations will be given. Furthermore the existing approaches like damping and free movement will be discussed. Finally, a newly developed electro hydraulically torque retainer will be presented and the results in real life application will be shown.
This torque retainer reduces the dynamic vibration of the vessel during blowing by a hydraulic cylinder by regulation with force control and underlying position control. During tilting, the cylinder is under fixed position control which provides an exact positioning during tilting and tapping. This system provides a reduction of dynamic torque up to 75% compared to a stiff torque retainer.

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25 June / 16:25 - Room 2:

Novel condition monitoring & predictive services for LD/BOF melt shops

B. Voglmayr
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Novel condition monitoring & predictive services for LD/BOF melt shops


Author:
B. Voglmayr

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Haschke, K. Stohl, R. Stadlmayr

Abstract:
In addition to the robust mechanical design of steel melt shop equipment the installation of an online condition monitoring system (CMS) is an important measure to maintain the equipment availability at an optimal level. The presented CMS solution is based on a modular package concept, which allows to monitor the addressed equipment and equipment groups at different level of detail. This paper focuses on equipment for converter steel making especially the converter main bearings.
The CMS example addresses the main sources of converter bearing failures which include loss of lubrication and sealing failure due to high grease temperature, steady point loads on the outer bearing raceways, reaching of mechanical limits or locked position of the expansion bearing, violation of the admissible inclination of the trunnion pin which cannot longer be compensated by the bearing and omitted maintenance activities defined by the bearing supplier.
For each failure source dedicated evaluation packages (EPs) are designed to inform the maintenance team in case of irregular operation and violation of design limits. In addition to evaluation of bearing temperatures, a measuring system for detection of axial displacement and calculation of trunnion pin inclination are presented, which helps to prevent from reaching a mechanical limit for instance. Beyond sensor based EPs also software based EPs are implemented to give a more comprehensive view on the equipment use. For example, an extended odometer function summarizes information on the load profile and the effective bearing rotation in a long-term view.
Advanced analysis techniques and tools for slowly rotating bearings demand deep expert knowledge which is accessible via on-demand supplementary support and customized service agreements. A valid service contract guarantees a short response time to the customer avoiding repeating purchase processes and providing continuous and reliable information on equipment status.

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25 June / 16:45 - Room 2:

Operation technology - process analytics across the steel lifecycle to improve performance

A. Adak
(M. N. Dastur & Co. Pvt. Ltd., India)

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Title: Operation technology - process analytics across the steel lifecycle to improve performance


Author:
A. Adak

Company:
M. N. Dastur & Co. Pvt. Ltd., India

Co-Authors:
A. Mukherjee, A. Das

Abstract:
There is a significant headroom for improvement in operational efficiency, even for the best-in-class steel plants. In the current competitive scenario, steel plants face continuous operational challenges to exceed expectations in energy, yield, quality, productivity, customer service and cost. Unlike in the past, unit processes in Steel Plants e.g. Blast Furnace, Steel Converter or Rolling Mills are far more visible and large volumes of data are available today which can be used with a combination of computational fluid dynamics, chemical reactions and deep-learning AI models to generate improved set of guidelines and so forth. State-of-the-art hardware and gathering of large volume of data alone is however, no guarantee for high improving performance in steel plants today. Success and excellence would increasingly depend on Process Analytics coupled with auto learning features using the appropriate combination of data analytics and metallurgical science.
Process Analytics can be applied to a particular unit with respect to a single key parameter such as residual phosphorus from BOF when phosphorus inputs are high. Or prediction of an important metric like sulphide capacity, which is a measure of the sulphur removing power of the slag. Though a reasonable amount of metallurgical knowledge exists in this area, complex influence of a large number of variables makes predictions or prescriptions extremely difficult or humanly impossible. This paper shows a Process Analytics framework to improve the quality and cost parameters in steel making and demonstrates its applicability using phosphorous and sulphur control in steel making.

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25 June / 17:5 - Room 2:

Sublance improvements at Ternium Brazil

H. Gomes
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: Sublance improvements at Ternium Brazil


Author:
H. Gomes

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:
D. Carvalho, P. Sasso, F. Cipriani , R. Salgado, P. R. Neves, G. P. Marques, D. Soares

Abstract:
Measure and sampling steel on the BOF process are essential for the product and process quality and it's fundamental to increase the BOF productivity.
A good sublance measurement and the sampling without slag inclusion or correct filling, particularly for inblow measurement, depends especially on the correct sampler project and measurement setup (e.g.: sublance speed through the bath, immersion depth and stoppage time while measurement).
This paper describes the developments to improve the sublance sampling availability. This optimization was based on literature research, and a six-sigma work based on intensive onsite survey. Inblow sampling refusal rate was reduced by 50%.

Electric steelmaking: Current status and new developments in EAF technology (25 June / 16:20 - Room 15)

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25 June / 16:20 - Room 15:

Sustainable Electric Arc Furnace Operations - practical examples for improving material and energy efficiency

S. Baumgartner
(Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Sustainable Electric Arc Furnace Operations - practical examples for improving material and energy efficiency


Author:
S. Baumgartner

Company:
Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
F. Gökce, S. Wohlfahrt , D. Schreiber

Abstract:
In 2017, 28.0% of the global crude steel output were made in an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). Within the next five years, the EAF share in global production will increase to over 31% according to forecasts. Already today in China, many integrated mills (partially) convert their operations to EAF technology.

EAF operations are very flexible in terms of raw material used and steel grades produced. In order to be competitive a good material efficiency (metallic yield, but also process material consumptions like electrodes or refractories) and a good energy efficiency (electrical and chemical energy) are essential. In addition, this needs to be achieved, while minimizing the environmental footprint and understanding the impact of various raw material sources and/or energy sources on productivity and steel production costs.

This paper gives an overview of the latest global EAF performances in terms of material and energy efficiency in the different regions and for different technologies (e.g. conventional EAF vs. pre-heating EAF).

Furthermore, it describes several industry examples how to improve material and energy efficiency in EAF operations based on new methodologies (e.g. Finite Network Method) or by applying profound process and technology expertise for optimization. The examples are based on operational practice of BSW’s highly efficient EAFs (>95% scrap based), but also other EAF operations with varying technology and raw material input.

In conclusion, an outlook about future EAF operations and performance will be given.

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25 June / 16:40 - Room 15:

ILTEC - Revolutionary and safe cooling solution for the iron and steel industry

M. Hanel
(Mettop GmbH, Austria)

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Title: ILTEC - Revolutionary and safe cooling solution for the iron and steel industry


Author:
M. Hanel

Company:
Mettop GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
It is the increasing demand for an economic and cost saving operation mode that requires effective cooling in order to achieve low refractory wear and good furnace lifetime, which is making cooling technology an important aspect of furnace operation. In addition, the requirements for safety are getting more and more into focus. However, the use of water - today’s standard cooling medium - has major drawbacks as it can cause problems both during furnace start up and operation, namely hydration problems, corrosion, and explosion. Not to forget the severe personal as well as economical damage in case of a malfunctioning water cooling system.

With Mettop’s new patented cooling technology ILTEC it is possible to overcome the disadvantages of water by using an alternative cooling medium, namely the ionic liquid IL-B2001. SMS group and Mettop signed an exclusive cooperation agreement for the utilization of this revolutionary cooling system. The main characteristics, which makes IL-B2001 so favourable, are the neglectable vapour pressure, the wide liquidus range and the not flammable, not explosive and atoxic behaviour.

The fact that no explosion occurs when the ionic liquid gets in contact with molten metal; leads to a revolutionary solution for the metallurgical industry in terms of safety. So far industrial scale realized projects will be highlighted (blast furnace tap hole at ArcelorMittal, Bremen, cooling of flanges of a RH-facility at voestalpine, EAF sidewall cooling, side wall and tuyére zone in non-ferrous industry...) and future projects for improving cooling AND safety with ILTEC will be discussed.

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25 June / 17:00 - Room 15:

Integrated EAF safety concept of Badische Group

R. Schweikle
(Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Integrated EAF safety concept of Badische Group


Author:
R. Schweikle

Company:
Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Blank , M. Breithaupt , A. Haferkorn

Abstract:
Badische Stahl-Engineering (BSE) is an engineering & consulting company belonging to the Badische Group with its own steel plant Badische Stahlwerke (BSW), one of the world’s most productive Electric Arc Furnace steel plants. Due to the high priority and focus on safety and safe operation, BSW and BSE together established an integrated EAF safety concept.

For safe EAF operation, the first focus has to be put on the process itself. The right set-up of the EAF, regarding input and output requirements, with its technological sections and the related auxiliary equipment is a main precondition for safe operation. Design and set-up of electrical and chemical power input, as well as set-up of cooling equipment of the EAF will be highlighted as important examples.

Secondly, with the right equipment set-up according to the process requirements operational reliability with minimized delay rates need to be achieved by definition of operational standards to gain efficiency as well as process and working safety. Important aspect in this matter is also the right set-up of maintenance frequencies to achieve the most efficient level regarding costs and off-times of preventive maintenance.

After reaching the above-mentioned conditions, the third level of safety at the EAF can be achieved by implementing special supplementary safety equipment. Development and implementation of such safety equipment determines actually a major part of today’s BSE activities at BSW as well as other mini mills all over the world.

Such special safety equipment concerns the temperature & sampling taking, as well as the insight shell inspection by cameras. The automation of the tapping-process, either spout- or EBT-system, are of high interest for automation to gain higher working safety levels. For all mentioned topics, concepts and installed reference systems will be shown.

Oxygen steelmaking: Current status and new developments in converter technology and shopfloor management II (25 June / 16:40 - Room 1)

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25 June / 16:40 - Room 1:

Vacuum converter provides superb stainless steel and ferroalloy refining power for highly demanding applications

T. Kleier
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Vacuum converter provides superb stainless steel and ferroalloy refining power for highly demanding applications


Author:
T. Kleier

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
U. Thiedemann, M. Paluszak

Abstract:
The vital importance of producing sophisticated final products at the lowest possible cost to evade the growing pressure of competition has led SMS group to develop a new metallurgical unit, the vacuum converter, which combines the superior productivity of the AOD process with the unparalleled ability to produce the highest purity grades from the VOD process.

Based on SMS’s numerous references in AOD, VOD and also VOD converters, the newly developed process enables the production not only of stainless, acid-resistant and heat-resistant steel grades but also of high-alloy special steel grades. In addition, the converter can be used for in-house refining of ferromanganese and ferrochrome to low-carbon grades.

The process minimizes the argon consumption of the conventional AOD whilst achieving the lowest carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen content levels. Utilizing these advantages, producers can get ahead of the competition with unique, high-margin final products at minimized investment and conversion costs.

As a leading player in the production of special steels, voestalpine Böhler Edelstahl decided to implement the SMS group vacuum converter in their new highly automated, pioneering special steel plant in Kapfenberg, Austria. Within this plant setup, the converter will be used for both applications: the production of special steels and the refinement of ferroalloys to low-carbon grades.

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25 June / 17:00 - Room 1:

Connecting lean principles, operational and leadership excellence in the steel industry

J. Schmidt
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: Connecting lean principles, operational and leadership excellence in the steel industry


Author:
J. Schmidt

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Münzhardt, V. Hillen, I. Knopp, T. Brand

Abstract:
The strive for process excellence and on-going improvement is deeply rooted in the iron and steel industry and put forth several reinventions and innovations throughout the last decades and centuries. As a next step to expand lean principles, thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG started an initiative called „tk production system“ in 2017.This approach focusses not only on operational excellence projects and the optimization of the value stream, but also to a new approach of leadership.

Working on operational excellence (OpEx) projects and value stream mapping (VSM) involving employees with shopfloor background differs greatly to any improvements of key processes made on an office-based level. It not only affects everyday factory business, but also raises motivation of the workforce. By active voluntary participation of employees with individual shopfloor backgrounds, acceptance and sustainability of the project outcomes can be increased. Goal of both – OpEx and VSM - is to lower waste, reduce the capital employed and raise the delivery performance.

The drastic change of daily meeting routines by introducing Shopfloor-Management (SFM) ReKo’s was the most visible change. With this and the integration of as many employees as possible in this process, a new kind of “bottom-up” problem solving approach was reinforced. In addition, a redefinition of leadership roles at all levels, from technical-supervisors to engineers up to team and group leaders, was conducted. .

With the tools of SFM which are mentioned below, especially structured SFM-Boards for the daily meeting routines got relocated close to the shopfloor (i.e. the caster). Leaders throughout the organization communicate their KPI’s to their employees. By this, implementation of a short cycle deviation management, information, tasks and priorities became more transparent, concrete, and consistent throughout the different hierarchy levels. Deviations of KPI’s, immediate as well as sustainable countermeasures are recorded on the SFM boards and are

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25 June / 17:20 - Room 1:

Slagless Clean Up® solution to reduce tap to tap time

B. Totti Maia
(Lumar Metals, Brazil)

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Title: Slagless Clean Up® solution to reduce tap to tap time


Author:
B. Totti Maia

Company:
Lumar Metals, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The optimization of the BOF converter tap-to-tap cycle times is a perennial pursuit of the steelmakers. Cycle interruptions for operational maintenance can mean at the end of a day, loss equivalent to one or more heats. The converter's mouth cleaning task is one of these interrupts. This paper presents the results obtained using Slagless Clean Up® technology. The technology allows the blow heat and simultaneously through post-combustion cleaning mouth. The interruptions for mouth cleaning have been reduced, as well as time of change and cleaning lance, adding valuable contribution to tap-to-tap reduction.

Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking I (26 June / 09:00 - Room 12)

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 12:

A smart measuring system for intelligent data acquisition in steel plants

A. Stuhlsatz
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: A smart measuring system for intelligent data acquisition in steel plants


Author:
A. Stuhlsatz

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Sensing and acquiring reliable physical values are the fundamentals, not only for a predictive maintenance or quality assessment, but especially for big data analysis and sophisticated Industry 4.0 applications. In steel plants, physical values are distributed over the complete process chain of steel making while the environmental conditions are harsh with respect to high temperature, aggressive fluids, water, shock and dust. These conditions render the use of electronic devices focusing a consumer market impossible.
The developed self-contained smart measuring system presented in this paper survives in harsh environments and is composed of small-sized modules providing miscellaneous functionalities. The high degree of modularity in hard- and software facilitates a cost-effective adaptation to many applications, like vibration monitoring, temperature logging or torque measurement. Different onboard measurement components are available yet, namely high sensitive bridge amplifiers for strain measurements, accelerometers, gyroscopes, orientation-, temperature- and humidity sensors as well as an unique system identification.
A communication module enables wireless transmission of the acquired data via Bluetooth or NFC online. Moreover, different power supply features are supported by the power module: Ultra-low power modes for long-life battery use, recharging of lithium cells, and an inductive power supply for wireless power transfer for applications with moving or rotating components.
The heart of the system is a powerful ARM based microcontroller which enables an intelligent analysis of the data in situ. This is especially important where data size and complexity is the relevant factor for example in area-wide sensor networks.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 12:

Closing the loop of digitalization: From data generation to optimization of maintenance and operations in the metals industry

M. Bergmann
(Bilfinger Digital Next GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Closing the loop of digitalization: From data generation to optimization of maintenance and operations in the metals industry


Author:
M. Bergmann

Company:
Bilfinger Digital Next GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Olck, F. Mateja

Abstract:
For years, digitization has affected each industry and Industry 4.0 is on everyone's lips. With Bilfinger Digital Next and the competence gained from decades of experience as industrial services provider , Bilfinger has set out to make its digital solutions for the optimization of maintenance and operations available to the steel industry. The potential of optimization
is undoubtedly present:
with the help of the latest artificial intelligence and machine learning technology, individual use cases can be defined within the steel industry. Models are developed to monitor the
condition of individual machines with the help of virtual sensors that combine and evaluate all relevant plant data with cloud solutions. Asset health monitoring, among a variety of additional solutions, allows deep insights improving quality, reducing waste, emissions and energy consumption. Eventually, Bilfinger Digital Next is dedicated to this goal.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 12:

Challenges in digitalization beyond technical aspects

D. Bettinger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Challenges in digitalization beyond technical aspects


Author:
D. Bettinger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
M. Ringhofer, K. Herzog, E. Tatschl-Unterberger, W. Oberaigner, P. Pennerstorfer, J. Plaul, K. Ankermann

Abstract:
A vast amount of companies in the steel industry started digitalization initiatives in the past years. First implementations of those initiatives had been already commissioned successfully. During the implementation process of such systems it was identified that technology is essential as enabler, however, to make full use of the implemented systems the cultural aspects in a company need to be considered in an equal manner. Especially when software systems are being installed, they also trigger changes in the ways of working in order to untap the full potential of the installed systems. Software systems supporting business processes are already around for decades and the critical success factors had been researched already quite well thus such implementation challenges are not a novelty to the current digitalization initiatives. Nevertheless, the learning from those past installations is not always considered to the extent required.
This paper shows in a few case studies the critical success factors in selected digitalization projects. One of the digitalization projects shows how the acceptance of the digital twin in a continuous casting machine increased over the years. First installations of digital twins were commissioned decades ago and had basic functionalities to offer. Over the past years the functionalities of the digital twin developed further providing now plant operators, plant designers and start-up engineers with a package to model, simulate, optimize and control the machine. Another example describes that a Through-Process Optimization system brought transparency along the whole value chain allowing to optimize and control a plant in a holistic manner, making strong cross departmental alignment and top management attention to critical success factors. A further case study shows that the available process know-how became a critical success factor when installing and optimizing a production management systems to be accepted and fully used by the operators.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 12:

Machine learning applications for steel production process optimization

G. Bavestrelli
(Tenova S.p.A., Italy)

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Title: Machine learning applications for steel production process optimization


Author:
G. Bavestrelli

Company:
Tenova S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In the past years, Tenova has launched a number of pilot projects to identify opportunities for applications of artificial intelligence techniques to find new ways of bringing value to its customers. This paper discusses Tenova’s experience in applying machine learning algorithms to optimize production processes by predicting quantities that are not easily or accurately computed using traditional deterministic techniques.

One project was carried out using the data from a BOF furnace in a customer plant. The goal was to predict the final steel temperature based on the composition and temperature of the input material (hot metal, scrap, additions) in the BOF vessel, in order to make optimal use of the charged material and improve the efficiency of the downstream steel process.

Another project aimed at controlling cassette penetration and strip tension in a tension leveler machine for an Aluminum annealing and chemical treatment line, to improve product quality and system availability as well as reduce roll wear.

Yet another project for a steel making plant was to classify scrap material automatically from incoming truck images and images of the load on the ground, according to specifications. The goal was to speed up the classification process and improve its accuracy.

For these and other projects different machine learning algorithms were used, from convolutional neural networks to support vector regression and random forest regression. This paper discusses the results obtained as well as the insight that came from the experience. The conclusion is that there is definitely scope for applying machine learning models in steel plants with benefits limited only by the quality of the ideas and the availability of data.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 12:

Industry 4.0 applications in continuous casting

S. Feldhaus
(SMS Concast AG, Switzerland)

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Title: Industry 4.0 applications in continuous casting


Author:
S. Feldhaus

Company:
SMS Concast AG, Switzerland

Co-Authors:
S. Feldhaus, B. Kündig, G. Michelon, P. Egge

Abstract:
In the recent years the digitalization (so called “Industry 4.0 applications”) gained growing interest in the world of continuous casting aiming at improved productivity, plant safety and product quality as well as the integration of continuous casting machines into a wider process chain. Three levels of the digitalization can be distinguished: data acquisition, data analysis and digital integration/business models. This article concentrates on the first two levels for digitalization and illustrates solutions and products developed by SMS Concast in order to cope with these targets, especially to gain advanced knowledge about the casting process and to improve the control of the casting process.

A tundish thermo-mapping system improves the understanding about the thermal condition of the tundish and allows to safely extend the sequence lengths. The CONGAUGE mold level sensors enables the combined measurement of the powder thickness and the steel level in the mold with one sensor only; hence allowing a better control of the lubrication condition in the mold. Furthermore, a closed control loop for the feeding of the mold power can be easily realized in combination with any automatic mold powder feeder. The optical recognition of the cross section of the cast product monitors fully digitalized the dimensional tolerances of the cast product. The new oscillation drive CONDRIVE brings not only the pure electrical online adjustment of the stroke and frequency but offers also advance possibilities for the tracking of the oscillation conditions. The CONYARD billet tracking system enables the seamless tracking of billets between the caster and the rolling mill.

These products are especially designed for installation on existing casters. and will be presented in detail based on results from plant installations.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 12:

High-temperature equipment tracking at voestalpine and Dillinger

A. Rohrhofer
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: High-temperature equipment tracking at voestalpine and Dillinger


Author:
A. Rohrhofer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
S. Thazhath Johnce

Abstract:
The detection of moving vessels and equipment like ladles, slagpots, torpedos, etc. is a common requirement in the steel industry. The harsh environment, dust, contamination etc. within a steelplant are just some reasons which are complicating this task. Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH has a new approach to overcome these problems and track equipment reliably. Basis is the three-dimensional measurement of the vessel surface. The evaluation of characteristics and unique features leads to the identification of the equipment. This method is described in detail using the experience gained at a pilot installation. Achieved results conclude the paper.

Oxygen steelmaking: Ladle metallurgy I (26 June / 09:00 - Room 16)

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 16:

An innovative technology for calcium treatment

A. Visser
(AlzChem Trostberg GmbH, Germany)

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Title: An innovative technology for calcium treatment


Author:
A. Visser

Company:
AlzChem Trostberg GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Landström, L. Gustavsson, M. Andersson, W. Gross, J. Bezler

Abstract:
In secondary metallurgy, calcium treatment is important to modify non-metallic inclusions to assure castability and to optimize the properties of the produced steel. Therefore, it is essential to understand the process of non-metallic inclusion formation and the influencing factors on composition, mechanical properties, amount, size and distribution. The choice of type and amount of a suitable calcium additive is important for an effective and efficient Ca-treatment. The innovative cored wire based on calcium carbide offers a Si-free alternative to CaSi-, CaFe- and pure Ca-wires. Due to its high melting and boiling temperature, calcium carbide dissolves in the steel melt, creates reducing conditions and feeds calcium to the steel under low turbulence. This paper describes the application of the calcium carbide cored wire CalciPro® in large-scale steel plants and discusses its effect in comparison to other standard calcium treatment technologies.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 16:

Tata Steel continues to increase production of IF grades at Jamshedpur, as the duplex RH degasser passes two year operational milestone

S. Sinha
(Tata Steel Ltd., India)

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Title: Tata Steel continues to increase production of IF grades at Jamshedpur, as the duplex RH degasser passes two year operational milestone


Author:
S. Sinha

Company:
Tata Steel Ltd., India

Co-Authors:
M. Whitehead , A. Kumar , R. Srivastava, S. Kumar Singh, A. Khullar

Abstract:
The duplex RH degasser at Tata Steel’s Jamshedpur Works completed two full years of operation in 2018. The plant, which was a substantial upgrade to the original RH Unit (built in 1996, as a single station winch type, by Mannesmann Demag Metallurgie Messo of Duisburg, Germany, now SMS Mevac) was the first modern RH installed in India.
A mid-life upgrade followed in 2005, when the plant was modified to include a new more powerful vacuum pump and an oxygen blowing lance, giving the unit better performance and more versatility.
The conversion to a duplex unit in 2016 more than doubled its original capacity and added state of the art performance to enable Tata Steel to continue its dominance of the domestic automotive strip market.
This paper continues to track the performance of the unit along with highlighting the innovations developed and challenges encountered on the unit in its first two years of operation.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 16:

Monitoring and control of adequate gas stirring of ladles in secondary metallurgy

H. Köchner
(KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden)

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Title: Monitoring and control of adequate gas stirring of ladles in secondary metallurgy


Author:
H. Köchner

Company:
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

Co-Authors:
B. Glaser

Abstract:
Monitoring and control of adequate gas stirring of ladles in secondary metallurgy

Although ladle stirring is a well-known procedure, few methods are regularly applied to monitor adequate stirring in industrial practice.
Different approaches are presented and compared. These include monitoring of gas flow rate and pressure, vibration analysis and bath surface monitoring
and analysis. Recommmendations are given.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 16:

The role of secondary metallurgy in the automated steel plant of the future: higher safety standard and improved steel quality

A. Pezza
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

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Title: The role of secondary metallurgy in the automated steel plant of the future: higher safety standard and improved steel quality


Author:
A. Pezza

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Apfel

Abstract:
What is the future of secondary metallurgy? The improvement of material quality is linked to higher safety standard and reduced conversion costs. The combination of higher safety standards and proper process control are connected to higher automation.
The important resource of steel making know-how will be more and more centralized, considering the reduction of investment costs and a change of steel making strategies all over the world. The process and design know-how will be made available on digital platforms accelerating the reaction speeds and eliminating long distance travelling. The quality will be monitored remotely in competence centers, the constant feedback will lead to new customer assistance concepts. The m.connect platform is the latest development of Primetals in this area. Robotic solutions for sampling and temperature manipulators is already a typical solution for secondary metallurgy. Logistics will be linked closer to plant operations.
The secondary metallurgy has to cover different design concepts:
•The Ladle Refining Furnace is a fundamental part of this area. Its operations will be made easier and better monitored. For example special mechanical solution for reduced distance between heating stations are reached anchoring the electrode columns gantry on the transformer wall.
•Vacuum Metallurgy will be a zero waste process, vacuum operations will move to dry solutions: latest Primetals startups are described in the paper.
•Plant operations using active video camera intelligence is installed and used and is described in the paper.
•Low raw material quality with high end quality demands will be obtained by new process practices and detailed monitoring.
The secondary metallurgy has the smallest energy demand in the complete process but the highest increase of quality in the whole steel making process.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 16:

Combustion performance of nozzles with multiple gas orifices in large ladles for temperature uniformity

F. Yuan
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Close26 June, Room 16 ( 10:20 )
Title: Combustion performance of nozzles with multiple gas orifices in large ladles for temperature uniformity


Author:
F. Yuan

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In order to improve the baking temperature uniformity of the large ladle in steel-making plants, the simulation investigation about the flame combustion characteristics of nozzles with different inner structure was conducted. The flow field and premixed combustion reaction inside or outside the nozzle with multiple gas orifices were numerically simulated with the finite volume method code, Fluent. The influence of the gas injecting angle and the number of gas orifices on temperature, velocity and pressure field was studied. The results show that the flame length and width at the rear of flame temperature field reach the maximum values in the nozzle with the 20º gas injecting angle and 4 gas orifices for the control of premixed combustion inside of the nozzle, which could provide a better temperature uniformity in ladles. The length of the 1273 K isothermal surface is 4.89 m and the cross section area which is 4 m away from the outlet of the nozzle is 0.13 m2. The pressure losses of different types of nozzles range from 112.2 Pa to 169.4 Pa and decrease with the decrement of gas injecting angle and gas orifices. The ladle bottom preheating temperature is increased by 320 K~360 K for the optimized nozzle. The inner surface temperature differences between wall and bottom of the ladle are less than 10%. There is a good baking temperature uniformity after the application of best structurally designed nozzles.

Casting: Quality control and special technologies for high performance steels (26 June / 09:00 - Room 17)

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 17:

High precious phase diagrams - a roadmap for a successful casting processing

P. Presoly
(University of Leoben, Austria)

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Title: High precious phase diagrams - a roadmap for a successful casting processing


Author:
P. Presoly

Company:
University of Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Phase diagrams are essential scientific tools for a fundamental thermodynamic material understanding. In times of increasing digitalization of the continuous casting process (CC), the availability of high-precision phase diagrams is of great importance. Especially for process control and quality prediction considerations, the knowledge of reliable thermodynamic data plays a key role, next to the numerical algorithms. These thermodynamic data should be valid for a wide range of concentrations far beyond the compositions of current steel grades to describe future alloys. Above all, thermodynamic data need to describe highly increased concentration levels, which can result from strong micro segregation around final point of solidification.

The present work provides an overview of the following selected topics:
pre-identification of peritectic steels before the production by means of DSC-measurements,
evaluation of microsegregation calculations for higher manganese alloyed steels by thermal analysis of “artificial” segregations and
solidification calculation of phosphorus alloyed steels using a new assessment of the Fe-P system.

All these examples point out the importance of “real measurements” and even why it is nowadays still necessary to critically re-examine a binary system (e.g. Fe-P) in detail.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 17:

New developments of indicators in the algorithms to detect defects automatically on the slabs by utilising images taken from the hot slabs on line during continuous casting.

P. Hooli
(Sapotech Oy, Finland)

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Close26 June, Room 17 ( 09:20 )
Title: New developments of indicators in the algorithms to detect defects automatically on the slabs by utilising images taken from the hot slabs on line during continuous casting.


Author:
P. Hooli

Company:
Sapotech Oy, Finland

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
With a tool called Reveal CAST it is possible to take images from the hot slabs (or any kind of semis) after cutting during continuous casting. With the special technique used thermal radiation is avoided and the surfaces of the slabs looks like taken from the cold slabs. Images are taken and documented from the all slabs and if needed with the all surfaces.
Automatic defect detection is developed. New algorithms can detect automatically more different kind of defects. It is also developed continuous numerical feature index with automatic indicators. This index is giving local quality level of the slab for example with 10 cm steps along whole slabs length. This continuous feature index is possible to connect with short lasting events in the casting process. This helps to study and find responses of every event in the casting process on the corresponding place with the features on the slab surface.
Examples are presented, how surface quality can change gradually because of gradual change in process conditions or suddenly because of an accident in the process.
With the reporting tools included in the Reveal CAST it easy to make studies with the different periods with different sub-criterions.
These results are as a part of RFCS project “SUPPORT-CAST”. Goals of the project and participants shall be presented.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 17:

A major step forward in improving internal slab quality: development and first implementation of the SMART Single Roll DynaGap (SRD) Segment at Ternium Brasil

V. Cunha Aranda
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: A major step forward in improving internal slab quality: development and first implementation of the SMART Single Roll DynaGap (SRD) Segment at Ternium Brasil


Author:
V. Cunha Aranda

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:
P. Pennerstorfer, D. Burzic, L. Martins Demuner, F. Lourenço, V. Cunha Aranda, G. Romeu Trindade dos Santos

Abstract:
For many years, Dynamic Soft Reduction has been regarded as a proper method in improving internal quality of slabs. Even though processes models improved significantly over the past years, the efficiency of Soft Reduction was always limited by the discretization error, which inherently exists if segment rollers cannot be positioned individually. The recently developed SRD segment type allows for an individual roller positioning within the mushy zone by avoiding any discretization deviation from the optimal gap. This paper provides a detailed technological overview of the SRD segments as well as operational results at their very first implementation at Ternium Brasil.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 17:

Evaluation of internal slab quality by an advanced ultrasonic testing system

S. Rieß
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: Evaluation of internal slab quality by an advanced ultrasonic testing system


Author:
S. Rieß

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Herrmann, S. Pudovikov, U. Rabe, S. Petry, W. Weber

Abstract:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG at Duisburg, Germany performs comprehensive efforts to improve slab quality. According to the current state of the art the internal quality of slabs could only be determined by extensive destructive and time consuming slab sampling. In collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP, Saarbrücken, a new tomographic ultrasonic system was developed and set in service for evaluating the internal slab quality in situ in the process chain.
The new ultrasonic slab testing system is able to inspect the complete slab by providing cross-section images, which allow quantifying the internal homogeneity. To perform an inspection the mobile unit is placed on the slab surface at the slab yards. The system automatically scans the slab over its whole length, acquires ultrasonic data, performs reconstruction and presents images. For an intuitive evaluation directly after measurement, cracks and segregation porosity could be visualised in situ without destroying the examined slab or taking samples. For comparison of testing results and quality management, a new classification standard for scoring the slab quality was developed. With the new device, real time testing of internal slab quality can be performed, which enables adjusting the casting machine and slab handling parameters quickly after production.

Electric steelmaking: metallurgy and operation of electric arc furnaces and new plants (26 June / 09:00 - Room 21)

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 21:

Modifying the EAF voltage tap profile for lowering electrode tip consumption and increased energy efficiency

M. Aula
(Luxmet Oy, Finland)

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Close26 June, Room 21 ( 09:00 )
Title: Modifying the EAF voltage tap profile for lowering electrode tip consumption and increased energy efficiency


Author:
M. Aula

Company:
Luxmet Oy, Finland

Co-Authors:
T. Fabritius, M. Jokinen, V. Visuri, N. Hyttinen, T. Veijola

Abstract:
Decreasing the electrode wear in electric arc furnace has become an important topic due to current high electrode prices. One way to reduce electrode wear is to lower the average current used in the electric arc furnace (EAF) processing, which leads to lower electrode tip surface temperatures. This effect is prominent in stainless steelmaking, where the electrode is not submerged in foaming slag. Lowering the arc current also decreases reactive power and transmission losses. However, with constant arc power, lowering the arc current increases the arc voltage, thus increasing the energy loss to the sides. To protect the furnace lining and side panels, the energy loss to the sides need to be controlled.

A possible scenario to use the electrode saving profile is when an EAF is not a production bottleneck. When the EAF must wait for subsequent process steps, more efficient voltage tap profile can be employed. The aim of this work was to formulate an EAF voltage tap profile for minimum electrode consumption. To control the loss of energy to the sides, a control system based on the on-line optical emission measurement was proposed. The profile was made according to the EAF specifications of EAF 1 at Outokumpu Stainless Oy in Tornio, Finland. The difference between current voltage tap profile was analyzed. Calculations with empirical correlations for electrode tip sublimation suggest that the efficiency profile reduces the electrode wear by 40% and increased power-on-time by 11.4%. The industrial trials at Outokumpu Stainless demonstrated that increasing impedance by 15% decreased the arc current by 8.2%, which decreased the calculated electrode tip consumption by 18.2%. The savings obtained at the site depend on how often the maximum efficiency profile can be employed compared to the current profile, which emphasizes productivity.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 21:

The minimill flat of the future - EAF and Arvedi ESP based best practice

M. Fleischer
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 21 ( 09:20 )
Title: The minimill flat of the future - EAF and Arvedi ESP based best practice


Author:
M. Fleischer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Viehböck, G. Arvedi

Abstract:
New targets for CO2 emissions and lowest energy consumption are dominating the daily news with the target to keep global warming under control. In parallel the steelmaking raw materials industry is changing structurally as Chinese obsolete scrap will increase substantially. Over the long-term, this means usage of more the electric arc furnace route for flat products. Investors in steel industry are requested to keep this in mind when applying for production approvals and new investments.
In steel production melting and rolling are the process steps with the highest energy consumption and therefore the lever to be investigated. EAF combined with Arvedi ESP are the couple perfectly addressing significant energy and emission reductions as well as using local raw material sources. Based on scrap input this energy-saving flat mini mill allows for premium products at lowest energy input thus drastically reduced the cost basis.
Details on plant setup, parameters and reference projects will be discussed in this paper.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 21:

Comparative study and computer analysis of slag foaming in electric arc furnaces

B. Totti Maia
(Lumar Metals, Brazil)

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Title: Comparative study and computer analysis of slag foaming in electric arc furnaces


Author:
B. Totti Maia

Company:
Lumar Metals, Brazil

Co-Authors:
T. Durante, A. Berger, J. Oliveira, T. Avelar

Abstract:
The current industrial steelmaking process needs of competitiveness and cost reduction are based in consolidated techniques that must be guaranteed to be followed by a good performance. To electric arc furnace (EAF) the use of foaming slags was developed to guarantee a decrease in consumption of electric energy, electrodes and refractories. From this point of view this paper carried out a comparative study in which six laboratory produced slags and seven industrial slags were analyzed based on its compositions and FactSage 7.0 results, in order to measure the most advantageous conditions both in relation to the properties and the composition of the foaming slags. From the laboratory slags one ideal foaming condition was achieved with a composition of 8% FeO, 22% MgO, 12% of precipitated phases, a ternary basicity of 1.2 to 1.4 and viscosity at about 0.5 Poise. The industrial runs slags did not showed values within these parameters, however, with the analyses, it was possible to identify that there are vast compositions combinations that will provide an optimized process, and all related to the following improvements: reducing the FeO levels, aiming at superior race yields and higher viscosity of foaming slags; Increase of MgO contents pursuing saturation and to provide precipitated second phases, essential for the quality of the foaming; Increase the yield of the carbon reactions, reducing its additions and reaching a greater generation of gases to be sustained by the slag, consolidating the foaming.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 21:

Development of melting process by optimizing the blowing pattern in the electric arc furnace

M. Tseng
(Dragon Steel Corporation, China)

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Title: Development of melting process by optimizing the blowing pattern in the electric arc furnace


Author:
M. Tseng

Company:
Dragon Steel Corporation, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Dragon Steel Corporation is committed to recover the recycled steelmaking slag in the electric arc furnace for environmental protection, which can reduce the slag production. However, recovering the recycled slag shows lower efficiency, such as lower iron recovery and higher energy consumption. A modified steelmaking process has been developed to improve the melting efficiency of the recycled slag immersed in the liquid steelmaking slag, and the result also shows higher efficiency of dephosphorization. Not only the process is more friendly to the environment, but the cost is also less for manufacturing.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 21:

Production of NO and GO electrical steels at Big River Steel

J. Kempken
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Production of NO and GO electrical steels at Big River Steel


Author:
J. Kempken

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Eichert, J. Schlüter, T. Hill, D. Hennessy, A. Beasley , J. Youngblood, R. Garrison, P. Padlan

Abstract:
The new steel mill complex at Big River Steel LLC in Osceola in the U.S. State of Arkansas is now in operation nearly two years. The major amount of production at Big River Steel consists of Low carbon and HSLA grades as well as pipe grades. The first trial heats for non-grain oriented (NGO) and grain oriented (GO) silicon steel have been executed in June 2018 and the results are promising. Applying a production route with RH and subsequent LF process is able to fulfil the targets with regard to ultra-low carbon and sulphur contents. Nitrogen contents are to be controlled during tapping and LF processing.
This paper will describe the process route consisting of EAF – LF – RH – CSP caster and the results of the first trial heats going from aggregate to aggregate with a special focus on the development of the carbon, sulphur and nitrogen contents during melting and casting operation. It will also describe the different measures and process parameters which had been applied during the trial heats.

Keywords: Silicon steel grades; undesired trace elements; EAF; RH; LF; trial heats

Casting: Process development and optimization (26 June / 10:20 - Room 20)

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 20:

Thermodynamic modeling of refractory/mold slag/steel interactions concerning slag crawling

E. Moosavi-Khoonsari
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: Thermodynamic modeling of refractory/mold slag/steel interactions concerning slag crawling


Author:
E. Moosavi-Khoonsari

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Zinngrebe, S. van der Laan, R. Kalter, F. Mensonides

Abstract:
Slag crawling down the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) may occur during continuous casting of steel affecting SEN port geometry and steel flow patterns in the mold, and leading to defect formation in the final product due to slag accumulations shearing off from the SEN body. There are two possible mechanisms contributing to slag crawling, (a) refractory wetting together with chemical reactions at the refractory/mold slag/steel interface, and (b) liquid steel flow induced drag forces displacing slag down the SEN. In this work, we applied thermodynamic modeling to study extent of chemical reactions at the refractory/slag/steel interface using FactSage 7.2 thermochemical software. The modeling was validated by industrial and experimental observations of slag crawling. A finite number of reaction zones was identified at the interface, and it was assumed chemical reactions reach equilibrium in the designated effective reaction zone volumes. Refractory/slag carbothermic reactions, slag/steel exchange reactions, gas back-infiltration into the refractory body, and deposit formation on the SEN, observed in steel continuous casting, were investigated in detail. Thermodynamic insight into interfacial chemical reactions form the basis for successful development of a kinetic model of the process.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 20:

Prevention of transverse corner cracks in continuous casting steel slabs by structural modification of secondary cooling nozzles

E. Lee
(Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)

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Title: Prevention of transverse corner cracks in continuous casting steel slabs by structural modification of secondary cooling nozzles


Author:
E. Lee

Company:
Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:
S. Lim, T. Park, W. Cho

Abstract:
During the continuous casting of high alloy steel slabs in a vertical-bending type slab caster, transverse corner cracks were occurred due to the deformation at the bending and unbending area. Especially for Nb, Ti containing peri and medium carbon grade steels are sensitive to transverse corner cracks because of wide embrittlement temperature range. In this study, to ensure that the temperature of the slab surface was uniformly above the embrittlement temperature range during the bending and unbending area, structure changed secondary cooling nozzles were implemented on the caster. As a result of non spraying at the slab corner by 90º rotating the cooling nozzles of the bender, the temperature of the slab surface was increased to above 250℃ and the incidence of transverse corner cracks was greatly reduced. On the contrary, center segregation was worse due to uneven cooling in width direction of the slab.

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 20:

Breakout prevention for billets and blooms through contactless mould thermal mapping: A new tool for metallurgists, quality control and productivity improvement

S. Miani
(Ergolines Lab s.r.l., Italy)

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Title: Breakout prevention for billets and blooms through contactless mould thermal mapping: A new tool for metallurgists, quality control and productivity improvement


Author:
S. Miani

Company:
Ergolines Lab s.r.l., Italy

Co-Authors:
G. Schiavon, S. Miani, S. Spagnul

Abstract:
The evolution of sensors makes now possible what until some years ago was not feasible. Sensors integration in very small dimensions enables their installation in narrow spaces, without interfering with the consolidated mechanical design of the equipment. Furthermore, contactless technologies based on ultrasound can be applied to obtain temperature information related to the metal casting process reliably and in real time.
Ergolines developed a technology able to provide in real time the thermal mapping of continuous casting copper moulds. This is achieved without interfering with the mechanical structure of the mould thanks to the installation on the external side of the water jacket: The copper tube is not machined at all, in contrast to the typical installation of thermocouples or optical fibers, providing a remarkable installation advantage. Being fully contactless and compact, Ergolines’ system can be easily installed in small moulds such as the ones used for billets, extending the thermal mapping concept, today prerogative only of slabs and big blooms, also to small sections.
Ergolines’ system is able to provide in real-time an accurate temperature mapping of the first part of the mould. Thanks to this information, the first solidification process of the billet can be monitored and fruitfully used to improve the casting practice: By the metallurgists, to understand the solidification behaviour; by the quality control, to track effectively the 100% of the billets; by the production team, using the breakouts prevention tool to increase the plant availability.
This paper describes Ergolines’ system for real-time mould thermal mapping and presents the results of field-testing.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 20:

Secondary cooling in continuous casting: heat transfer measurement - comparison of different methods

M. Javurek
(Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)

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Title: Secondary cooling in continuous casting: heat transfer measurement - comparison of different methods


Author:
M. Javurek

Company:
Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Mittermair

Abstract:
In secondary cooling it is very important to know the cooling heat-flux for the actual spray cooling situation with respect to various parameters like the local position, the nozzle types and distances, and the water and air flow rates, in order to be able to control the cooling conditions precisely. Since heat-flux measurements on a casting machine are too challenging, experimental laboratory test rigs have been designed and used for measurements by different research groups. In these experiments, metal probes of different dimensions and materials are heated up to the desired temperature (around 900 to 1200 °C) and then exposed to spray nozzles. The heat-flux is usually measured by temperature sensors immersed in the probe body, and the heat flux is then determined from the measured temperature by using inverse modelling methods. In this contribution, the differences between the real and laboratory conditions are focused using a mathematical heat transfer simulation model. The influence of strand surface temperature, nozzle spray water flow conditions and Leidenfrost effect are pointed out. The effect of the temperature sensor immersion depth and the sampling rate on the accuracy of the inverse modelling process under different cooling situations will be shown. A procedure to use heat-flux data measured on a test rig for the cooling control on a real caster despite of the different conditions is proposed.

Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking III (26 June / 11:20 - Room 12)

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 12:

Industry 4.0 - the evolution of intelligent EAF steelmaking

D. Zuliani
(Tenova Goodfellow Inc., Canada)

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Title: Industry 4.0 - the evolution of intelligent EAF steelmaking


Author:
D. Zuliani

Company:
Tenova Goodfellow Inc., Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The recent development of smart technology and high-speed computer analysis is rapidly reshaping the traditional “seat-of-the-pants” EAF process into one that is closely controlled, more predictable and optimized in real-time. This paper provides concrete steel plant examples of the deployment of an array of innovative technologies that have enabled dynamic process optimization and dramatically reduced total energy consumption, increased yield and decreased power-on-time. Also discussed are innovative sensors coupled with computerized data analysis that is providing breakthrough solutions to chronic problems such as water leak detection and dynamic process control of the each stage of the melting and refining process.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 12:

Advanced service team: a new strategic partner on total asset management

A. Viviani
(Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy)

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Title: Advanced service team: a new strategic partner on total asset management


Author:
A. Viviani

Company:
Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
E. Brusini

Abstract:
In the modern challenging scenario, every company has the target of cost reduction, while maintaining high availability and reliability of the plant.
The new Advanced Service Team inside Danieli Service making leverage on equipment KNOW-HOW has the purpose to guarantee the reliability and the capability of the installed machines by an integrate and taylor made solution.
The Advanced Service Team is widely recognized for the creative approach and ability to study customized solutions suitable to the needs and means of each customer.
Thanks to a dedicated and specialized team that has been working intensively and passionately on such projects for more than 15 years and thanks to our worldwide localized service shop, the Advanced Service Team is able to develop and perform tailored programs for high-quality equipment inspection , overhaul and upgrade.

The cross-collaboration between Danieli Service departments also leads to a combination of advanced solutions. In particular, the implementation of condition monitoring system is a valuable package of services for monitoring the trend of equipment vibration levels under operation and analyzing them on the basis of frequency spectra, with the support of specialized technicians, giving a full view of the critical parameters affecting the machinery endurance and supporting strategic decisions to extend equipment life and reduce industrial risk.

As last step versus customer centricity, we have recently rolled out in the market DAN-EASY package. It is a new and essential package developed by Danieli Service with the intent of supporting our customer in optimizing the maintenance performances by a strong methodological approach in accordance to EFNS, IAM, UNIEN15628 and ISO55000.
The architecture of DAN EASY has been designed and developed to guarantee a perfect integration with various ERP systems such as Oracle, SAP, Microsoft, IBM etc.
The target is to boost the Maintenance Best Practice in metal sector.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 12:

m.connect - enabling digital services

G. Hohenbichler
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: m.connect - enabling digital services


Author:
G. Hohenbichler

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
D. Erich, M. Sattler, A. Altendorfer, M. Jerez

Abstract:
Primetals Technologies came up with a product that connects to a steel plant, collects the information available and then analyzes and structures it, turning fuzzy data into an asset. From the collection of sensor data in harsh environments or from mobile equipment to displaying the information on mobile devices, from the shop floor to the „manager‘s pocket”: m.connect is showing a real example how a steel producer benefits from state of the art communication technology. Patches of information like gas pressure or temperature measurements, when sewed together, become a big picture which will help you see what could be improved, turning decision making a more proactive task. The talk will cover collection and processing of Tyasa Quantum EAF plant. We will give a real life examples on how collected data is analyzed by a business intelligence tool. Examples range from management dashboards covering basic KPIs like capacity and yield to detailed evaluation of factors influencing energy consumption and product quality. Among others we can compare different KPI’s for fast root cause analysis, identify anomalies by filtering and drilling down/up and visualize causal relationships between KPIs.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 12:

Technologies 4.0 applied to beam blank continuous casting machines

G. Maccani
(BMGroupUSA Corp., United States)

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Title: Technologies 4.0 applied to beam blank continuous casting machines


Author:
G. Maccani

Company:
BMGroupUSA Corp., United States

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Carlo Travaglini1, Gianluca Maccani2, Michele Vezzola2,
1Director Technology, Gerdau AmeriSteel
2CEO “Polytec Robotics” BMGroupUSA CORP.
3 Key Account Manager“Polytec Robotics” brand of BM S.p.A – Borgo Chiese – Trento, Italy

How technologies 4.0 can replace human operator from red zone? How smart robots can increase safety and production's efficiency?
The combination of technologies such as machine vision, predictive big data analytics, artificial intelligence and robotics developed and supplied by Polytec Robotics, actually applied to the beam blank continuous casting machine of Petersburg, VA.


Casting: New installations and revampings (26 June / 11:20 - Room 16)

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 16:

Consequent secondary cooling system optimisation results in productivity increase at TATA Steel Jamshedpur LD2 slab casters

R. Wolff
(Lechler GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Consequent secondary cooling system optimisation results in productivity increase at TATA Steel Jamshedpur LD2 slab casters


Author:
R. Wolff

Company:
Lechler GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Khullar, H. Shah, V. Mishra, R. Singh, S. Chacko

Abstract:
Tata Steel Jamshedpur LD2 are operating 3 slab casters which have been revamped in 2005 to achieve design maximum casting speeds of 1.8 and 1.75 m/min respectively. These speeds could not be achieved until recently due to bulging and related mould level fluctuation. A section thickness increases further aggravated this issue.
From 2012 several investigations have been taken conducted in order to improve the process including a secondary cooling study performed by Lechler. As a result of these investigations the secondary cooling layout has been optimized in several steps, each improving the quality of the products and the productivity of the casters. These steps included redistribution of existing cooling water capacities, utilization of additional secondary cooling water capacities, revision of the secondary cooling intensity, revamp of secondary cooling nozzle and header design and extension of the secondary cooling length.
After implementing all steps an increase of 20 % in maximum casting speed could be achieved, the secondary cooling intensity was increased from 0.9 l/kg to 1.7 l/kg. The problem of bulging and mould level fluctuation have been eliminated.

These measures are giving a boost to the productivity and could be realized within regular maintenance time with minimum capital invest.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 16:

Modernization of six-strands billet caster at SIDENOR Basauri

U. Zanelli
(Sarralle Equipos, Italy)

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Title: Modernization of six-strands billet caster at SIDENOR Basauri


Author:
U. Zanelli

Company:
Sarralle Equipos, Italy

Co-Authors:
D. Mier

Abstract:
Modernization of six-strands billet caster at SIDENOR Basauri
Dr. Ugo Zanelli, Senior Manager Technology Grupo Sarralle
Dr. Diana Mier, Sidenor Investigación y Desarrollo S.A. Basauri
ABSTRACT
SIDENOR is leader in the European steel industry for the production of special steel long products and one of the main producers of forged and cast pieces. It is also an important supplier of cold finished products in the European market. The company has production centers in Basque Country, Cantabria and Catalonia as well as business delegations in Germany, France, Italy and the U.K.
In 2017 SIDENOR awarded contract to Sarralle for the upgrading of its six-strand billet caster in the plant of Basauri. The existing 9 m radius casting machine was then modified in in order to expand existing production range, according the implementation of state-of-the-art Sarralle technology, including new hydraulic oscillators, new moulds for expanded section, new Electromagnetic Mould and Final Stirrers, new designed air-mist secondary cooling, multi-point withdrawal and straightening units, and related electrical and automation system for supplied equipment. Previously cast sections (155×155 mm and 185×185 mm) were hence implemented with new casting section. After the upgrade the machine is casting additionally square section 240×240 mm. Sarralle provided as well technical and metallurgical assistance during erection and commissioning. Thanks to application of new technologies by Sarralle and strict contact between SIDENOR and Sarralle team during all project period, it was possible to obtain remarkable results since start up in early 2018, with required quality of the as cast product, according stringent demand of the market. Due to fruitful cooperation and good relationships established between the two teams, fine tuning and increase of obtained performances in terms of productivity and quality is still ongoing.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 16:

Development of the thickest cc slab caster and its operational results

K. Oh
(POSCO Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)

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Title: Development of the thickest cc slab caster and its operational results


Author:
K. Oh

Company:
POSCO Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The thickest cc slab caster in the world, so called POSCO Mega Caster(PosMC) was developed by POSCO's own engineering in order to supply slabs for heavy plate more than 130mm by POSCO replacing ingot casting process. The caster is being under operation that more than 8000 ton of slabs had been produced after about one year construction.
In this paper, some engineering results, slab quality, and property of forged slab and heavy plates. An internal and surface quality of the slab as well as yield ratio are found to be better than an ingot. "A" segregation was found to typically appear in the slabs and it didn't appear in the conventional CC slabs. It is thought to be occur when solidification rate is very low, being less than 0.02mm/sec and at the time of solidification structural change from columnar to equiaxed structure. ‘A’ segregation occurs mainly at transition time when columnar-->dendritic equaxed-->globular equiaxed, or in columnar structure. ‘A’ segregation channel is thought to be formed at solid fraction 0.6~0.7. ‘A’ segregation occurs when growth rate was changed to be decereased in a certain range of low growth rate. ‘A’ segregation in conventional CC strands is thought not to be caused by higher growth rate.
Equiaxed zone of the PosMC ingot was much enlarged and its structure was found to be compactly composed of fine globular crystals. Shrinkage pipe was also greatly reduced by 300% compared with the one from the earlier tests.
PosMC process is capable of high yield rate, eco-friendly environment, quality control and automation compared to the ingot process. In the future, the majority of medium and large ingot processes over the world are expected to be replaced by the PosMC

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 16:

Achieving highest quality levels on slab casters at Dillinger

K. Meder
(AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany)

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Title: Achieving highest quality levels on slab casters at Dillinger


Author:
K. Meder

Company:
AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany

Co-Authors:
D. Schöne, O. Bode, R. Bruckhaus

Abstract:
The unique feature of the continuous casters at Dillinger is solidification in the vertical part of the machine. This practice - in combination with optimized soft reduction adjustment - guarantees lowest levels of segregation and micro-porosity of the slabs. In addition Dillinger’s new vertical caster CC6 improves the already high quality levels eliminating the need for bending and straightening of the strand. Beyond the means of vertical bending machines casting of steel grades with more sophisticated chemical analysis and production of slabs with thicker dimensions are feasable. These slabs can now be produced with a low risk of crack formation and thus without post-treatment of the slabs before rolling. A world record was set casting slabs with a thickness of 600 mm.

Casting: Mould lubrication, performance and initial solidification I (26 June / 11:20 - Room 17)

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 17:

Fluorine-free casting fluxes, an overview

H. Tavernier
(Imerys Metalcasting France S.A.R.L. , France)

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Close26 June, Room 17 ( 11:20 )
Title: Fluorine-free casting fluxes, an overview


Author:
H. Tavernier

Company:
Imerys Metalcasting France S.A.R.L. , France

Co-Authors:
K. Schulz, M. Pereira

Abstract:
Mould powders, used in continuous casting process, usually contain 4 to 10% of Fluorine. This element is very efficient to adjust the slag viscosity. It also plays an important role in the control of heat flux extraction in mould by creation of cuspidine crystals, which avoid longitudinal cracks with peritectic steel grades by reducing stresses into the solidifying steel shell. For years, the use of Fluorine-containing slags was acceptable, but with the increasing health and environmental regulation, it becomes important to find alternatives. And it is interesting to see that these changes could have additional and positive impacts on process conditions and on steel quality.
It is proposed to present an overview of the topic of Fluorine-Free casting fluxes, based on many developments and industrial trials, under different working conditions (billets, blooms, slabs, low-Fluorine or Fluorine-Free fluxes, ...). It will be discussed about the state-of-the-art, together with the remaining challenges to be addressed.
A rough estimate of the savings given to the steel producers will be seen and discussed.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 17:

PROIL™: Value Innovation for Mid American Steel & Wire Inc.

A. Giacobbe
(RHI Magnesita GmbH, Italy)

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Title: PROIL™: Value Innovation for Mid American Steel & Wire Inc.


Author:
A. Giacobbe

Company:
RHI Magnesita GmbH, Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on results achieved by the application in the open continuous casting practice of a solid-liquid dispersion of a mold flux called Proil™. The use of Proil™ has delivered significant improvements in the process in terms of billet surface defects reduction, expanding casting grade capability and sharp breakout depletion. Additional benefits have been also achieved in better billet square shape and reduced sparkling phenomena in the mold. These results have been confirmed by an extensive use of the product in a time period longer than 1 year. A specific equipment has been engineered for delivering and dosing Proil™.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 17:

Heat transfer control through dispersed metallic particles in glassy mold flux film with continuous steel casting

S. Hyun
(Pohang University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)

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Title: Heat transfer control through dispersed metallic particles in glassy mold flux film with continuous steel casting


Author:
S. Hyun

Company:
Pohang University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:
J. Cho

Abstract:
The excessive cooling rate during initial solidification period is believed to be the main reason for surface defects on continuously cast steel. Therefore, controlling heat transfer through the mold flux film is significant for improvement of both the surface quality and casting productivity. It is widely known that increasing the crystallinity of mold flux with high basicity is most effective to reduce the mold heat transfer rate. However, highly crystalline mold flux will bring a detrimental side effect known as ‘sticker breakout’ due to deterioration of lubrication between molten steel and mold. In present study, an innovative idea to reduce the mold heat transfer rate has been suggested by increasing the extinction coefficient (β) through Mie Scattering of metallic particles in the glassy mold. The metallic particles dispersed in the mold flux bring decisive effects on reduction of thermal radiation, which is one of the major roles of crystalline phase in mold flux film. Based on these findings, CaO-Al2O3-CaF2 based structurally stable glassy mold flux system was examined with 0%, 2%, 5% of FeO or Fe metallic particles, respectively. The change of extinction coefficient by Mie Scattering of the Fe particles and absorption by FeO were investigated using an FTIR and a UV-VIS. Also, in order to evaluate thermal conductivity of mold flux film with dispersed metallic particle, the laser flash technique has been applied. Finally, to simulate the heat transfer ratio by both the conduction and radiation, measurement of actual heat flux through mold flux film has been performed with an Infrared Emitter Technique (IET). It is found that the overall heat transfer rate across liquid flux film could be reduced significantly by dispersion of metallic particles.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 17:

Hybridization of lime for use in granulated mold fluxes

M. Alloni
(Prosimet S.p.A., Italy)

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Close26 June, Room 17 ( 12:20 )
Title: Hybridization of lime for use in granulated mold fluxes


Author:
M. Alloni

Company:
Prosimet S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Mold flux technology has in the last years reached its full maturity, thus the process of de-commoditization has become more and more important to improve profitability and competiveness.
A way to achieve this, has been to work on performance bearing components of the product to substitute raw materials which may prove to be constraints in manufacturing and selling of mold fluxes due to their prices or their limited geographical sources.
Wollastonite is a prime example of such a raw materials since its one of the main components of mold fluxes and sources of suitable grade of this mineral are limited.
In this work we tried to substitute wollastonite in granulated products with lime and sand.
To achieve this, a process of hybridization of calcium oxide particles has been carried out to inhibit reaction of lime with water by covering the surface with an hydrophobic material .
Different additives have been tested and a procedure has been defined to test water reactivity.
Once sufficiently inhibited calcium oxide particles were obtained, a batch production has been prepared to manufacture a mold flux to be tested in the laboratory.

Casting: Product quality (surface defects, internal quality) I (26 June / 11:20 - Room 21)

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 21:

Reveal CAST surface inspection system - Surface quality monitoring for cast and grinded semis

H. Suopajärvi
(Sapotech Oy, Finland)

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Close26 June, Room 21 ( 11:20 )
Title: Reveal CAST surface inspection system - Surface quality monitoring for cast and grinded semis


Author:
H. Suopajärvi

Company:
Sapotech Oy, Finland

Co-Authors:
S. Kaukonen, I. Salmela, P. Hooli

Abstract:
The quality of continuous cast steel semi-products (e.g. slabs, billets, blooms) is the basis for efficient production of high-quality steel products to demanding markets. Continuous casting technology has developed significantly to increase the production rate. Several control and monitoring technologies have been successfully developed to allow fast casting speeds even with difficult steel grades. The missing link from the quality point of view has been a shortage of reliable surface inspection system to inspect the quality of hot glowing semi-products in real-time. The on-line quality monitoring of semi-product surface quality would allow fast response not only for the decisions concerning the required operations down-stream, but also to close the loop to the caster operations.
In order to justify the investment on semi-product surface inspection system, it has to fulfill several requirements. The main requirement is naturally the reliable detection of surface defects that may inhibit the production of high-quality steel products after subsequent processing. One of the key things is the flexibility of the system to be adopted in variety of installation locations. Continuous casting lines may have shortage of space, which calls for system with small footprint. Due to the nature of continuous casting process, the installation of the equipment should be as fast as possible with minimized production disturbances. Reliable operation in harsh conditions, easy maintenance and user-friendliness are of importance too.
The Reveal CAST surface inspection system fulfills all the above-mentioned requirements and more. This paper describes the technical features of the system and the benefits that this flexible quality monitoring solution can bring to the quality-driven steel production from the viewpoint of cast and grinded products. In addition, the data management and product traceability issues are discussed in a light of digitalization of the metals industry and Industry 4.0.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 21:

Slab inspection

T. Marx
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Slab inspection


Author:
T. Marx

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Surface treatment of slabs using fully automatic in-line inspection

In the context of advancing digitalization, certifications become increasingly important. They often are a prerequisite for steel producers to be able to sell their slabs to automotive manufacturers. To obtain such certification, a continuous process for the production of high-quality slabs and their subsequent treatment must be established. Usually, the different processing steps take place at different locations within the mill. With the fully automatic in-line slab inspection system, SMS group has developed a new concept for this treatment process and brought the different processing steps together in one line.
Thanks to the new in-line system, the slabs now pass through a consistent process, which essentially includes the steps of scarfing, descaling, three-dimensional inspection and grinding of specific areas of the slab surfaces.
In the scarfing process, all four surfaces – the two broad faces and the two narrow faces – are treated. This is made possible by turning the slab by 180°. Subsequently, the top and bottom faces of the slab are automatically inspected by two- and three-dimensional systems. Any defects detected in the process are eliminated by grinding the two broad faces, which is also possible thanks to a 180°-turn.
In a final step, the slabs are provided with an identification mark and transported to the slab yard by means of a crane.
By means of an interface to Level 2 of the X-Pact ® electrical and automation systems, feedback can be given on each slab leaving the line after treatment. This allows for continuous documentation of the entire process.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 21:

The role of grain boundary oxidation on surface crack formation under continuous casting conditions

R. Krobath
(University of Leoben, Austria)

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Title: The role of grain boundary oxidation on surface crack formation under continuous casting conditions


Author:
R. Krobath

Company:
University of Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:
P. Pennerstorfer, S. Hahn, J. Six, S. Ilie, P. Presoly, C. Bernhard

Abstract:
The most common macroscopic surface defects - like transversal cracks and longitudinal cracks along the broad face or the corner region - seem to be well controllable by newly developed process control systems of cc machines. Today, frequently observed quality issues result from microscopic cracks, nearly undetectable on the as-cast surface and apparently formed along prior grain boundaries. The morphology of these defects makes an interaction with subsurface defects but also with selective oxidation of grain boundaries plausible.
The classical mechanisms for defect formation in cc as derived from hot-tensile experiments (ferrite films, precipitations, austenite grain coarsening) do not sufficiently contribute to the prevention of this kind of defects, as they reduce the relatively complex topic to the definition of “critical temperature ranges”.
A recently developed in-situ bending experiment (IMC-B test) provides new perspectives on the role of the thermal history immediately after solidification and during secondary cooling: Grain coarsening and selective oxidation along grain boundaries at temperatures above 1100 °C show a significant effect on the crack sensitivity of steel in the subsequent bending experiment. For certain steel grades, the effect of the thermal history dominates over the effect of precipitations. For certain thermal cycles and cooling rates even bending at a strain of less than 2% is sufficient to nucleate numerous defects in the temperature range of 850 to 1000 °C whereas the same steel grade is rather insensitive in case of other previous thermal histories.
The present paper deals with a comparison of experimental results for sensitive and less sensitive steel grades, shows the influence of different cooling strategies on number of formed defects, gives examples for the morphology of the nucleated defects and explains the role of the previous thermal history by means of controlled, high-temperature oxidation experiments.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 21:

Real-time mould temperature control for the purpose of consistent slab quality

M. Mul
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: Real-time mould temperature control for the purpose of consistent slab quality


Author:
M. Mul

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In a continuous slab casting installation, trials have been conducted using fiber bragg gratings to measure temperatures inside the copper mould plates. This enormous amount of temperature data enables quantification of casting process characteristics. Product quality data can be obtained from surface inspection systems of the hot strip mill and galvanizing lines. The expected result is that the behaviour of these casting process characteristics show a causal relation with product quality. Argon settings and electromagnetic flow control parameters may be based on this information, with regards to set-up values or control systems. Fiber bragg gratings will be the method of temperature measurement in all four mould plates in Tata Steel’s Continuous Caster Machine 23 in IJmuiden, which is at the moment of writing still under construction. This unlocks great potential for an increased consistency of slab quality and a more accurate slab grading method.

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26 June / 12:40 - Room 21:

A study on a prediction model of hot ductility in steel using machine learning method

D. Hong
(Pohang University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)

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Title: A study on a prediction model of hot ductility in steel using machine learning method


Author:
D. Hong

Company:
Pohang University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:
S. Kwon, C. Yim

Abstract:
Surface cracking in continuous casting is one of the most serious problems in the steel production process. Steels for marine structure, shipbuilding, and pressure vessel are especially more vulnerable to cracks. In order to reduce the cracks of the cast steel, the hot ductility is measured in consideration of the operating conditions, and the secondary cooling conditions in the casting facility are set based on the measurements. However, it is impossible to examine all commercially produced steel grades with the conditions of casting and facility setting to avoid the region of low RA value on bending/unbending area, so a more efficient hot ductility prediction method is required.
In this study, we propose an automatic prediction system for the experimental value of RA (reduction of area), which can predict the hot ductile embrittlement period reflecting conditions such as composition and thermal history for steel. The proposed system predicts hot ductility values by using machine learning and experimental data based on the multi-layer networks model. The database structure for learning the hot ductility consists of three components: composition, experimental environmental variables and ductility values according to temperature. To validate the consistency of the proposed machine learning model, a high temperature tensile test is performed on the steels as a case study. In case of steel with V or U shape-trough, the predicted value agrees well with the experimental value. Therefore, this study makes it possible to derive operating conditions that minimize the cracking cracks by making the temperature range with the RA value inconsistent with the bending/unbending area of the continuous casting facilities.

Casting: Product quality (surface defects, internal quality) II (26 June / 13:30 - Room 21)

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26 June / 13:30 - Room 21:

From slab to tinplate - metallurgical and process engineering requirements and measures to ensure an excellent degree of purity for packaging steel

C. Schwanke
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: From slab to tinplate - metallurgical and process engineering requirements and measures to ensure an excellent degree of purity for packaging steel


Author:
C. Schwanke

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
W. Schulte, S. Schiester, S. Karrasch, C. Toulouse, A. Ploch, C. Schwanke

Abstract:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe produces 1.7 million tonnes of slabs at the Duisburg site as a raw material for the production of packaging steel (tinplate). The slabs are rolled in the hot strip mills 1, 2 & 3 to hot strips with the typical dimensions 1240 mm wide and 3.0 mm thick. The hot-rolled strip is being processed at thyssenkrupp Packaging Steel in Andernach to form tinned or special chrome-plated thin sheet.
The highest standards of purity and surface quality of the raw steel produced are in particular the DWI (Drawn and Ironed can) cans for the beverage and food packaging industry. The initial thickness of the tinplate before DWI production has been reduced since 1990 from 0.29 mm to 0.21 mm. Simultaneous increase in productivity with concomitant increase in process speed during deep drawing and ironing of cans to reduce sidewalls to 0.060 mm thickness prohibits the existence of coarse inclusions and non-metallic contaminants.

To accompany these customer requirements, continuous optimization of the metallurgical process route must be carried out. In this context, the influence of [S] and [O] on the occurrence of slag inclusions is investigated. Slag management, primary and secondary metallurgy will be examined for the mechanism of generation of olivine periclasis inclusions.

The influence of the casting througput is examined in detail. Reduced casting througput to improve the degree of purity is tested and evaluated on the final product. An industrial continuous caster is being converted from online longitudinal slitting to single-strand width. The results are mirrored with modified magnetic test procedures and also on the final product.

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26 June / 13:50 - Room 21:

Comparison and utilization of evaluation method for internal quality of slab

W. Choi
(POSCO Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)

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Title: Comparison and utilization of evaluation method for internal quality of slab


Author:
W. Choi

Company:
POSCO Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Comparison and utilization of evaluation method for internal quality of slab.
When the automotive steel sheet (S-EDDQ) is pressed under extreme conditions, a crack occurs at a position where the decrease in thickness is large.
Non-metallic inclusions are observed at the position where cracks occur.
In order to prevent defects, it is important to improve the press condition and to reduce the number of non-metallic inclusions.
In the past, the level (size, number, type) of inclusions inside the slab has not been evaluated and quantified.
In this study, we tried to adopt and utilize the optimal method to evaluate the internal quality of Slab.
We compared the strengths and weaknesses of the various evaluation methods in use at POSCO, selected the best proposals and used them to quantify quality.

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26 June / 14:10 - Room 21:

Improvement of hot ductility of low carbon alloy steel by thermal history

S. Kwon
(Pohang University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)

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Title: Improvement of hot ductility of low carbon alloy steel by thermal history


Author:
S. Kwon

Company:
Pohang University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:
C. Yim, S. Moon, J. Min, J. Lee, Y. Heo, D. Kim

Abstract:
Recently, various alloying elements have been added to get higher mechanical properties. However, due to the increase of alloying elements, surface cracks of casting steel continuously occur during the continuous casting process. These surface cracks cause an economic loss by lowering the quality of slab and an additional method for preventing such defects is needed. In general, the hot ductility of steel is measured, and using the results the continuous casting conditions are set so that the temperature region which have lower ductility is not matched where deformation is applied in continuous casting. However, a steel grade containing various alloying elements has lower ductility in wide temperature range, so it is difficult to control that the temperature which has low ductility and slab deformed region do not match with each other during continuous casting process.
In this study, the change of hot ductility was observed with various thermal history and the mechanism was investigated. The specimen was reheated to tensile temperature after cooled down to various cooling target temperatures (500~700˚C) from 1400˚C. The cooling rate at that time was 1˚C/sec. As a result, it was confirmed that the RA (Reduction of Area) value of the steel could be increased about 40~50%. Especially, the degree of increasing the ductility depends on the cooling target temperature. RA values increase with decreasing cooling target temperature and it is caused by not changed of grain size but formation of sulfide precipitation. To be specific, formation of sulfide in a grain seem to decrease the sulfur segregation on a grain boundary and then it reduce grain boundary embrittlement. And further studies are conducting to clarify grain boundary segregation.

Oxygen steelmaking: Ladle metallurgy II (26 June / 13:40 - Room 16)

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 16:

Desulphurization with ladle furnace slag

S. Panda
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: Desulphurization with ladle furnace slag


Author:
S. Panda

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
R. Kooter, A. Overbosch, E. Harbers

Abstract:
The sulphide capacities of slags used during ladle furnace treatment were estimated using the thermodynamic software known as FactSage. The experimental sulphide capacities found in literature are compared with FactSage calculations which showed good similarity. FactSage is used to carry out a sensitivity analyses of the sulphide capacity and liquid fraction of steelmaking slag depending on slag composition and temperature. From the analysis, the sulphide capacity of all slags has been seen to increase with the operating temperature. For maximum slag in liquid state, the CaO/Al2O3 ratio should be between 0.9 to 1.4 and temperature should be above 1385 °C. This will increase the desulphurization capability of the slag. MgO is added to the slag to decrease the dissolution of slag-line refractory, which adversely effects the sulphide capacity and liquid fraction. The presence of MnO in slag composition increases the sulphide capacity and liquid fraction of the slag. SiO2 increases the liquid fraction towards high CaO composition. The present study indicates the overall slag chemistry area that is used in LF practise for better desulphurization. Further study is needed to determine the oxygen activity in steel around steel-slag interface, which largely effects the exchange of sulphur from steel to slag.

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 16:

Simultaneous treatment in the RH-twin vacuum degasser

B. Cerchiari
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: Simultaneous treatment in the RH-twin vacuum degasser


Author:
B. Cerchiari

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:
H. Segundo, F. Alexandre, P. Wojnar, L. Demuner

Abstract:
A demand for high quality steels is growing around the world. The RH vacuum degasser is one of the equipment used to refining these steels. During the vacuum process, it is possible to reduce H, N, C and increase the cleanliness of molten steel. The RH process is characterized by the continuous circulation of steel through two snorkels in a refractory vessel that is under vacuum. The vacuum generator system is composed of a series of steam ejectors and condensers. To produce vacuum, high volumes of steam is used in the vacuum pump. Its operational cost is very high and efforts should be made to optimize the process times. Usually the RH-twin is composed of two vessels that share the same vacuum pump. The conventional practice is to finish the vacuum in first vessel and then start vacum in second heat in the another vessel. At Ternium-BR, improvements in vacuum pump operating logic allowed to treat two heats in different vessels at the same time using the same vacuum pump (simultaneous treatment in the RH-twin vacuum degasser). The results are promising as they affect the productivity rate of the steelmaking plant.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 16:

The first production results of a new ladle-furnace in Oxygen Steel Plant No.2

A. Ponamarenko
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: The first production results of a new ladle-furnace in Oxygen Steel Plant No.2


Author:
A. Ponamarenko

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Brand, M. Löcken, M. Arns, S. Meiß, B. Dolle

Abstract:
The first production results of a new ladle-furnace in Oxygen Steel Plant No. 2
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG at Duisburg, Germany

The steel plant in Beeckerwerth, has a capacity of 5,4 mio t of crude steel per year with three converters in operation and a tapping weight of 265 t/heat. The plant is equipped with two RH degassers, and two Argon stirring stations. The steel produced covers a wide range of grades - from ultralow carbon and IF grades - over Structural Grades to heavy plate pre-material and Carbon grades.
To extend the range of steel grades and to improve the quality of steel, the new ladle furnace was integrated in the production line without significant impacts to the productivity of the steel plant. This is the first ladle furnace fully surrounded by a “cube” consisting of noise reduction panels.
For the optimal heat treatment in the furnace, the steel ladles were equipped with porous plugs. We have the possibility to treat a heat without porous plugs. The inert gas lance can be used in two positions. One of these positions can be used by heating, also the lance can be inserted vertically into the steel bath via one of the electrode openings in the roof delta.
With the first production at the 16th of August 2018 via the new furnace, the hot metal and scrap ratio is more flexible than before. Especially the reaction to the hot metal availability was enormously improved. Apart from that, the ladle furnace showed the expected results concerning steel quality, and steel grades with improved chemical compositions were produced successfully. The sulfur content was lowered by optimized steel desulfuring and phosphorus content was lowered by optimizing the tapping temperature which also has a positive effect on the purity of steel because scrap is not needed

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 16:

Optimization of AISI 443 stainless steel cleanness during secondary steelmaking process using Factsage Thermodynamic

J. Li
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Title: Optimization of AISI 443 stainless steel cleanness during secondary steelmaking process using Factsage Thermodynamic


Author:
J. Li

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Nonmetallic inclusions formed during Ti-stabilized 443 stainless steelmaking process can cause the clogging of submerged entry nozzle (SEN) and surface defects of cold-rolled. The formation mechanism of oxide inclusions in 443 stainless steel was investigated by industrial experiment and Factsage thermodynamic calculation. After Al deoxidized and calcium treatment, the main types of inclusions in three samples were different, including irregular MgO-Al2O3 and spherical CaO-MgO-Al2O3, which was due to the different Ca and Al contents in samples. Combined with Factsage thermodynamic calculations, the calcium contents which could effectively modify oxide inclusions in 443 stainless steel with different Al contents were obtained. The initial calcium and aluminum contents in molten steel affected the main type of oxide inclusions formed during Ti addition process. High melting point Ca-Ti-O inclusions were observed in the sample containing high Ca content and low Al content. The experimental results and Factsage thermodynamic calculation results show that reducing Ca content and increasing Al content before Ti addition can reduce the formation of high melting point perovskite inclusions.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 16:

Study of formation behavior of CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in steel melts during an LF process

T. Yoshioka
(Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Japan)

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Close26 June, Room 16 ( 15:00 )
Title: Study of formation behavior of CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in steel melts during an LF process


Author:
T. Yoshioka

Company:
Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:
T. Ideguchi, A. Karasev, Y. Ohba, P. Jönsson

Abstract:
Experiments were carried out during an LF process to investigate the formation behavior of CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in a steel melt. Samples were taken during the production of two different steel grades: a low-Al steel (Al=0.023%) and a high-Al steel (Al=1.1%). Liquid CaO-Al2O3 inclusions were detected in the low-Al steel samples. On the other hand, liquid CaO-Al2O3 inclusions were not detected in the high-Al steel samples. Instead, the inclusions consisted of MgO∙Al2O3 and Al2O3. The conditions of the LF operations, such as slag viscosities, temperatures, and gas flow rates, were almost the same in the two steel grades. This fact indicates that the detected liquid CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in the low-Al steel melt were not generated by slag entrapment, but by inclusion evolutions. In the low-Al steel, the thermodynamically stable phase of inclusion composition was calculated to be a liquid CaO-Al2O3 phase. On the other hand, the stable phase was found to be a CaO∙2Al2O3 phase in the high-Al steel. These differences in thermodynamic stable phases can influence the degree of inclusion evolution in the steel melts. However, in the high-Al steel, most inclusions have much lower CaO contents than that of the calculated phase (CaO∙2Al2O3). This large inconsistency between the detected and calculated inclusion compositions in the high-Al steel melt can be explained by two reasons: one is the low thermodynamic driving force of an Al2O3 modification and the other is the high removability of the inclusion types in the steel melt.

Casting: Mould lubrication, performance and initial solidification II (26 June / 13:40 - Room 17)

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 17:

Conversion of slab casting mould to Bragg grating optical fibers

E. Castiaux
(EBDS Engineering S.p.r.l., Belgium)

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Title: Conversion of slab casting mould to Bragg grating optical fibers


Author:
E. Castiaux

Company:
EBDS Engineering S.p.r.l., Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Bragg grating optical fibers can replace, with significant advantages, the temperature measurements previously performed by thermocouples.
Following a successfull trial with a broadface equipped with 4 FBG fibers installed horizontally (4 x 70 measuring points), APERAM Chatelet has decided to convert its moulds from thermocouples to FBG temperature measurements. This paper describe, from a pratical point of view, the first results of the conversion.

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 17:

Casting oil selection, effect on the open stream continous casting process

J. Linazasoro
(Quaker Chemical S.A., Spain)

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Title: Casting oil selection, effect on the open stream continous casting process


Author:
J. Linazasoro

Company:
Quaker Chemical S.A., Spain

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
SUMMARY:
Steel industry is one of the largest lubricant consumers, especially for process oils used in the steel production. Around the world steel plants face challenging scenario to produce under big cost pressure and process improvement.
In the process of open stream steel billet production vegetal oil is the most common used lubricant despite there are other products that show better behaviour.
This paper explains the comparison made between different casting oils considering lab test and field experience. The aim of this paper is to compare the behaviour of different casting oils in continuous casting machines.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 17:

Reduction of start-of-cast breakouts at the Direct Sheet Plant at Tata Steel in IJmuiden.

R. Kalter
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: Reduction of start-of-cast breakouts at the Direct Sheet Plant at Tata Steel in IJmuiden.


Author:
R. Kalter

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Start-of-cast is a highly unstable part of the continuous casting process, leading to quality rejects and in severe cases to breakouts. In the Tata Steel thin slab caster at IJmuiden, especially sticker type breakouts at start-of-cast and breakouts due to severe mould level fluctuations were a recurring problem.

It was recognized that sticker breakouts occurred due to severe splashing in the mould at stopper opening. Also splashing at the meniscus at the moment of SEN submergence was linked to stickers. The sticker breakouts typically happened within the first 2 meters of cast slab. In this paper we present a softened mould filling procedure with which splashes at start-of-cast was reduced, leading to a large reduction in start-of-cast breakouts.

Another reason for breakouts at start-of-cast was the occurrence of severe mould level fluctuations at the closing of the segments for liquid core reduction after exit of the dummy bar. It was hypothesized that mould level fluctuations caused entrapment of mould powder, leading to weak spots in the solidifying shell, in turn leading to breakouts. The breakouts happened typically after 7-9 meters of casting. A two way approach of reducing the mould level fluctuations was followed. First, the pre-opening of the segments was reduced, leaving just enough space for the dummy bar to pass. Second, the stopper control setting was adjusted, such that the stopper reacts faster to mould level fluctuations. The combination of these two adjustments led to a reduction of the mould level fluctuation, expressed by the measured difference between the maximum and minimum mould level on cast lengths of 3 to 13 m. Since implementing the adjustments, no breakouts of this type have occurred.

Casting: tundish lining & flow controls (26 June / 13:40 - Room 20)

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 20:

Level control - improvement at first sight

R. Wilmes
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Level control - improvement at first sight


Author:
R. Wilmes

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
R. Heidemann, T. Wrobel, L. Schaps

Abstract:
Level Control – Improvement at First Sight

The ever-increasing quality requirements for the slab quality, in particular for the level control in the mold, require a maximum of flexibility in setting the parameters. Fluctuations in the mold level have a negative effect on the surface quality and lead to devaluations of the product.

The mold level control system of the SMS group consists of a modular hardware platform that supports different drive concepts (electromechanical / hydraulic) as well as various measuring systems (radiometric, electromagnetic).
Furthermore, the system consists of flexible, parameterizable software, which is equipped with extensive control and technological functions and offers additional observer functions.

The integration of this mold level control in an existing system is possible in short stoppages. Commissioning, parameter setting and optimization take place during the ongoing production process. The consistent application of the various control and technological functions, such as Waver Eraser, Power Stabilizer and Dynamic Rod, provides significant improvement in the mold level accuracy and stability.

By optimizing an existing system, control technical and technological features have improved the apparent level accuracy from >3mm to <± 1mm (2σ standard deviation).
The most significant improvement in this case was the suppression of transient bulging and the reduction to <± 0.5mm.

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 20:

New corrosion test method for purging refractory ceramic

Q. Robinson
(Vesuvius plc, United States)

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Title: New corrosion test method for purging refractory ceramic


Author:
Q. Robinson

Company:
Vesuvius plc, United States

Co-Authors:
M. Snyder, P. Hunger

Abstract:
A new method was developed for corrosion testing of refractory materials used for argon purging in steel ladles, including the next generation OptiClean* and OptiFlow* purge plugs. The OptiClean*, and other purge plugs of this design type, incorporate a porous element to deliver argon to the ladle. “Directional” purge plugs, like OptiFlow™, use slots formed within a castable refractory to deliver argon to the ladle. A significantly improved erosion resistance was measured for the OptiClean* purge plugs compared to other commercially available purge plugs.
This new test uses a purge plug, which is inserted into the bottom of a “pony ladle” with a capacity of 250 kg. Argon, or other gases, is purged through this plug into a bath of molten metal within the ladle. After gas purging, the ladle is emptied of molten metal. In some variations of the corrosion test the hot face of the purge plug is cleaned with an oxygen lance. The process of purging and lancing is repeated multiple times to mimic how a purge plug is used in steel mills or foundries. Conditions during the purging and lancing procedure are kept as constant as possible and molten metal temperature and quantity as well as argon gas flow and pressure are tightly controlled. After evaluating various purge plugs and test conditions, the purge plugs were analyzed for rates of corrosion and steel penetration. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms of erosion and steel penetration, these findings were correlated with the specific boundary conditions during the test. The results of this study and the potential of this new test method will be presented in this paper.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 20:

Analysis of fluid flow of liquid steel through clogged nozzles: thermodynamic analyses and flow simulations

R. Morales
(University of Toronto, Canada)

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Title: Analysis of fluid flow of liquid steel through clogged nozzles: thermodynamic analyses and flow simulations


Author:
R. Morales

Company:
University of Toronto, Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
R.D. Morales 1), Javier Guarneros G. 2) K. Chattopadhyay3), Bikram Konar 4)
1) Professor, IPN-ESIQIE, Department of Metallurgy, Ed. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico City 07738, rmorales@ipn.mx, currently visiting Professor at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, Canada, M5S 3E4.
2) Research Engineer, K&E Technologies, Manizales 88, San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico City 07369.
3) Dean’s Catalyst Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cross Appointed to Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, Canada, M5S3E4
4) Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, Canada, M5S3E4

Abstract
Continuous casting of ultra-low carbon steels (ULC) for the automotive industry always leads to clogging of SEN’s due to the intensive use of aluminum to deoxidize the melt. Although clogging phenomena are, in principle, related to the metallurgical reactions, it has been proved that fluid mechanics has an important role as the distribution of internal pressure in the nozzle changes with the nozzle design. In the present study firstly, a thermodynamic analysis is carried out to predict the mineralogy of the inclusions precipitated during the processing of Ti-stabilized ULC steels. The amount and nature of the inclusions leads to feasible hypothesis of clogging mechanisms in these steels. In the second part, the design of a new nozzle based on novel water modeling techniques and CFD simulations lead to a condition where there is no clogging in the internal bore wall of the nozzle. Regular clogging is only observed in both ports of the nozzle leading to area reductions which improve the flow patterns. Future development will include anti-clogging nozzles developed using physical & chemical principles.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 20:

Optimizing tundish lining refractory by steel grade in continuous casting

Y. Park
(Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)

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Close26 June, Room 20 ( 14:40 )
Title: Optimizing tundish lining refractory by steel grade in continuous casting


Author:
Y. Park

Company:
Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:
T. Ha, W. Ki, S. Ryu

Abstract:
Refractories used in tundish during continuous casting have diverse and important role like flow control, the floating separation of inclusion and the prevention of reoxidation. However, these refractories may cause problems such as erosion, large inclusion and clogging when the refractory is not suitable material for each type of steel grade. Those problems of refractory will effect degrading the productivity and product quality, and these also can be leaded to stop the casting process. Especially tundish lining cause these problems more than other refractories, because the contact area of molten steel with lining refractory of tundish sidewalls and bottom is much larger than others. So, there should be more interactions exist. Therefore, suitable materials of tundish lining refractory were selected by each type of steel grade through the lab. test to improve these problems. And finally, the materials for optimizing refractories were selected based on product quality and operation condition.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 20:

Microstructures of mould slag crawling at the SEN during thin slab casting

E. Zinngrebe
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: Microstructures of mould slag crawling at the SEN during thin slab casting


Author:
E. Zinngrebe

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
M. van Wijngaarden, F. Mensonides, R. Kalter, S. van der Laan, M. Rijnders

Abstract:
Microstructures of Mould Slag Crawling at the SEN during Thin Slab Casting: Observations and Experiments

Enno Zinngrebe, Marco Rijnders, Sieger van der Laan, Rudi Kalter, Fokko Mensonides, Mary van Wijngaarden
Tata Steel, the Netherlands


Mould slag crawling down the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) has been observed in post mortem studies of SENs after thin slab casting of Ca-treated steel at Ijmuiden Works, the Netherlands. A thin film of slag is observed to exist coating the outer SEN surface that can be distinguished from post-casting mould slag painting. The slag layer reaches at least to submersion depths corresponding to the lower bound of the zirconia anticorrosion wear band and sometimes also reaching the upper outflow ports of the four port SEN. The composition of this slag film is a combined product of mould slag, reaction product of slag with the underlying refractory, and deposition of the steel’s NMI (calcium aluminates).
To help understand the formation and stability of this slag film, laboratory experiments were conducted with steel, slag and refractory in a 1 atm gas mixing furnace at 1570 oC. In the experiments crucibles were used that are made of alumina-carbon refractory as used in the actual SENs. A combined charge of pre-fused mould flux encapsulated in steel was used to prevent premature slag-refractory reaction on the experimental heating trajectory. Interaction times ranged from 1 to 10 min and the development of the morphology and composition of the resultant slag film between refractory and molten steel were studied. A slag film is established rapidly enveloping the entire steel charge (no direct steel to refractory contact) and its composition changed to an Al2O3 rich composition close to alumina saturation. In this state, which is compositionally comparable to the slag films observed close to the SEN in practice, the slag can spread along

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 20:

Long steel casting with flexible system for open and shrouded stream

F. Fabri
(Vesuvius plc, Brazil)

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Title: Long steel casting with flexible system for open and shrouded stream


Author:
F. Fabri

Company:
Vesuvius plc, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The CNC Shrouded* is a tundish flow control system that allows the cast of long products in both open or shrouded stream from tundish to the mold. This allows steel of higher quality to be cast by protecting the stream from the re-oxidation from atmosphere as well as the usage of flux powder as lubricant, which also improves quality in terms of surface and thermal exchange with the mold. The trials were conducted to validate the proposition and evaluate the differences in terms of quality, considering surface of the billet, and as a second step, chemical analysis of samples. The preliminary results have proven the system improves significantly the quality, by having a much better surface quality as well as no re-oxidation, while being of simple usage operationally and of lower cost compared to other systems where there is flow control, such as tundish slide gate or stopper and submerged entry nozzle.

*trademarks of the Vesuvius plc group of companies, unregistered or registered in certain countries

Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking II (26 June / 14:00 - Room 12)

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 12:

Assessing the Bottleneck of a Steel Plant by means of Plant Simulation

S. Deng
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Title: Assessing the Bottleneck of a Steel Plant by means of Plant Simulation


Author:
S. Deng

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
With the aim of improving production efficiency and reducing production costs, this paper (i) reports on a study of the continuous-casting steelmaking section of a steel plant, (ii) establishes a dynamic logistical simulation model of the continuous-casting steelmaking section and (iii) realizes model process control, parameter setting and simulation data statistics by using the Simtalk language and methods. The model accuracy is validated by comparison with the capacity and equipment utilization rate given in field statistics. The results show that increasing the converter duplex production proportion from 33% to 100% (i) increases the process continuity, (ii) shortens the average conveying waiting time of the continuous-casting converter machines by 5–14min and (iii) lowers the corresponding tapping temperature by 4.9–13.7°C under a certain capacity. This leads to (i) faster process production, (ii) an increase in converter productivity from 50% to 60–70%, (iii) shorter furnace idling times and (iv) lower heat dissipation, thereby reducing the production costs further.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 12:

Optimization of maintenance costs through modular concepts

D. Strömme
(Bilfinger SE, Germany)

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Title: Optimization of maintenance costs through modular concepts


Author:
D. Strömme

Company:
Bilfinger SE, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Piccoli, Y. Olsen

Abstract:
Nowadays, one of the main focus of steel producers is on improved bottom line through increased efficiency in production. Profitability is affected by high production and HSE performance to optimum cost. In-house maintenance organisation makes maintenance a fixed cost that many operators are looking to offload.
Bilfinger has gained experience with workshops and maintenance services throughout decades of working closely with its customers in several industries (steel, aluminium, chemical, pharma, oil&gas). Such cooperation and integrated work, brought to the development of BMC, Bilfinger Maintenance Concept.
BMC is based on the experience and knowledge acquired from more than 400 maintenance analyses and it is currently implemented in over 100 maintenance contracts.
BMC is a holistic, modular and standardized concept tailored to the individual demands of the customer and creates tangible benefits by optimizing maintenance costs, increasing reliability of plants, improving safety performance and securing high quality standards and positive effects on production volume.
BMC use a comprehensive approach by sharing experiences from local maintenance, supported by Bilfinger network of experts and Bilfinger Best Practice documented in 16 modules, each of them focused on a specific area of intervention.
The concept is built upon a fact-based maintenance analysis to define current situation, economical potentials and recommended improvements.
BMC ensures the proper integration between the customer, who takes care of the production process and Bilfinger, who takes responsibility for planning and execution of all maintenance by taking over employment of maintenance personnel (whenever requested by customers).
An optimized organisation is established, with clear roles, responsibilities and interfaces, through standardized work processes for planning and execution.
Improvement processes are well established and dedicated tools needed to meet targets on cost and production are implemented as well.
High focus on safety is a fundament in all the activity.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 12:

Next level maintenance services in the age of Industry 4.0

K. Frauenhuber
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Next level maintenance services in the age of Industry 4.0


Author:
K. Frauenhuber

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
L. Reiter, F. Hollensteiner, M. Weinzinger, K. Mertens , K. Purkarthofer

Abstract:
Primetals Technologies is a preferred partner for the outsourcing of maintenance work in steelmaking since several decades and on three continents. Demands upon maintenance work are ever increasing, but costs shall be decreasing. This can only be realized by meticulous auditing, quality control, structuring and optimizing work flows, planning and scheduling, streamlining routines and by maximizing feedback and learning curves. Primetals Technologies has been introducing latest methodologies and Technologies of Industry 4.0 in form of a computerized maintenance management system, fully digitalized and operational in the first two phases.

This paper will present current technologies available for digitalization of outsourced maintenance with a particular focus on casting operations. The challenges and considerations in development and implementation of computerized maintenance management and its use also for workshop audits, as well as benefit measurement will be presented.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 12:

Using interpretable machine learning to predict the electrical energy consumption of an electric arc furnace

L. Carlsson
(Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden)

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Title: Using interpretable machine learning to predict the electrical energy consumption of an electric arc furnace


Author:
L. Carlsson

Company:
Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

Co-Authors:
P. Jönsson, P. Samuelsson

Abstract:
The goal of this study is to forecast the electrical energy consumption of an Electric Arc Furnace using historical data from a steel mini-mill producing clean steel. Machine learning models are created, specializing on three of the main types of steel grades produced in the steel plant. The goal is to predict the electrical energy consumption for the next heat.

State of the art machine learning interpretability algorithms, such as permutation importance, are used to analyze the models’ predictions from the perspective of steel process metallurgy. The results from the interpretability algorithms are then compared to previous research results on the dynamics of the Electric Arc Furnace energy consumption to achieve a model-to-application-domain transparency.

Casting: Continuous casting technology (26 June / 15:20 - Room 17)

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 17:

The sophisticated SMS group compact mold

L. Fischer
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: The sophisticated SMS group compact mold


Author:
L. Fischer

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
One of the most important prerequisites for smooth production of high-quality steel slabs is an optimal condition of the mold.
SMS group designs the X-Cast® Compact Mold in 3D using a digital mock up. The engineering and for example, the flow is calculated and checked with the finite element method.
Combining engineering know how with digitalization, SMS group developed solutions providing for intelligent processing and automation of processes.
With HD LASr [mold] for perfect mold aligning, HD moldFO for homogeneous solidification and Mold Track for wear information at the right time, SMS group paves the way to the digitized mold.
The X-Pact® technological packages Oscillation Control, Level Control, Width Control and Cast Optimizer are responsible for a perfect slab surface, the smoothest mold level in all process situations, the biggest width changes with shortest transition pieces at maximized operating reliability and a continuous optimization of the casting process regarding for example casting speed or cut length optimization.
In addition, the SMS group has optimized the mold in terms of "quick and easy" and made it more user-friendly. Examples for installation and removal of the mold are the lock fixation with cup-springs, water connection plates for water supply and much more.
Based on the steel grades to be produced, the X-Pact® Tech Assist automatically selects the optimum technological parameter settings for the metallurgical process starting in the Compact Mold.
The combination of the above mentioned technologies form the holistic approach.

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26 June / 15:40 - Room 17:

Latest achievements in long product casting

D. Burzic
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Latest achievements in long product casting


Author:
D. Burzic

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
M. Hadler, F. Wimmer

Abstract:
Tough economic environment, together with, constant demand for higher quality are the main challenges for today´s steel producers. This calls for flexible and well-designed production plants with reduced maintenance and longer equipment lifetime. This paper provides an overview about latest realized solutions for the bloom/billet continuous casters with the special accent on the machines designed for high-quality automotive grades. Centre segregation and porosity, in high quality blooms and billets, can cause inconsistent mechanical properties and potential failure of the final product. The DynaGap Soft Reduction® technology, which includes an online 3D thermal tracking system, Dynacs 3D, for the calculation of solid fraction, is already a must when speaking about high-quality billets and blooms. Additionally, introduction of DynaPhase model influences further improvement of thermal tracking, resulting superb quality of the cast product.

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26 June / 16:00 - Room 17:

Modernization of a secondary cooling system using a process model for quality improvement

R. Wilmes
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Modernization of a secondary cooling system using a process model for quality improvement


Author:
R. Wilmes

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Modernization of a secondary cooling system using a process model for quality improvement

Due to increasing product diversity and increasing cost pressure, the production of high quality slabs today requires ideal cooling of the strand. Crack-sensitive steels require a tightly controlled temperature guidance to prevent defects. Other, less crack-sensitive grades are cast with maximum casting performance to reach maximum production.

The process model X-Pact® Solid Control was developed to control the solidification process as well as to launch new grades.
Expensive trials at product launch of new grades are avoided by pre-simulation with X-Pact® Solid Control.

The process model allows the simulation of the solidification process, taking into account the chemical composition of the steel, the various process variables as well as the phase transformations and the formation of precipitates.
By means of variation of the simulation parameters existing cooling methods can be evaluated, improved and, if necessary, new cooling strategies can be developed.

The maximum production performance and quality is ensured by a model-based tem-perature control of the strand.
During operation, the system provides values that are not directly measurable but de-rived from the model, so-called soft sensors. These can be accessed via a data cloud and represents an important step towards Industry 4.0 / digitalization.

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26 June / 16:20 - Room 17:

Construction design optimization of the secondary cooling zone for continuous casting

M. Brezina
(Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic)

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Title: Construction design optimization of the secondary cooling zone for continuous casting


Author:
M. Brezina

Company:
Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In steel production we often encounter special steel grades having increased requirements in terms of the surface quality. The fulfillment of such quality requirements can be achieved by a suitable choice of cooling intensities in individual loops of the secondary cooling zone. This preserves a final product with a minimum number of defects. The developed 3D transient solidification model BrDSM is applicable to monitor and control the evolution of temperature distribution of the cast strand. The solidification model is coupled with the fuzzy-based regulator, which controls and adjusts cooling intensities in the secondary cooling zone to maintain surface temperatures of the strand in specified temperature intervals ensuring a low occurrence of defects and a good final quality. The aim of the paper is to investigate an optimum design of the secondary cooling zone, which allows for sufficiently smooth regulation, but with regard to a minimal cost of the zone (number of pumps, valves, electronics). Therefore, the objective is to optimally split a secondary cooling zone into proper number of cooling loops. The paper presents results for an optimal number of cooling loops for a case of dynamic process fluctuations with abrupt changes of the casting speed. Results demonstrate that the proposed coupled system is an efficient tool capable for the design optimization of the secondary cooling zone.

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26 June / 16:40 - Room 17:

CC plant concepts

L. Fischer
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: CC plant concepts


Author:
L. Fischer

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Managing the product mix – Sophisticated Continuous Casting Plant Concepts for very thick slabs
The production of thick and very thick slabs for special applications is becoming increasingly important in the narrowing steel market. In order to successfully fill the profitable market niches for special grades, steel plants need tailor-made plant concepts. Demanding steel grades for the oil industry, for bridge constructions or special application machinery can be manufactured on-target.
Based on the system configuration of the Vertical Bending System (VLB Vertical Liquid Bending), which is favored today for non-critical grades, the specific advantages of alternative concepts are highlighted. At the end of the 1980's, this concept was introduced to achieve a better distribution and reduction of non-metallic inclusions especially for thin rolled thicknesses.
An alternative is the bow-type caster, which is characterized by the elimination of bending stresses in the solid-liquid phase. In addition, this concept offers a system-related advantage of the surface temperature in the straightening range.
Without tensile or compressive stresses in the solid-liquid phase, the vertical plant (VSB Vertical Solid Bending) produces very thick slabs. After a completely vertical strand guidance, the solidified strand is brought to the horizontal by means of a bending straightener, before the torch cutting machine separates it into slabs. The low casting speed due to the casting thickness and limited strand guiding length, combined with the long vertical distance, results in exceptionally few non-metallic inclusions.
The step towards the casting of ultra-thin slabs up to 600 mm is marked by an updated version of the historically oldest concept, the pure vertical installation. Neither the liquid nor the solidified strands are bent or straightened. The slabs produced in this way shift the limits of what was previously possible.
The experience of recent years shows that the various continuous casting concepts do have advantages for the casting of thick and very thick slabs.

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26 June / 17:00 - Room 17:

Energy efficiency in secondary cooling - new generation of hydraulic nozzles with increased water turn down ratio and cooling efficiency for slab casting processes

R. Wolff
(Lechler GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Energy efficiency in secondary cooling - new generation of hydraulic nozzles with increased water turn down ratio and cooling efficiency for slab casting processes


Author:
R. Wolff

Company:
Lechler GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
R. Conte, A. Carboni, J. Frick

Abstract:
Modern slab casting machines utilize air-mist secondary cooling systems which provide dedicated cooling performance in terms of liquid distribution, cooling efficiency and cooling flexibility. The air-mist nozzles installed in such systems have been designed to overcome shortcomings of hydraulic nozzles decades ago. Until today these nozzles have been optimized to meet today’s secondary cooling system demands.

Lechler and Danieli are now cooperating in the development of an innovative and purely hydraulic operated secondary cooling technology. The nozzle types provide improved cooling performance whilst maintaining dedicated liquid distribution on the strand surface. The hydraulic solution requires no compressed air for spray atomization. The new Hydro Spray technology is the result of this cooperation.

The Hydro Spray represents a quantum leap in secondary cooling technology. The removal of compressed air required for air – mist nozzles leads to a significant energy saving, together with CO2 emission reduction and lower OPEX. Moreover, the on board and interconnecting piping are simplified, giving two advantages: the spray width control is enhanced through a finer resolution and the installation time and costs are cut. The Hydro Spray technology package, operated by Q – Cool closed loop control system, offers the opportunity to achieve outstanding performances in secondary cooling through a high resolution temperature control.

Extensive testing of the spray characteristics in terms of spray appearance, liquid distribution, impact pressure, pressure-flow rate and cooling efficiency has been conducted and compared with existing state of the art air-mist nozzle solutions. The Hydro Spray has shown better performances compared to state-of-the-art air-mist secondary cooling systems, offering the opportunity to steel makers to take advantage of a breakthrough technology which also contributes to energy efficiency and cost savings.

Electric steelmaking: Energy efficiency and energy recovery, Ladle metallurgy (26 June / 15:20 - Room 21)

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 21:

Reduction of liquid EAF slag - a milestone to NoWASTE electric steel melting

H. Schliephake
(Georgsmarienhütte GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Reduction of liquid EAF slag - a milestone to NoWASTE electric steel melting


Author:
H. Schliephake

Company:
Georgsmarienhütte GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Zehn, H. Rauen, R. Deike, D. Algermissen

Abstract:
With a crude steel production of nearly one million tons Georgsmarienhütte ranks among the bigger electric steel plants in Germany and is the first mover regarding energy management, environmental protection and slag utilization. Since many years the company has participated in various public and internal research projects relating to in-plant ways of recycling for by-products to close the recovered material cycle entirely and to create products with a higher intrinsic value from the slag.
This comprises the provision of evidence for recovery of hot metal from EAF slag by partial reduction. In this regard, the production of a high-quality mineral material which meets the upcoming regulations in Germany must be mentioned, with simultaneous consideration of the quality of the recovered metal, e. g. low in phosphorous, for further valuable use in the industry.
For this project, several tests in laboratory and in operational scale were performed by injecting a reducing-agent-mixture in liquid EAF slag. By thermochemical calculations, the optimum mixture of reducing and conditioning agents was found. The leaching of heavy metals was decreased significantly and a partly reduced slag with a good environmental and technical properties was produced. Also, the phosphorous content in the recovered metal, due to the reduction process, was suitable to bring this valuable metal to other industries. By implementing this procedure in operational practice, Georgsmarienhütte can close another recovered material cycle.
This project belongs to the ongoing activities of Georgsmarienhütte GmbH to reconcile the economic and ecological challenges at the location Germany and underline our intention to be the first electric steel plant in Europe which has managed to implement the internal NoWASTE Strategy by comprehensive research and development activities.

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26 June / 15:40 - Room 21:

First results of Q-ONE, innovative technology applied in the electric energy transfer to Electric Arc Furnace.

E. Plazzogna
(Danieli Automation S.p.A., Italy)

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Close26 June, Room 21 ( 15:40 )
Title: First results of Q-ONE, innovative technology applied in the electric energy transfer to Electric Arc Furnace.


Author:
E. Plazzogna

Company:
Danieli Automation S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
M. Bianco

Abstract:
QONE is a completely new approach in terms of electric energy supply to the EAF. Danieli Automation has completely redesigned the electric supply circuit: no more SVC, furnace transformer and MV series reactor, but a new solution that controls the voltage and current that reaches the EAF electrodes.
With the same apparent power, there is an increase in the corresponding active power, and power transfer is much more stable, with a reduction in tap-to-tap time, electric energy and electrode consumption.
Considering the results that were obtained, the article describes this breakthrough solution and summarizes the achievements and future developments of this innovative technology.

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26 June / 16:00 - Room 21:

Consteerrer™ Technology: Getting the most out of the electric steelmaking process

P. Stagnoli
(Tenova S.p.A., Italy)

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Title: Consteerrer™ Technology: Getting the most out of the electric steelmaking process


Author:
P. Stagnoli

Company:
Tenova S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
A. Grasselli

Abstract:
CONSTEERRER™ TECHNOLOGY: GETTING THE MOST OUT OF THE ELECTRIC STEELMAKING PROCESS

A. Grasselli, S. Reali (Tenova S.p.A.), J. Andersson, A.F. Lehman, L. Teng (ABB)

Taking into account their great history and experience in plant engineering, TENOVA and ABB have become partners creating an innovative technology to further enhance the efficiency of Consteel® furnaces. Thanks to a mutual technological effort and close collaboration, TENOVA and ABB have jointly developed CONSTEERRER™ with the aim of making liquid steel faster, in a safer manner and at lower cost. The CONSTEERRER™ technology is a new and original concept specifically designed for the Consteel® furnace. Integration of electromagnetic stirring within the EAF continuous charging process allows for control of the velocity given to the mass of the liquid steel (momentum), introducing a new parameter for more effective management of the melting process and overall performance improvement. The present study, complete with water modelling and fluid dynamic simulations, demonstrates the benefits of the CONSTEERER™ technology on the operation of the Consteel® EAF. Control is fully automated and relevant to the various EAF process steps such as scrap melting, heating and homogenization, de-carburization, deslagging and tapping. The flexibility given by the CONSTEERRER™ technology matches with any steelmaking scenario. Operation is characterized by low cost, consistent and reliable practice and high repeatability of results in the context of improved safety conditions.

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26 June / 16:20 - Room 21:

Mixing, ladle eye and shear stresses with a dual plug configuration using identical and non-identical bottom gas injection conditions in ladles

A. Conejo
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Close26 June, Room 21 ( 16:20 )
Title: Mixing, ladle eye and shear stresses with a dual plug configuration using identical and non-identical bottom gas injection conditions in ladles


Author:
A. Conejo

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Mixing phenomena in argon stirred, dual plug fitted ladles have been studied through water and mathematical modeling. Mixing time in the model ladle system has been experimentally investigated by tracer dispersion method and two optimum gas injection configurations, depending on the gas flow rate, with identical as well as non-identical nozzle radial positions, were identified. Experiments were conducted with and without a top slag layer. The effect on mixing time and ladle eye using identical and non-identical gas flow rate with the two optimum nozzle radial positions was also investigated. Parallel to such, a RANS based turbulent three dimensional, coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (VOF-DPM) multiphase flow model has been developed to compute shear stresses on the wall.

It has been found that the best arrangement of porous plugs with respect to mixing time, ladle eye and shear stresses, changes depending on the gas flow rate and also changes depending on the performance parameter of interest.

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26 June / 16:40 - Room 21:

Quantum goes brownfield: How to integrate shaft furnace in existing plants

H. Beile
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Quantum goes brownfield: How to integrate shaft furnace in existing plants


Author:
H. Beile

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Apfel

Abstract:
Since several months, the worldwide scrap availability is getting better and better. The prices for electrical energy are rising thus the efficiency of electric arc furnaces is getting more important.
Possible upgrades to pre heating furnaces very often are limited due to scrap yard and meltshop logistics, meltshop heights above the EAF area, and crane heights as well as lifting capacities.
The biggest challenge of a brownfield integration of shaft furnace technologies is to reduce the shaft height without losing the efficiency of the scrap pre heating. Existing meltshop bay as well as crane heights usually limit the possibilities for shaft furnace integrations. Furthermore, the scrap logistics and the shorter tap to tap times have to be considered.
This paper will outline the available technical solutions, offered by PT, and will show the benefits in terms of OPEX and productivity increase by using latest shaft furnace technologies with minor changes to the existing meltshop.

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26 June / 17:00 - Room 21:

Research on inclusion control in high grade gear steel

Z. Chen
(Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., China)

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Title: Research on inclusion control in high grade gear steel


Author:
Z. Chen

Company:
Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:
G. Yang, X. Liu

Abstract:
Ds inclusions have great influence on the fatigue life of case hardening gear steel, high grade case hardening gear steel for Japanese cars is used to limit calcium treatment during steelmaking process. Non-calcium treated case hardening gear steel contain mainly high-melting inclusions, which can easily clog the nozzles during continuous casting, resulting in a low number of continuous casting heats and large B-type inclusions in the finished products. On the basis of thermodynamic calculation and study on the evolution of inclusions in steelmaking process, through optimization of alloy types and addition methods, refining slag composition, VD vacuum treatment and protective casting, the number of continuous casting heats is increased from 2 to 6, and the rating of B-type inclusions in the finished products is reduced from the original ≥3.0 to 0.5.

Casting: Remelting (26 June / 16:00 - Room 16)

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26 June / 16:00 - Room 16:

Transient simulation of the vacuum arc remelting process

M. Eickhoff
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 16 ( 16:00 )
Title: Transient simulation of the vacuum arc remelting process


Author:
M. Eickhoff

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The vacuum arc remelting process is used to improve both cleanliness and a controlled grain structure for high potential metals like Nickel based superalloys. A self-consuming electrode is continuously molten by electric arcs sparkling between electrode tip and metal pool. The liquid droplets fall from the electrode to the metal pool and resolidify because of the water-cooled copper mold.
The numerical simulation is done with ANSYS Fluent in combination with user-defined functions and coupling with ANSYS APDL. ANSYS Fluent models the flow field and temperature distribution in the ingot. The user-defined functions offer the possibility to model different heat transfer mechanisms in detail. The current density and Lorentz forces are calculated with ANSYS APDL and implemented as source terms.

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26 June / 16:20 - Room 16:

The-state-of-the-art of electroslag remelting technology

Z. Jiang
(Northeastern University, China)

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Close26 June, Room 16 ( 16:20 )
Title: The-state-of-the-art of electroslag remelting technology


Author:
Z. Jiang

Company:
Northeastern University, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The electroslag remelting (ESR) technology is one of the most important methods to produce the high-quality special steels and alloys nowadays. The history of electroslag remelting(ESR) technology in China since 1958 was briefly reviewed in this paper. The new ESR technologies developed by a special metallurgy research group of Northeastern University in the last decade with the cooperation of several Chinese Special Steel Companies were mainly introduced including electroslag continuous casting(ESCC), ESR of heavy slab ingot, ESR of hollow ingots, ESR furnace with controlled atmosphere, 100t extra large electroslag remelting furnace with three phases, electroslag remelting process for bimetallic rolls and the pre-melt ESR slag with low permeability, low fluoride, high resistance. The ESR products have been manufactured by above new technologies including 40-53t slab ingots for extra thick plates of hydropower station, 70-100t 316L ingots for main pipes of AP1000 nuclear power station, bearing steels for wind power generation, heat resistance steel for thermopower stations, die steels for automobile industry, superalloys for nuclear power station, high nitrogen stainless steels for retaining ring of power generation and so on.

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26 June / 16:40 - Room 16:

The Effect of Interdendritic Segregation on Hot Ductility Behavior of Medium Carbon Steels

J. Jeong
(Pohang University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)

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Close26 June, Room 16 ( 16:40 )
Title: The Effect of Interdendritic Segregation on Hot Ductility Behavior of Medium Carbon Steels


Author:
J. Jeong

Company:
Pohang University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:
C. Yim, D. Kim, M. Kang, J. Lee, Y. Heo, S. Kwon, B. Kim

Abstract:
Recently, as the strength of the steel increases, the kinds and amounts of the additive elements also gradually increase. As a result, segregation of elements and precipitates are likely to form in the cast steel at high temperatures during the continuous casting process. These segregation elements and precipitates act as factors that deteriorate the high temperature properties of the steel. Despite the development of a refining process to control these elements, small amounts of segregation elements remain in the cast steel. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effect of segregation elements such as P and S on the steel, and the high-temperature properties considering micro-segregation during solidification should be clearly evaluated in order to control the surface quality of the cast steel effectively.
In this study, the re-melting tensile test was established to evaluate the high temperature properties of cast steel considering the effects of micro-segregation during solidification. Two medium carbon steels with different amounts of segregation elements were used for the tensile tests, and the high temperature properties were evaluated using both the re-heating and the re-melt tensile test. The specimen was melted by heating and holding at 1,570°C above the liquidus temperature for re-melting tensile test. In the case of the reheating tensile test, the solution treatment was performed at 1,400°C. High-temperature properties of re-heating and re-melting were similarly measured for low-content segregation elements such as P and S. However, there is a significant difference between the two measurement methods at specific temperature in the steel with relatively high P and S contents. To clarify the mechanism of high temperature properties in both conditions according to two steels, behavior of microstructure and micro-segregation was investigated by using optical microscopy(OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and electron probe X-ray micro-analyzer (EPMA) etc.

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26 June / 17:00 - Room 16:

New generation of the ESR (Electro Slag Remelting) furnace

C. Demirci
(SMS Mevac GmbH, Germany)

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Title: New generation of the ESR (Electro Slag Remelting) furnace


Author:
C. Demirci

Company:
SMS Mevac GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
R. El-Rabati, C. Wissen, J. Schlüter, B. Friedrich, M. Schwenk

Abstract:
Electroslag remelting involves the gradual and controlled melting of the lower end of a self-consuming ingot through a layer of molten slag. As the process continues, a purified ingot is built up in a water cooled mold. Being electrically conductive, the molten slag acts as a resistance heating element when high current is passed between the electrode and the mold. Remelting takes place under inert gas (Ar, N2).
The refining mechanism and crystallization accuracy during the ESR process are dependant on; filling ratio, slag compositions, grade of the electrode respectively ingot, cooling rate of the crucible, thickness of the slag skin and finally the number of the droplets from the front face of the electrode.
The above are closely connected with the design of the ESR furnaces. SMS Mevac redesigned an ESR furnace at the IME Institute for Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University. This redesign included new developed rotating equipment including the development of a new device to transfer current from a static shaft onto a rotating electrode rod.
The focus of this paper is the investigation of a rotating electrode during the ESR process; the effect of smaller droplets due to a greater horizontal centrifugal force, a thinner molten metal pool for better crystallization accuracy, cleanliness and higher productivity.

Casting: Control of solidification structures and management of defects I (27 June / 09:00 - Room 14)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 14:

DynaJet Flex secondary cooling for reduced corner cracks

P. Pennerstorfer
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: DynaJet Flex secondary cooling for reduced corner cracks


Author:
P. Pennerstorfer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
J. Park, S. Lim, A. Mittermair

Abstract:
In May 2018, the newly introduced DynaJet Flex spray cooling system from Primetals Technologies has been started up at the two-strand continuous slab casting machine CC2 in the Dangjin, Korea plant of Hyundai Steel. This is the first industrial application of DynaJet Flex technology. DynaJet Flex allows for pulse width modulated cooling, thus enabling highest discretization of cooling zones in width direction and widening the operation window with higher turn down ratios compared to cooling systems currently in use. This minimizes the appearance of corner cracks especially for advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) and consequently scarfing losses are reduced. In addition air consumption for secondary cooling is reduced compared to conventional air mist systems. This paper described the DynaJet Flex system itself, the installation at Hyundai steel and the operational results achieved.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 14:

Experimental study of the effect of mechanical vibration on steel ingot solidification

D. Senk
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Experimental study of the effect of mechanical vibration on steel ingot solidification


Author:
D. Senk

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The present study focuses on 100 kg slim steel ingot solidification with the grain refinement method of mechanical vibration. The effects of mechanical vibration on the solidification structure of 100Cr6 bearing steel ingot and Fe-22Mn-0.6C TWIP steel ingot were investigated using steel mold with and without vibration excitement. The experimental results were analyzed from the aspects of macro, and microstructures by means of sulfur print, hot etching, and metallography. It was found that by applying mechanical vibration to the solidifying steel, an increase of equiaxed grains proportion was detected. Meanwhile, the grain morphology was also changed from the equiaxed dendrite to globular grain when mechanical vibration has been applied. Moreover, the macro-segregation degree of the ingot, characterized by the Optical Emission Spectrometry (OES), was also reduced with the imposition of mechanical vibration during solidification. The results of trials with slim mold with H/D=6.2 (H: Ingot height, D: ingot diameter) are compared to those with H/D=1.1 proposed by the same method.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 14:

Effect of cooling strategy on hot ductility of micro-alloyed steels during continuous casting

H. Ibrahim
(Clausthal University of Technology, Germany)

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Title: Effect of cooling strategy on hot ductility of micro-alloyed steels during continuous casting


Author:
H. Ibrahim

Company:
Clausthal University of Technology, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Palkowski

Abstract:
Different grades of steel slabs are subjected to cracking, taking place in the casting shop or even on the route to hot rolling. One of the causes is the low ductility during straightening at a temperature range between 700 °C – 1100 °C which might lead to surface cracking. This effect is believed to be due to the presence of titanium and niobium precipitates at higher temperature ranges and a low percentage of formed ferrite during unbending at lower temperatures.
Hot tensile testing of two steel grades (Grade A: 0.08% C and 0.001% Ti and Grade B: 0.08% C, 0.12% Ti and 0.05 Nb) was performed at different temperatures using DIL805T thermo-mechanical simulator to evaluate the hot ductility, study the regions of ductility trough and the parameters affecting crack sensitivity. The effect of thermal cycle and deformation during straightening on the precipitates were investigated by means of LOM, SEM and EDX analysis. Modelling of the solidification process by Scheil–Gulliver approach was simulated using the MatCalc software to study the primary precipitation. It could be shown that reducing the casting speed and straightening at lower temperatures are detrimental to hot ductility.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 14:

Numerical and experimental investigation of electromagnetic stirring for control of columnar-to-equiaxed transition

H. Cho
(POSCO Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)

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Title: Numerical and experimental investigation of electromagnetic stirring for control of columnar-to-equiaxed transition


Author:
H. Cho

Company:
POSCO Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The magnetohydrodynamics with Electro-Magnetic Stirring(EMS) plays an important role in a continuous casting process of steel manufacturing field for producing cast slabs using refined molten steel. During continuous casting of ferritic stainless steel, the quality of final products is determined by as-cast slab microstructures divided into columnar crystals and equiaxed crystals. Increasing the ratio of equiaxed crystals is effective in terms of quality of products since the ridging defects on the coil surface are generated by columnar crystals after rolling. To increase the ratio of equiaxed crystals, it is necessary to stir the liquid molten steel in the slab through the EMS.
In the present study, not only the flow pattern of the liquid steel in the slab was understood according to the number of EMS and operating conditions but also EMS conditions enabling maximum equiaxed crystal ratio were derived. When the only one EMS unit is activated, a single loop is formed with simple and strong flow at the center position of EMS. However, the various cases of stirring loops are formed according to the operating conditions, while the two units of EMS are operated. As a result, it was confirmed that the optimized agitating force could be generated when 88% of current of lower EMS than the current of upper EMS was applied and the two stirring directions were opposite to each other. When the optimum EMS operating condition was applied, the equiaxed crystal ratio was enhanced 1.3 times. Furthermore, the criteria of average velocity on the liquid steel of slab was investigated as 0.02~0.06 m/sec in order to produce the equiaxed crystals. The numerical simulation results are in very good agreement with the actual casting results.

Electric steelmaking: Process control, automation and modelling I (27 June / 09:00 - Room 15)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 15:

AMI SmartFurnace Off Gas Analysis for EAF optimization

F. Martinez
(AMI Automation, Mexico)

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Title: AMI SmartFurnace Off Gas Analysis for EAF optimization


Author:
F. Martinez

Company:
AMI Automation, Mexico

Co-Authors:
G. Fernandez

Abstract:
The use of AMI SmartFurnace optimization modules in Electric Arc Furnaces and the developments in the optimization of the Oxygen, Natural Gas and Carbon Injection have been continuously improving the steelmaking process in EAFs around the world. One major milestone has been to close the control loop of chemical energy control with the introduction of a Laser Off Gas Analyzer, measuring the CO, CO2, H2O and Temperature of the off gas. The measurements taken by the instrumentation are used by the SmartFurnace Off Gas and Oxygen Module to calculate the optimal setpoints of the EAF burners and lances. The chemical energy modules are complemented dynamic process models and algorithms for electrical energy providing an integral furnace control. The latest implementations of this technology in plants with a wide range of raw materials, EAF mechanical characteristics and production needs are described in this paper, and the achieved results are shown.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 15:

Multivariate statistical analysis of the scrap composition in electric steelmaking

M. Rojas Sánchez
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Multivariate statistical analysis of the scrap composition in electric steelmaking


Author:
M. Rojas Sánchez

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract

Steel scrap is an important feedstock in the production of steel. Different types are used in different proportions to achieve the desired physical and chemical properties of the finished product in consideration of the customer requirements. Huge quantities of measured data are produced during steel production, which can be used to describe each scrap type: size, density, chemical composition, cleanliness, and many more unique features. For this reason, data analysis is the key to detect and understand the important factors that significantly affect the melting process.

In this research work, the objective was to build a multivariate model using principal component analysis for understanding the effect of the input recycling material, scrap, in the melting process. The multivariate statistical method used for this study is the principal components analysis (PCA) because it is an exploratory statistical technique and can be used to predict or to estimate values. The PCA is frequently applied where datasets may be large and difficult to interpret, and where complex inter-relationships between variables are unclear to identify and visualise. The database consist of the composition of the chemical input and the variables that are taking part in the process.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 15:

Tenova Imeltshop: the Integrated process manager for the coordination of the whole melt shops production line

D. Masoero
(Tenova S.p.A., Italy)

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Title: Tenova Imeltshop: the Integrated process manager for the coordination of the whole melt shops production line


Author:
D. Masoero

Company:
Tenova S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
A. Grasselli

Abstract:
TENOVA iMELTSHOP: THE INTEGRATED PROCESS MANAGER FOR THE COORDINATION OF THE WHOLE MELT SHOPS PRODUCTION LINE

A. Grasselli, R. Girelli, M. Longobardo – Tenova SpA, Via Gerenzano, 58 – 21053 Castellanza (Italy)
U.De Miranda, N.Gaudenzi, M. Zanforlin – Ori Martin SpA, Via C.Canovetti, 13 – 25128 Brescia (Italy)

In the present market situation, in order to meet the challenging demand of an ever increasing operating efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility, ORI Martin and Tenova collaborate for the optimization of the production line as a whole to obtain a careful management of quality, productivity and costs.
Tenova iMeltShop is the integrated process route manager that acts between the Process Control Systems of the single equipment (Levels 2) and the Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES, ERP, etc.). It’s a real-time monitoring and dynamic control of the entire steel production flow with the aim of maximizing the availability of the production line and improving the overall performance.
To obtain the desired results according to all the specific requirements, the modular structure of the iMeltShop counts on the most advanced solutions for the process control supported by the integration of innovative sensors and actuators fully compliant with the concept of indstry 4.0.
The coordination granted by Tenova iMeltShop enhances the continual improvement of ORI Martin’s production process and propote the development of a new concept of smart factory in the steel industry.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 15:

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of capture efficiency of secondary off-gas in an electric arc furnace (EAF) shop

A. Senguttuvan
(Dastur Innovation Labs, India)

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Title: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of capture efficiency of secondary off-gas in an electric arc furnace (EAF) shop


Author:
A. Senguttuvan

Company:
Dastur Innovation Labs, India

Co-Authors:
S. Chatterjee

Abstract:
On account of the strict environmental regulations, Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) shops are constantly under pressure to efficiently capture their dust and off gases. Secondary emissions constitute the fumes and dusts emitted during charging and the fugitive emissions that escape through the electrode ports and other furnace openings during melting and refining operations. These emissions are sucked out of the working area through a canopy hood. The efficient capture of these emissions is not simple, due to their unsteady generation rate and interference of cross-drafts in the shop and therefore requires flow analysis. In the present work, computation fluid dynamic simulations of the fugitive emissions were carried out to visualize their flow pattern and assess their capture efficiency. Considering a typical EAF shop layout and by the varying suction rates, performance of a conventional hood and a deep storage hood designs are compared. The analysis is further extended to an enhanced design and is shown to be significantly energy-efficient.

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 15:

Improving tap hole and ladle free opening rate through customized grain size distribution and chemistry

E. Ruisanchez
(Pasek Minerales S.A., Spain)

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Title: Improving tap hole and ladle free opening rate through customized grain size distribution and chemistry


Author:
E. Ruisanchez

Company:
Pasek Minerales S.A., Spain

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Dunite Pasek Minerales (PM) is an ultramaphic rock exploited in the north of Spain with a basic chemical classification being olivine and serpentine its principal minerals. This mineral composition allows its application as ‘Eccentric Bottom Tap hole’ (EBT) sand in electric arc furnaces for steelmaking.
The main objective of this report is investigate the excellent behavior of Dunite PM as EBT sand during the tap to tap, from the theoretically point of view, through a numerical simulation program in APDL, and experimentally, by a special test developed with a tap hole at 1:3 scale. That allowed to distribute the product in 28 countries and use the knowledge to developer a ladle sand product line which lab simulation will be presented.

Casting: Metallurgy and flow control in the tundish (27 June / 09:00 - Room 16)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 16:

Overcoming thermofluid challenges in purging air from a preheated continuous casting tundish using argon

T. Plikas
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Overcoming thermofluid challenges in purging air from a preheated continuous casting tundish using argon


Author:
T. Plikas

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
J. Woloshyn, D. Mysko, M. Del Gobbo, S. Kumar, G. Koenig

Abstract:
Creating an oxygen deficient atmosphere using argon gas purging for reducing reoxidation of liquid steel and undesirable solid inclusions during tundish filling operations is effective for improving slab quality. This has a significant impact on enhancing the overall yield (improved quality of 1st and 2nd slab cast in a tundish). Challenges arise with argon gas purging of tundishes due to strong buoyancy forces induced by the preheated tundish surfaces (>1000°C). This effect draws cold, surrounding air into the tundish from one end, and expels the heated gases from the other end. This naturally driven flow pattern can overwhelm the forced flow of argon making it difficult to achieve the desired low oxygen level in the tundish.

This paper presents a case study where Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling was used as a design tool to develop a concept for injecting strategically cold argon gas whilst minimizing the ingress of cold air so that the desired oxygen level can be achieved prior to pouring of metal in an empty preheated tundish. The study investigated the use of argon "air curtains”, argon injection through the preheater, variable argon flows, and the covering of tundish openings to determine the most effective and efficient method to achieve the purging requirements.

The solution adopted involved covering the openings on one side of the tundish and injecting argon gas downward, which creates a forced flow of argon through the tundish sufficient to overcome the buoyancy effects. Cold air ingress into the tundish is greatly minimized and the tundish is purged relatively quickly (<30s). This short time requirement affords the opportunity to initiate purging once the tundish is moved to its final casting position with specially designed covers that can be placed over the openings once the tundish reaches the casting platform.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 16:

The effect of Zr on the internal oxidation behavior of Al-containing high Mn steels

D. Lee
(Pohang University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)

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Title: The effect of Zr on the internal oxidation behavior of Al-containing high Mn steels


Author:
D. Lee

Company:
Pohang University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:
C. Yim, M. Kang, W. Cho, J. Lee, Y. Heo

Abstract:
Al-containing high Mn steel forms a relatively deep internal oxide layer, which may cause surface defects during hot-rolling. In this study, the effect of Zr on the temperature-dependent internal oxidation behaviors are investigated in Al-containing high Mn steels. Two Al-containing high Mn steels with and without Zr addition were prepared by vacuum induction melting. The specimens were cut and polished from the surface of the ingot, and then oxidized at a high temperature of 1000 ~ 1200℃ for 30 minutes. The cross sections of the oxidized specimens were analyzed by EPMA, EDS, and TEM. The depth of internal oxidation increased as the oxidation temperature increased. Zr-containing steel shows relatively lower internal oxidation depth. The role of ZrN on heterogeneous nucleation of AlN is identified with EDS mapping. Low internal oxidation depth in Zr-containing steel is understood to the Al scavenging effect in the matrix by active AlN precipitation

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 16:

Numerical modelling of liquid steel alloying by pulse-step method in two strand slab tundish

A. Cwudzinski
(Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland)

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Title: Numerical modelling of liquid steel alloying by pulse-step method in two strand slab tundish


Author:
A. Cwudzinski

Company:
Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Developing a technology for introducing alloy addition to steel also during the course of continuous casting process seems to be an interesting approach to enhancing the steelmaking process. Especially as the effective introduction of micro-additives or non-metallic inclusion modifiers to the liquid steel is the key to the production of the highest-quality steel. In the tundish, the chemical homogenisation process is influenced by the feed stream flowing out from the steelmaking ladle, which can be controlled through the selection of tundish flow control devices. This paper presents the results of investigation describing the process of liquid steel chemical homogenisation in the two strand slab tundish. The alloys was fed to liquid steel by pulse-step method. Computer simulations of liquid steel flow and alloy addition behaviour were performed using the commercial program Ansys-Fluent with species model. Two tundish variants with different flow control devices were considered. Additionally computer simulations for different alloy feeding locations and type of alloys were performed. The obtained fields of liquid steel flow and alloy addition distribution and the mixing curves in time constitute a source of information about the dynamics and complexity of the steel alloying process during continuous casting of slabs. For all simulations cases the mixing time was calculated.

Casting: Automation, computer simulations and modelling I (27 June / 09:00 - Room 17)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 17:

Model to reduce bleeding breakout at thin slab caster

A. Kumar
(Tata Steel Ltd., India)

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Title: Model to reduce bleeding breakout at thin slab caster


Author:
A. Kumar

Company:
Tata Steel Ltd., India

Co-Authors:
H. Shah

Abstract:
Method for detection of bleed in continuous casting of thin slabs of steel
Alok Kumar*, Md B Arif, Anil Pujari, Ashutosh Kumar, Ravi Ranjan, Ashutosh Panda
Tata Steel, Jamshedpur

One of the major problem that plagues continuous casting is leakage of liquid steel from the solidified shell. The solidified shell may crack or break due to various factors. Liquid steel which breaks out may damage mold assembly and one or more of the secondary cooling segments and nozzles. Such an event is called a breakout. Breakouts are a major contributor to loss of productivity and adverse equipment life for a continuous caster and must be avoided. To prevent breakout occurrence, it is required to detect leakage in the solidified shell and consequently reduce the strand withdrawal speed to allow healing of solidified shell.

Various embodiments of the present invention take a supplementary approach to prior art improving upon their limitations. This invention is a real-time system for detection of bleeding of liquid steel from the solidified shell. This system is a part of multiple system strategy for breakout control and operates independently of a sticker detection system. While using a statistical anomaly detection based algorithm, the system is designed to spot a bleed and initiate remedial action.
Detailed description of the invention
The present invention comprises following aspects arising in case of on-line implementation:
a) Pre-processing of input data
b) Design and implementation of detection algorithm and alarm logic
c) Implementation of remedial action

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 17:

Smart Maintenance - the digital continuous casting mould

O. Wiens
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Smart Maintenance - the digital continuous casting mould


Author:
O. Wiens

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Precisely coordinated plant components are essential owing to the increasing demand for continuous casters that can be utilized flexibly in respect of casting speed, product variety, product widths and thicknesses, improvement of steel and slab quality, longer and trouble-free casting times, minimized production and maintenance costs, and energy savings.
In the continuous casting technology, one of the numerous main criteria is the primary solidification which takes place in the mold. The copper plates, which act as heat exchangers, must on the one hand ensure homogeneous and targeted solidification and on the other hand live up to the high production requirements.
To ensure this, a pocket size battery powered sensor attached on each copper mould integrates artificial intelligence and sends automatically information like:
• ID number and manufacturing date,
• exact degree of wear: thickness of copper,
• number of operations: lifetime cycles and costs,
• number of estimated operations, spares on stock and ordering advice,to users.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 17:

One step further in no man casting using advanced robot technology in a semi collaborative environment

M. Stiftinger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: One step further in no man casting using advanced robot technology in a semi collaborative environment


Author:
M. Stiftinger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
M. Hirth, G. Gerstorfer

Abstract:
For many years steel makers have been increasing efforts to support human operators and increase safety. Manipulators are standard equipment in most plants nowadays. These manipulators are typically designed for a specific task and operated semi automatically. Therefore, whilst these operations are state of the art they still do not allow operators to remain completely out of the hazardous area.
Using the newest robot technology in combination with state of the art machine vision devices of Primetals Technologies, it is possible to eliminate the disadvantages of the manipulators and establish a full integration of this technology into the steelmaking and the continuous casting process.

Robot technology in the steelmaking area
There is an advantage in using standard 6 axes industrial robots. Robot systems can perform tasks fully automatically and the robotic movements can be easily reconfigured to suit different process requirements. An obvious example for a fully automated robot in steelmaking is probe attachment, measurement, probe disposal and tool check.
Robot technology on the continuous caster
Besides the standard tasks of sampling and all variants of measurements in the tundish, with the combined technology package of Primetals Technologies it is possible to fully automate the ladle exchange process not only on the LOP but also in the ladle preparation area. This means one robot takes care of connecting media to the ladle and attaching the ladle gate cylinder and a second robot connects the shroud before the ladle is opened.
In this paper Primetals Technologies will share their experience with different applications in various areas of steel melt shops and continuous casters. Achieved performance targets for a fully automated solution for horizontal measurements at a tilted converter vessel as well as fully automated (without endangering workman) casting applications will be presented.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 17:

Autonomous Engineering to improve Ingot Quality

S. Koldorf
(MAGMA Gießereitechnologie GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Autonomous Engineering to improve Ingot Quality


Author:
S. Koldorf

Company:
MAGMA Gießereitechnologie GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Autonomous Engineering to improve Ingot Quality

Authors: I. Hahn, E. Hepp, J. Fainberg,
MAGMA Giessereitechnologie GmbH, Aachen, Germany

Ingot casting production concentrates on special alloys and on product dimensions and specifications for which this type of process is advantageous. Although typical quality issues are to some extent accepted, it is absolutely clear that the quality demands from the market are strongly increasing.

The quality of cast ingots is influenced by various defects, for example segregation, shrinkage or cleanliness issues. Ideally, the ingot and process layout are suited to prevent serious defects in the product and to keep the quality constant even with respect to inevitable variations in production conditions – like varying melt chemistry, pouring conditions, quality of insulation materials as well as many others.

Casting process simulation is a well-accepted tool to team, solidify and cool an ingot virtually inside the computer, to lay out the casting process before melting or pouring any steel. Beside the simulation of filling and solidification of the ingot, many further aspects such as ingot macrostructure, inclusions and different segregation phenomena can be considered.

By fully integrating virtual ingot casting with algorithms for Designs of Experiments and genetic optimization, a new methodology for evaluating ingot production under both quality and cost/productivity perspectives called autonomous engineering becomes available. In particular, the possibilities of autonomous engineering can be used to clearly identify the most relevant process parameters for ingot quality, evaluate the sensitivity of the quality to varying process conditions and set-up a robust cost-effective process ensuring a high quality product, balancing the often conflicting requirements on quality and productivity.

This paper uses concrete examples to illustrate how the autonomous engineering approach is used to lay out an optimal casting process which is also robust to the inevitable variations in process parameters which occur in practice.

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 17:

Sticker detection based on convolutional neural networks during continuous casting

D. Lieftucht
(SMS digital GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Sticker detection based on convolutional neural networks during continuous casting


Author:
D. Lieftucht

Company:
SMS digital GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Breakout is the most expensive and dangerous issue of continuous casting, which causes loss of production time and significant yield penalties. The common cause of breakout is sticker that is a part of strand shell, which adheres to a mold surface. Stickers can be detected by a temperature pattern in a mold heat-map. SMS group develops HD mold, a cyber-physical system for sticker detection by monitoring and analysis of the temperature data from the fiber optical sensors during casting. Currently, HD mold exploits an analytical sticker detection algorithm that gives a large number of false alarms. This leads to significant loss time and quality overheads. We utilize deep learning and design Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that recognizes sticker pattern and can be employed as a full-fledged substitute or an assistant of the current algorithm. Experiments show that being an assistant, CNN reduces the number of false alarms of the current algorithm by 47%. Our CNN can be used for any caster after fast additional training on small data set from new caster.

Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking IV (27 June / 09:00 - Room 20)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 20:

Vision of an automated steel plant - use case: Ladle tracking and handling

J. Thomasberger
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 20 ( 09:00 )
Title: Vision of an automated steel plant - use case: Ladle tracking and handling


Author:
J. Thomasberger

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Vision of an automated steel plant – use case: Ladle tracking and handling

The central logistics in a steel plant revolves around the subject “material transport”. This includes the hot metal ladle and the steel ladle transport. The present paper deals with the increase in the automation level around ladle transport from automatic scheduling, automatic maintenance planning up to automatic crane transport and its legal requirements. A first approach is outlined that pursues the goal of a “fully automated steel mill” focused on steel ladles.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 20:

Maximizing profitability of an ISP through upstream operations optimization through data analytics

A. Maity
(Dastur Innovation Labs, India)

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Close27 June, Room 20 ( 09:20 )
Title: Maximizing profitability of an ISP through upstream operations optimization through data analytics


Author:
A. Maity

Company:
Dastur Innovation Labs, India

Co-Authors:
S. Ghosh, S. Chatterjee, A. Sarkar, A. Mukherjee

Abstract:
Optimization of front end operations results in higher productivity and reduced operating cost. End point control is an effective way for reducing the consumables, improving metallic yield, increasing the final product quality and thus help maximizing prime production. While effective hot metal logistics ensures smooth flow of operations in steel melting units, highest possible operational efficiency achieved by a plant directly depends on the capability of melt shop to produce prime quality of slabs at a cost structure comparable to other global players of similar capacity and process routes. Consistent tapping temp, end point chemistry control and reduced operational variance promote longer sequences and superior yield. Our current approach addresses the system-wide bottleneck removal such that temperature control, yield improvement, consumable reduction are achieved to reduce the conversion cost of liquid steel and minimize delays and idle times coupled with cycle time variations to gain more production volume. This paper presents how we have improved the productivity of an integrated flat steel mill by benchmarking with comparable metrics, using data analysis and performing operational simulations to help identify the bottlenecks causing capacity loss. Various options to improve operations were analyzed, followed by recommendation of improvement mechanisms for cost reduction and profitability. The schemes, if implemented, have a potential of 7.5% increase in melt-shop throughput, ensuring significant savings in terms of opportunity cost of around 30 million USD/yr and an effective 15 USD/ton decrease in conversion cost by yield improvement and gainfully utilizing the heat loss avoided during the entire production chain.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 20:

Simulation-based solution for a dynamic two-crane scheduling problem in a steelmaking shop: A case study

J. Li
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Title: Simulation-based solution for a dynamic two-crane scheduling problem in a steelmaking shop: A case study


Author:
J. Li

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
This paper investigated a twin crane scheduling problem in a steelmaking shop that is featured by the dynamic arrivals of crane jobs and the crane interference. The problem is solved in a simulation way and based on the predictive-reactive rescheduling strategy. An innovative twin-crane trajectory solution was designed to regulate the crane moving behaviors. We modeled the crane scheduling problem considering the temporal cost and crane workload, and the constraints imposed by different initial conditions emerged in each rescheduling process. The model was solved with a heuristic. The simulation results showed the capability of the crane scheduling solution in maintaining the stability of the production schedule and in balancing and reducing the workloads. Meanwhile, the trajectory solution designed was verified to be appropriate. Finally, the computation time of this solution is fast enough to guarantee its practicability.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 20:

HD scan - the digital link between cast quality and process data

T. Gusarova
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: HD scan - the digital link between cast quality and process data


Author:
T. Gusarova

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
HD scan – the digital link between cast quality and process data

Producers of cast products such as ingots, long and flat products are required to document the internal quality. On the one hand, internal slab quality allows for conclusions on the basis of which the condition of the continuous casting plant can be evaluated. On the other hand, solutions for quality deviations in case of customer complaints need to be found. Today, this demands for well-established data processing systems to ensure fast reactions.
Which quality was produced when, and which part of the production was used for which customer order? This chain of questions can hardly be answered solely on the basis of prints of the internal quality such as Baumann or macro etching prints when the information is not available in a digital format. Wouldn’t it be advantageous being able to determine the quality of cast products in an automatic and factual way, and to store these results in such a manner that they are linked to customer orders and process data?
HD scan for the first time ever is able to fulfil all these different demands in the most simple and easy way. This approach of industry 4.0 enables fast reflection of casting conditions to improve future production quality, and documents the as-cast quality in a digital way. This creates the basis for big data analysis and predictive models.
Additionally, the ultrasound method used is a safe technology which provides three-dimensional insight into the sample and more representative information which cannot be influenced by etching parameters and subjective impressions of the quality inspector.

Keywords: Internal Quality, Casting Condition, Process Data, Industry 4.0, Ultrasound, Prediction, Subjective

Autoren: Stephan Schulze, Andreas Runge, Dr. Mark Moors, Martin Klein

Casting: Formation of non-metallic compounds in the solidification process (27 June / 10:30 - Room 16)

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27 June / 10:30 - Room 16:

Microstructures and origin of inclusions leading to clogging during casting of a Ti-alloyed Al-killed steel

B. Karnasiewicz
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., Poland)

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Title: Microstructures and origin of inclusions leading to clogging during casting of a Ti-alloyed Al-killed steel


Author:
B. Karnasiewicz

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., Poland

Co-Authors:
E. Zinngrebe

Abstract:
Post-mortem tundish skull samples after casting of Ti-alloyed, Al-killed, IF steel, have been studied regarding the formation of clogging phenomenon. By using modern characterization equipment and applied methods, we were able to perform following research on collected samples:

- profound metallographic examination,

- application of newly developed methods of Particle Size Distribution (PSD) analyses of clog inclusions,

- new EDS template mapping procedure allowing differentiation of complex particles according to phases and its interphase contact relationships

- EDS analyses of individual inclusions with complex substructure regarding minor and trace elements.

Microstructures of the clog (alumina and minor spinel) show presence of layering in the studied clog: "Coarse" layers (abundant microbubbles and internally complex alumina aggregates ) and "Fine" layers (no microbubbles and complex alumina aggregates). Particle Size distributions of the clog have shown two populations of particles: a Population I (2 - 5µm) and a Population II (5 - 20 µm). Both populations have lognormal PSD, and are thereby different from suspended inclusions during secondary metallurgy which are known to have power law PSD. Both populations are present in Coarse and Fine layers, but in varying proportions. Spinel has a lognormal PDF as well and is selectively concentrated in the Coarse layers. Complex alumina aggregates of the Coarse layers are characterized with multiple metal sub-inclusions in their cores, which analyses of minor or trace elements showed a distinct contents of Cr, Si, V alloyed in the Fe metal.

Based on these observations, we derive a model for the origin of the inclusions making up the clog. Neither of the two lognormal populations is derived from the bulk steel inclusions, although those are also contributing to the clog. Overall microstructures show that the clog behaves as a coherent solid, and is able to displace and fracture.

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27 June / 10:50 - Room 16:

The role of FeTi-addition on micro-inclusions in the production of ULC steel grades via RH-process route

C. Bernhard
(University of Leoben, Austria)

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Title: The role of FeTi-addition on micro-inclusions in the production of ULC steel grades via RH-process route


Author:
C. Bernhard

Company:
University of Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Titanium is the most commonly used stabilizer for ULC and IF steel grades. In the production of ULC steel grades via the RH-process route, Al is first added for deoxidation after the end of decarburization and FeTi after a certain period of separation of alumina particles and the related reduction of the total oxygen content. The FeTi-addition is well known to cause clogging problems in the following casting process.
The present work deals with results from plant investigation, indicating an increasing clogging tendency with higher Ti/Al-ratio in the steel. Automated SEM/EDS investigations on lollipop samples show the existence of a newly nucleated Ti-containing alumina-particle population after the FeTi addition. These particles are comparably smaller as the alumina particles and even if thermodynamically unstable, they still exist as a large population of small particles in samples taken from the tundish.
The addition of Al and FeTi into a molten steel sample with controlled initial oxygen activity for varying Ti/Al-ratio was afterwards simulated in laboratory scale. Same as in the plant, a new population of small Ti-containing alumina particles nucleates, with size and number in dependence of the Ti/Al-ratio in the melt. The local supersaturation of Ti and O during the dissolution of the FeTi-particles seems to be the main reason for the nucleation of these inclusions.
Sessile drop experiments indicate that the wetting angle between these Ti-containing alumina particles and ULC steel is at the same level as for pure alumina particles. However, due to only moderate convection of the melt in the ladle after the FeTi-addition, the agglomeration tendency for these particles is low and as previous work has shown, a large number of non-wetting small particles is most critical for clogging.
Laboratory experiments and plant observations are in correspondence and indicate some countermeasures for the better control of clogging.

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27 June / 11:10 - Room 16:

Failure analysis of clogging related defects in steel products integrated with computational thermodynamics for process optimization

E. Aivazoglou
(Hellenic Research Centre for Metals S.A., Greece)

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Title: Failure analysis of clogging related defects in steel products integrated with computational thermodynamics for process optimization


Author:
E. Aivazoglou

Company:
Hellenic Research Centre for Metals S.A., Greece

Co-Authors:
P. Sismanis, A. Vazdirvanidis, T. Tzevelekou, A. Antonopoulos

Abstract:
Presence of non-metallic inclusions (NMIs) can essentially influence the process performance, quality and technological properties of steel products. Calcium treatment aims to improve the castability, quality and machinability of aluminum-killed steels through the modification of inclusions’ chemistry to become liquid and their shape control. However, improper calcium addition can lead to the formation of high melting point calcium aluminates and/or calcium sulfides that remain solid at casting temperatures. These have the tendency to accumulate and agglomerate on the SEN ceramic surface leading to clogging incidents during continuous casting. Clogs detachment due to mould level fluctuations and entrainment in liquid steel can give rise to surface defects (cracks, slivers) during hot working. In order to suppress potential clogging issues and related surface defects, the addition of calcium shall be tightly controlled.
In the present work, computational thermodynamics was employed in cases of steel bar products with surface defects, where their root-cause analysis by conventional metallographic investigation techniques had revealed the presence of clogging-related NMI. Their phase composition at casting temperature was projected by thermodynamic simulation of their SEM-EDS analysis using Thermo-Calc Software SLAG4.0 Fe-containing Slag database, illustrating predominately the presence of solid inclusions. Subsequent thermodynamic modeling of the corresponding heat analysis by Thermo-Calc was performed in order to determine the process conditions’ window that would have prevented their formation. Proper adjustment of calcium addition for the applied steel chemistry and casting temperature to hit the liquid window of the calculated stability phase diagram of calcium and oxygen could be proposed. Failure analysis of clogging related defects integrated with computational thermodynamics can assist not only in closer determination of process parameters accountable for the defect generation, but also as a tool to provide suitable countermeasures, namely an optimized “castability window”, improving overall productivity and product’s quality.

Casting: Control of solidification structures and management of defects II (27 June / 10:40 - Room 14)

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 14:

New sensor technology gives a sharp view on initial solidification: Mold Expert Fiber

O. Lang
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: New sensor technology gives a sharp view on initial solidification: Mold Expert Fiber


Author:
O. Lang

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
N. Oberschmidleitner, C. Ortner, M. Schuster, F. Ramstorfer

Abstract:
New sensor technologies enable previously unimagined insight into the casting process, improving both operational control and quality as well as optimizing maintenance practices. The positioning of Fiber Bragg Gratings can be individually arranged to suit the customers mold configuration and monitoring objectives. Depending on the orientation of the fibers there is almost no limitation to the number and location of measuring points in the mold. There are two possibilities for the fiber orientation. Typically a horizontal installation with 2 - 4 rows of fibers replaces the conventional thermocouples. This not only provides more accurate breakout prevention but also makes better crack detection possible. Maintenance is easier too as it eliminates the enormous amount of cabling required by the thermocouples. The horizontal installation thus provides a cost-effective alternative to the traditional thermocouple arrangement. Although there is an associated higher cost, a vertical installation arrangement allows a high density of measuring points over the entire mold. This makes the solidification process and the flow in the mold much more transparent than the traditional thermocouple arrangement. Thus, the view inside the mold now provides a presentation of the solidification process as never seen before. This leads to a variety of new analysis options and possibilities of evaluation of defects. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each configuration and show that Fiber Braggs can be used in standard production and not only for research and test purpose.

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 14:

Numeric simulation of the liquid steel flow in a slab caster with linear electromagnetic stirring positioned in the secondary cooling zone

M. Barna
(Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)

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Title: Numeric simulation of the liquid steel flow in a slab caster with linear electromagnetic stirring positioned in the secondary cooling zone


Author:
M. Barna

Company:
Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria

Co-Authors:
M. Javurek, P. Wimmer

Abstract:
M.Barna1*, M. Javurek1, P. Wimmer2

1 Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Altenbergerstr. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria
2 Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Turmstrasse 44, 4031 Linz, Austria

*martin.barna@jku.at


The usage of electromagnetic actuators in the continuous steel casting process is on a steady rise, due to its possibilities for a sophisticated, contactless flow control. The complexity of the casting process and the ever-increasing quality demands require a well-founded knowledge of the interaction between the electromagnetic actuators and the liquid steel flow. Plant trials are not sufficient to build up this knowledge. Numerical modelling and simulations provide a better and more detailed view and are therefore crucial for understanding the interaction between the electromagnetic fields and the liquid steel flow. Only a deep insight into the coupling between the liquid steel flow and the electromagnetic forces makes it possible to improve/optimize the whole continuous casting process.
The work presented here is part of an on-going research to bridge the gap between the liquid steel flow and the grain structure of the end product. The focus of this paper lies on the liquid steel flow modified by the employed traveling magnetic fields and the investigations rely mainly on numerical simulations. Various modelling approaches with differing complexities are used to simulate linear electromagnetic stirring in the secondary cooling zone of a slab caster. These models are then ranked in terms of accuracy and computational effort. The best model is chosen to investigate the influence of various stirring parameters, stirring modes and stirring positions onto the liquid steel flow. With these results, further conclusions for the real casting process can be drawn.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 14:

Slab Casting in China 2025: Trends seen in Primetals Technologies Slab Casters fit for the “Made in China 2025” program

M. Hirschmanner
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Slab Casting in China 2025: Trends seen in Primetals Technologies Slab Casters fit for the “Made in China 2025” program


Author:
M. Hirschmanner

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
H. Willeit

Abstract:
Made in China 2025 is a strategic plan of China issued by Chinese the Chinese government in May 2015. The goals of Made in China 2025 include increasing the Chinese-domestic content of core materials to 40% by 2020 and 70% by 2025. This initiative is directly inspired by the German Industry 4.0. It is an attempt to move the country's manufacturing up the value chain

Even if the steel industry in China is already very advanced and one could assume that there are no further efforts needed to improve the Chinese domestic content, several new Primetals Technologies slab casting orders prove otherwise.

So for example the LiquiRob system, which offers a high repeatability of metallurgical processes is already supplied in 3 slab casters in China. Also hard reduction up to 20mm, which will allow better center quality is supplied for 2 slab casters in China. Several other advanced technologies like Opal or the DynaTac high temperature casting package, which allow to produce higher quality grades are described in this paper and how they fit in the China 2025 strategy.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 14:

Design of as-cast structures of continuously cast steel grades: Modelling and prediction

C. Fix
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Design of as-cast structures of continuously cast steel grades: Modelling and prediction


Author:
C. Fix

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Design of As-Cast Structures of Continuously Cast Steel Grades: Modelling and Prediction

C. Fix , D. Senk


The prediction of the solidification structure by means of calculations and simulation programs is of great importance for controlling the quality of the CC semis. Plant components, different process control options and the chemical composition of the cast product require optimized coordination of those factors in order to be able to set the optimum structure. For this, it is necessary to be able to describe exactly the controllable factors with regard to subsequent processing and final product properties and their effects on the final as-cast structure.

Solidification structures are path functions. Therefore, criteria for a dendritic structure development have to be considered in each time step of a solidification model. These criteria depend not only on the temperature field but also on the history of a simulation cell. Main reason for this location dependency is the effect of gravitation on the solidified grains that can move free in the melt. Free globular grains can sink and thus move solidifies mass and change element concentrations. Furthermore, knowledge about hot ductility of different steel grades helps avoiding fatal defects due to bending effects by matching both casting machine and material tolerance.

In this paper the possibilities of implementing such aspects on structural development will be discussed on basis of real CC semis, following the overall goal of designing the as-cast products with regard to subsequent processing.


Keywords: continuous casting; modelling; hot ductility; solidification; as-cast structure; temperature field


Carolin Fix, M.Sc., research assistant at the Steel Institute, RWTH Aachen University
Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h. c. Dieter Senk, professor of the department of ferrous metallurgy at the Steel Institute, RWTH Aachen University

Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking V (27 June / 10:40 - Room 20)

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 20:

Development status of intelligent manufacturing system for steelmaking in Hsc

H. Choi
(Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)

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Title: Development status of intelligent manufacturing system for steelmaking in Hsc


Author:
H. Choi

Company:
Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:
C. Eom, J. Hong

Abstract:
Prediction of the temperature and composition of molten steel at the end-point using relevant control variables is a longstanding task in the steelmaking process. Steel industry have been applied the various models and simulators to predict the end-point conditions for that reason. The steel industry in recent years is under increasing pressure to face challenges and competition. Since the steel market is changing dynamically, and therefore more flexibility is required. In order to continuously respond to the changing environment and improve efficiency, quality and competitiveness, it is necessary to improve the process in the new operation range as well as the existing operation range. The development of reliable operation prediction models in each process is an important tool to accelerate the development of the steel industry.
Most conventional models of steelmaking process are based on empirical formulas through data analysis (linear regression) and experiment-based reaction mechanisms. However, the nature of relationship between the input (process data) and output (end-point prediction of molten steel) parameters in the process is complex and highly non-linear and also the process data for these parameters collected form the steelmaking process are quite noisy because of the complexity of the heat and mass transfer along with a large number of chemical reactions involved in the steelmaking process.
For improvement of predicting and modeling a process, many researchers have recently used new methodologies in steelmaking such as machine learning technique. Hyundai Steel is also working on the application of machine learning technique.

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 20:

Application of convolutional neural networks in steelmaking and research

T. Haas
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Application of convolutional neural networks in steelmaking and research


Author:
T. Haas

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Since AlexNet won the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge in 2012, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have increased the abilities of computer vision to astonishing levels. In contrast to conventional computer vision techniques, CNNs learn to identify features on its own that makes it more robust to external changes in the images. In this work it is demonstrated how images are processed through the network. The function and purpose of the different layers are explained and it is shown how the network learns to extract features and classify images. Finally, two examples are described how image classification and object detection by CNNs can be applied to steelmaking or research.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 20:

Plant wide control of melt temperature in liquid steelmaking

H. Dickert
(Georgsmarienhütte GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Plant wide control of melt temperature in liquid steelmaking


Author:
H. Dickert

Company:
Georgsmarienhütte GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Kordel, M. Schlautmann, B. Kleimt, T. Rekersdrees, K. Neubauer, H. Haverkamp

Abstract:
A new through-process monitoring and control system of the liquid steel temperature was developed, implemented and validated at the electric steelmaking plant of GMH group in Georgsmarienhütte, in order to improve the accuracy in meeting the target casting temperature with minimisation of energy and material consumption. The through-process control system covers the complete process chain of electric steelmaking from the superheating phase in the EAF up to the end of the casting process in the tundish.
To determine the conditions for reliable and representative thermocouple measurements, trial campaigns with continuous melt temperature measurement were analysed, using the fibre optical DynTemp system to follow the melt temperature evolution during the melt homogenization procedures at different aggregates of ladle treatment. An autonomous ladle identification system based on imaging of perforated plates mounted at the ladles has been installed at the different treatment stations in the steel plant, in order to track more reliably the process routes of ladles and heats. Additionally, a dynamic through-process model was developed and implemented online, to monitor and predict the melt temperature evolution during the different treatment steps along the liquid steelmaking process chain.
An operator advisory system, which integrates, evaluates and visualizes all these plant wide information regarding melt temperature evolution, provides support regarding appropriate measurement procedures and optimised operating practices for temperature control. For that purpose the developed measurement guidelines as well as the model and sensor based monitoring systems are applied in combination with predictive control strategies, to derive optimized set-points and control actions. Thus, the advisory system allows the operator to detect unexpected variations in the temperature evolution and to react in an optimal way in terms of energy and resource efficiency.
The presented research work received valuable funding by the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS).

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 20:

Intelligent automation solutions on the road to digitalization

T. Kühas
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Intelligent automation solutions on the road to digitalization


Author:
T. Kühas

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
R. Stadlmayr, R. Leitner, R. Aspetsberger, W. Oberaigner

Abstract:
Today’s steel production is driven by process optimization and efficient productivity. For a reliable and sustainable solution the answer is digitalization, but where to start, how to integrate and where to buy digitalization? The paper shows intelligent automation solutions from Primetals Technologies including its overall view on plant and process know-how from bottom to top and all along the value chain by modular modernization design. Structural connectivity linking vertical from basic automation to process optimization systems and horizontal from ironmaking to the final product. There is an ongoing development for process optimization and simulation tools, which are known as “digital twins” and both are intensively used for steady improvements in the presented benchmark example for continuous casting. Data-based approaches, through-process optimizations and business intelligence will contribute to the overall goal. New dimensions in condition monitoring and automatic diagnostic will gain more production-time and ensure high productivity and less maintenance costs. The vision will be a fully automated steel plant.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 20:

Differential GPS - use case: Full automatic torpedo car tracking

J. Thomasberger
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Differential GPS - use case: Full automatic torpedo car tracking


Author:
J. Thomasberger

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Braam

Abstract:
Differential GPS – use case: Full automatic torpedo car tracking

For economically operation of steelworks, it is important to efficiently plan routes of torpedo cars.
Today's stationary detection methods (e.g. RFID) have the disadvantage that torpedo cars are detected only at this stationary location and there is no live movement tracking of the torpedo cars. Furthermore, for the all in all tracking the entire track network must be equipped with stationary sensors. SMS group has chosen a new approach to equip the individual torpedo cars with battery-powered differential GPS modules. First test measurements showed location accuracies of 2.5m CEP and the modules are capable to transmit the live location information via radio transceivers over distances up to kilometers to a common base station. There the data is evaluated and provided to connected software modules.

Electric steelmaking: Process control, automation and modelling II (27 June / 10:50 - Room 15)

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27 June / 10:50 - Room 15:

Numerical modelling of slag cooling

A. Kärnä
(University of Oulu, Finland)

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Title: Numerical modelling of slag cooling


Author:
A. Kärnä

Company:
University of Oulu, Finland

Co-Authors:
P. Sulasalmi, V. Visuri, E. Heikkinen, T. Fabritius, P. Torvinen, J. Koskinen

Abstract:
Stainless steelmaking produces different types of slags, which need to be stored and pre-treated before further use. In current practice, the slag is cooled in an air atmosphere, but water cooling has been envisaged to speed up cooling. The aim of this paper is to simulate the cooling of AOD slag under the conditions of ambient cooling and water cooling. The effect of the thickness and thermal conductivity of the slag layer is also studied. Finally, practical means to improve the cooling practice are evaluated based on the model predictions.

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27 June / 11:30 - Room 15:

Advancements in Tenova's NextGen® off-gas based process control technology

D. Zuliani
(Tenova Goodfellow Inc., Canada)

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Title: Advancements in Tenova's NextGen® off-gas based process control technology


Author:
D. Zuliani

Company:
Tenova Goodfellow Inc., Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Tenova’s Intelligent EAF technology (iEAF®) provides a multistep roadmap for continuous improvement, cost saving and increased safety. iEAF® combines complete real-time measurements and fundamental process models to provide a robust, stable process control solution and avoid the imprecision and drift associated with incomplete measurements, assumptions & statistical models. iEAF®’s 1st STEP reduces operating costs using NextGen® full spectrum analysis (CO, CO2, O2, H2, H2O & N2) to holistically optimize & dynamically control chemical energy and fume system suction. The 2nd STEP adds off-gas temperature & velocity sensors, fundamental thermodynamic models, a PLC link and a precise real-time mass & energy balance to further reduce costs and increase yield & productivity by dynamic control of both electrical & chemical energy. The industry’s most comprehensive water leak detection using both H2 & H2O vapor analysis can be integrated into either STEP 1 or 2. The iEAF® represents a powerful, stable and robust process control engine for EAF Level 2 automation.

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27 June / 11:50 - Room 15:

Optimization of EAF process control through application of self learning procedures based on process monitoring through KPI's

P. Frittella
(Feralpi Siderurgica S.p.A., Italy)

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Title: Optimization of EAF process control through application of self learning procedures based on process monitoring through KPI's


Author:
P. Frittella

Company:
Feralpi Siderurgica S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The EAF process sees periodical modifications in process performances caused by variation on scrap charged conditions, that are usually not measured, and by variations of plant configurations. For this reason adaptations in process performances estimations and in applications of process control strategies are necessary.
Feralpi Siderurgica and Rina Centro Sviluppo Materiali have developed a specific EAF process control system able to auto adapt its logics of EAF process simulations based on monitoring of process performances through KPI’s to let the possibility to take into account variations on conditions of scrap charged.
Through these functions, the steel and slag conditions can be estimated during the process in terms of masses, composition and temperature through an approach periodically tuned when variations in scrap conditions are revealed to maintain continuously the model accuracy as necessary for an optimized procedure.
The system is able also to suggest variations of process controls through guidelines for variations of chemical injections settings taking into account on-line process monitoring based on KPI’s and estimations of process conditions.
These functions are also auto-adapted periodically depending by heat by heat process monitoring based on KPI’s through an auto-learnign procedure that let the system all time fitting with process conditions and constrains.
This functions described in the present paper are applied and tested in Feralpi Siderurgica EAF in the frame of a project co-financed by European funding scheme RFCS (Research Fund for Coal and Steel).

Casting: Automation, computer simulations and modelling II (27 June / 11:00 - Room 17)

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 17:

Robotic applications for safety improvements in casting area

D. Senesi
(Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy)

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Title: Robotic applications for safety improvements in casting area


Author:
D. Senesi

Company:
Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
D. Senesi

Abstract:
Safety in industrial plants is an objective value in terms of productivity, quality and efficiency.
However, safety is frequently seen as an obstacle to accessibility and the possibility of intervening during the process.
Danieli Robotic solutions applied for years in the melting area, in the casting area, in the tracking of semi-finished products and in the skimming of galvanizing baths for coils, have shown to reduce operator accidents by more than 90%.

This paper describes the QROBOT CAST LADLE characteristics, a multifunction Robot cell designed and realized to allow fully automatic operations in ladle area.

The main functions carried out by this robotic installation are:
SAMPLING & MEASUREMENT: tundish steel bath temperature and chemical composition measurement.
LANCING nozzle emergency oxygen lancing in case of opening failure
SHROUD MANIPULATION Shroud picking and reliable positioning by means of 3D vision system and its repositioning after casting.
TUNDISH POWDER automatic powder distributing system to guarantee an uniform powder thickness
CYLINDER PREPARATION ladle sliding gate hydraulic cylinder manipulation and mounting in fully automatic or remotely operated mode.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 17:

Digital Twin for continuous casters - the playground for metallurgists and process engineers

R. Leitner
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Close27 June, Room 17 ( 11:20 )
Title: Digital Twin for continuous casters - the playground for metallurgists and process engineers


Author:
R. Leitner

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
D. Fuchshuber, P. Pennerstorfer, C. Brugger

Abstract:
State-of-the-art automation technology enables digitalization of the continuous casting process that goes far beyond conventional automation of industrial production. Primetals Technologies provides a digital twin that combines an intelligent digital representation of a casting machine as well as the casting process and the slabs, blooms or billets that are produced. It allows metallurgists and process engineers to predict the behavior of the involved complex production process and optimize parameters before using them in real production. New steel grades or production processes can be evaluated off-line without any risks to process stability and product quality.
Primetals Technologies installs the digital twin with every new installation of a continuous caster optimization system. This paper describes how the setup and simulation possibilities of the digital twin provide numerous benefits by modelling and simulating the casting process. It allows for example the calculation of material properties according to the actual composition, strand surface temperature profiles and dynamic soft reduction before the final point of solidification. An outstanding feature of the digital twin is the replay functionality provided for various models to analyze and further optimize real production situations. The paper also gives examples how usage of the digital twin optimized production at various customers.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 17:

Increasing safety, operation efficiency and process reliability: Implementation of robotized tundish operations at Ternium Brasil

V. Cunha Aranda
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: Increasing safety, operation efficiency and process reliability: Implementation of robotized tundish operations at Ternium Brasil


Author:
V. Cunha Aranda

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:
L. Mascarenhas Fernandes, E. Hernandez Duarte, W. Junior Correa, L. Martins Demuner, V. Cunha Aranda, F. Lourenço, V. Sinhorely Oliveira

Abstract:
During manual tundish operations like temperature measurement, sampling, powder application and ladle shroud manipulation, the operator is exposed to heat, dust, physical exertion, and inherent danger from tundish reactions or ladle scull. Even though working in this environment, important operational tasks have to be performed in order to guarantee process stability and product quality. By implementing robotized tundish operations using two robots, a major increase in safety, operation efficiency and process reliability could be achieved. The present work gives a detailed overview of the project layout, its components, features and operational performance.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 17:

HD LASr

M. Friedrich
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: HD LASr


Author:
M. Friedrich

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The new method for smart strand guide aligning - HD LASr [strand]
Slab quality is no doubt playing an even greater role for steel producers.
The foundation for this is provided by a perfectly aligned continuous casting plant realizing minimized mechanical strain on the strand.

The first step is the precise aligning of the components mold and segment in the maintenance with the digital aligning assistants HD LASr [mold] and HD LASr [segment].

After mounting the aligned components in the caster the strand should be perfectly guided.
However for checking whether the strand guide is optimally aligned several possibilities as e.g. perpendicular or templates measuring are state of the art.

With the aim of making the checking easier, more precise and reliable HD LASr [strand] has been developed basing on the well-proven 3D Lasertracker measuring technology.
HD LASr [strand] replaces the long and heavy templates, imprecise perpendicular and micrometer gauge with three simple and light measuring tools: laser tracker, reflector and reflector slide.

The laser tracks the reflector being vertically moved on a slide along the strand guide and scans thereby the surface of the mold copper plate and the subsequent rollers.
The customized HD LASr [strand] software not only records the measuring information automatically but guides the operator perfectly through the measuring procedure. At any time reliable measuring reports are available.
Within short time the operator holds the scan result in his hands and can initiate the necessary measures for aligning the strand guide with the optimum strand contact line and the correct roller gap.

The quick and easy measuring with the digital assistant HD LASr [strand] takes place in casting pauses with little preparation time without demounting caster parts - enabling maximum production of best quality slabs.

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27 June / 12:20 - Room 17:

Wireless measurement devices enable automatic setting of a continuous caster

O. Lang
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Wireless measurement devices enable automatic setting of a continuous caster


Author:
O. Lang

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
T. Stummer, N. Oberschmidleitner, D. Ott, C. Stummer, K. Winkler, A. Wurm

Abstract:
Primetals Technologies has developed a new generation of measurement devices that guarantee the highest product quality, fully automated processes and efficient maintenance. These attributes are focus areas for digitization in steel plants. The aim is to eliminate human error and make the operation repetitious and as simple as possible. With this generation of measuring devices and connected systems handwritten records and manual entries become a thing of the past. Connectivity via WLAN or Bluetooth are standard, data is immediately available and automatically processed. Elaborated reports document the quality status of the monitored equipment and ensure error-free operation. During the mold maintenance process the copper plate is heated in a fully controlled manner by a new device so that full functionality of the complete system of thermocouples installed in the copper plate is checked and ensured. Wireless sensors for measuring oscillation accuracy increase operational usability and safety. Other wireless sensors are used for automatic calibration of the mold narrow face taper. The condition of the strand is monitored with online measurements during each run and the data provides long term trend information regarding the condition of the segments. In addition to gap and alignment measurement it is also possible to monitor the condition of the nozzles. An optical monitoring device for bloom casters provides information about the roll diameters and profile of the rolls and additionally records videos and images from inside the machine. This paper will present current technologies available for digitalization in the steel plant process with a particular focus on casting operations. The challenges and considerations in developing these measurement devices and their integration into existing plants will also be presented.

Electric steelmaking: Process control, automation and modelling III (27 June / 13:00 - Room 15)

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27 June / 13:00 - Room 15:

EU supported research projects on secondary metallurgy technology with focus on on-line measurement and control - evaluation of results and outlook to future developments

B. Kleimt
(VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: EU supported research projects on secondary metallurgy technology with focus on on-line measurement and control - evaluation of results and outlook to future developments


Author:
B. Kleimt

Company:
VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Jemson, J. Pierret, M. de Santis, R. Safavi Nick

Abstract:
In the frame of the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS programme), in the last 20 years many research and demonstration projects have been carried out on different aspects of Sec-ondary Metallurgy technology, aiming at improving the process performance in terms of liquid steel quality, energy and resource optimisation and flexibility. This effort contributed to the development of a number of technological solutions in terms of process modelling, measurement systems and process control.
Within the RFCS programme, in 2016 and 2017 the project “Valorisation and dissemination of tech-nologies for measurement, modelling and control in secondary metallurgy” (DissTec) was carried out. This project aimed at analysing and promoting the most important results of European research projects dealing with the different aspects of Secondary Metallurgy technology.
The paper will present the applied methods as well as the achieved results and deliverables of the dissemination work performed in the DissTec project, with special focus on the aspects of on-line measurement and control in Secondary Metallurgy.
It will cover a critical analysis of the results obtained in 60 EU funded projects with respect to the topics of measurement technologies, process models, on-line control approaches and connected auxiliary materials. The most important results in these fields were selected for valorisation and dissemination within a web site, a series of seminars and webinars as well as a workshop, to provide a clear picture of the current status of European Secondary Metallurgy technology and to promote the further industrial exploitation of the research results.
Finally industrial targets and requirements for further research activities and a roadmap for future developments of Secondary Metallurgy technology with focus on on-line measurement and control will be presented.

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 15:

EAF based melt shops: smart products, assistance tools and service solutions for digital production

J. Apfel
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

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Title: EAF based melt shops: smart products, assistance tools and service solutions for digital production


Author:
J. Apfel

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Beile, T. Reindl, B. Laimer, R. Stadlmayr

Abstract:
The understanding of a digital EAF production means the seamless interaction of the installed equipment and any new feature and digital assistance system, which are added during a continuous plant modernization and step-by-step upgrade activities. It covers the implementation of small automation steps, the usage of digital information of smart sensors as well as major changes in the automation system towards digital assistance tools like a dynamic Know-How database and a flexible Rule Engines for an efficient production of demanding steel grades.
Digital EAF steelmaking starts with automated scrap handling and preparation, followed by a fully automated melting process guided by camera systems and automatic measuring devices. Autonomous transport systems for ladles and materials guarantee a safe handling and the precise execution of the defined process logistics. Powerful tools for the process analysis and Business Intelligence systems allow a deep insight in the physical production and provide required information for important decisions and Life Cycle measures at a glance.
Encrypted state-of-the-art cloud technology for selective data exchange in combination with service contracts with a dynamic duration offer access to professional big data analysis algorithms to fix insufficiencies. In cooperation with a powerful service center the end-user is able to establish modern maintenance strategies in the EAF melt shop.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 15:

Development of process control for industrial electric arc furnaces with optical emission spectroscopy

H. Pauna
(University of Oulu, Finland)

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Title: Development of process control for industrial electric arc furnaces with optical emission spectroscopy


Author:
H. Pauna

Company:
University of Oulu, Finland

Co-Authors:
M. Aula, J. Seehausen, M. Huttula, T. Fabritius, J. Klung

Abstract:
Electric arc furnaces are used to produce steel from scrap-based raw material, which is melted using high electric currents. The downside of the metal scrap usage is the high fluctuation of both the size and composition of the scrap. The next step in improving the electric arc furnace operation is to develop an industrial on-line process control and slag composition analysis. In this work, we report on the results of optical emission spectroscopy tests for industrial scale electric arc furnace that were made in Autumn 2018. The optical emission spectra of each individual process step are unique, from the heat radiation of melting scrap to the high-intensity atomic emissions of the electric arc itself. Optical emission spectroscopy tests for pilot-scale electric arc furnaces have already shown great promise in the evaluation of process conditions, and the purpose of this study is to emphasize the suitability of the measurement method also for industrial-scale furnaces. Since the electric arc radiates throughout the melting process and the measurement equipment can be placed away and protected from the harsh furnace conditions this method can be used for on-line monitoring. Validation of the optical emission spectra can be done with plasma diagnostics, which can also be used to study the properties of the electric arc, such as plasma temperature and electron density. The plasma properties of the electric arc, on the other hand, are indicators for the stability and optical emission conditions of the electric arc. Furthermore, the electric arc spectra are dominated by optical emissions from the slag components, which means that the spectrum analysis can also be used to estimate the slag composition.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 15:

EAF dynamic process optimization with AMI SmartFurnace modules

C. de los Santos
(AMI Automation, Mexico)

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Title: EAF dynamic process optimization with AMI SmartFurnace modules


Author:
C. de los Santos

Company:
AMI Automation, Mexico

Co-Authors:
S. Jackson

Abstract:
The optimization task in the Electric Arc Furnace requires a very precise balance of the interaction between the chemical and electrical energy. With the increasing number of high productive EAF, the use of burners, coal injectors and oxygen injection in coordination with electric power play a significant role in improving the efficiency of the steel making process. Besides, with constant changes in demand, produced steel grade, and raw material quality among other constraints, the need for a system capable of adapting to the current operation conditions becomes critical.
With this situation in mind, Duferdofin Nucor, a steel plant located in San Zeno, Italy, made an installation of the AMI technology in their Electric Arc Furnace during the summer of 2018. This paper describes how the AMI SmartFurnace system, featuring the DigitARC PX3 Electrode Regulator together with Electrical and Chemical Energy Input Modules, helped optimize the operation in Duferdofin Nucor, with results in efficiency and productivity. The details of this system are discussed and results of its functionalities are shown.

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 15:

Towards a complete thermodynamic description of the steel making process from scrap to bar

A. Grundy
(Thermo-Calc Software AB, Sweden)

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Title: Towards a complete thermodynamic description of the steel making process from scrap to bar


Author:
A. Grundy

Company:
Thermo-Calc Software AB, Sweden

Co-Authors:
J. Jeppsson, A. Jansson, J. Bratberg, R. Rettig, L. Kjellqvist, M. Powell

Abstract:
Internally consistent thermodynamic databases developed using the CALPHAD approach have continuously been expanded and improved for the last 30 years. The thermodynamic database TCOX9, that is to be released in June 2019, is well suited for calculating thermochemical interaction between liquid steel and slag during steel making and refining. It now contains all the major steel alloying elements (Fe-C-Co-Cr-Cu-Mn-Mo-Nb-Ni-V-W-Ti) as well as the most important slag elements (Ca-Mg-Si-Al-F-O-P-S) to be truly applicable to real-life industrial metallurgical processes. The liquid phase is modelled by the ionic liquid model, that describes the liquid phase over the whole composition range from metallic liquid (liquid steel) to oxide liquid (slag phase). The database also contains descriptions of the most important metallic and non-metallic solid phases, meaning inclusion formation, inclusion modification, steel solidification, slag solidification, steel-refractory reactions, slag-refractory reactions and steel-mould powder reactions can be calculated. It also contains a gas phase.
In part 1 of this paper some basic equilibrium calculations are presented (oxidation of steel, steel-slag interaction, oxide stability diagram for the Fe-Al-Ca-O system, calculation of Ca treatment). In part 2 a kinetic model of the steelmaking process is developed based on the concept of effective equilibrium reaction zone and applied to the processing of a simple Al killed steel grade with standard steel-making recipe.
This kinetic model can be employed by steel plants for off-line optimization of the day to day steel making practices or for the development steelmaking practices for new steel-grades. It can also be run in real time parallel to production using Level 2 plant data as part of the quality assurance system. Thermo-Calc's recently released application programming interface (API) based on Python programming language (TC-Python) is ideal for such applications.


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27 June / 14:40 - Room 15:

Improvements of corrosion resistance and volume stability at Alumina-Spinel-Magnesia ladle castable

S. Kim
(Chosun Refractories Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)

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Title: Improvements of corrosion resistance and volume stability at Alumina-Spinel-Magnesia ladle castable


Author:
S. Kim

Company:
Chosun Refractories Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In steel-making process, a teeming lalde to produce higher purity steel through secondary refining process is facing severer operational condition and its repair pattern is getting shorter.
Accordingly, erosion resistance of working lining castable of a ladle needs to be improved so as to secure stability while operation. Currently, Al2O3-Spinel or Al2O3-MgO based castable is commercialized in general, and this time, we wanted to develope Al2O3-Spinel-MgO based one by combining spalling resistance of Al2O3-Spinel and erosion resistance of Al2O3-MgO. To make this happen, while the composition of grain size is optimized, low water content and high workability became available by using new type of dispersant. In addition, the content of alumina cement and spinel has been adjusted to have a volume stability and erosion resistance. As a result, repair pattern of a ladle has lengthened with improved volume stability and erosion resistance.

Casting: Near net shape casting (27 June / 13:20 - Room 17)

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 17:

Semi-continuous casting VERSCON for big bloom sections

S. Feldhaus
(SMS Concast AG, Switzerland)

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Title: Semi-continuous casting VERSCON for big bloom sections


Author:
S. Feldhaus

Company:
SMS Concast AG, Switzerland

Co-Authors:
F. Heini, T. Meier

Abstract:
In recent years continuously cast sections have become increasingly larger resulting in blooms which display excellent quality up to sections of 1000mm in diameter, and which now represent a viable alternative to niche ingot casting facilities. This challenge has led to the development of alternative solutions for smaller production units in the range of 50’000 to 200’000 t/y which foresee the utilization of a semi-continuous casting process. This idea is not new, and many interesting concepts have been developed in the recent years. Typical section sizes for semi-continuous casting start at a diameter of 400mm (~1 t/m strand weight) and reach up to ~1400mm (12 t/m strand weight) and above. In most cases round sections are foreseen since these sections do not require a long containment.
The process is already a standard application for casting of non-ferrous metals such as Aluminum and Copper, and the adaption of such a plant concept to the casting of steel adds increased complexity due steels slower solidification rate.

The driving idea behind this concept is the requirement to cast one or two ladles on one or more strands into long blooms. The long bloom length ensures a higher yield, whilst the semi-continuous casting process using a conventional mold and oscillation table guarantees a bloom surface comparable to that achieved by continuous casting. Once the strand has reached its final length, casting is stopped and the strand held in position until final solidification is achieved. This solidification time can extend over many hours and is dependent upon the section size.

The VERSCON semi-continuous casting process combines the following advantages: utilization of small scale production units (low CAPEX), improved yield compared to ingot casting, better surface quality than ingots, and an internal homogeneity and quality comparable with that of continuous casting.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 17:

A new numerical simulation tool to resolve 3D effects in continuous casting in real-time

F. Wietbüscher
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: A new numerical simulation tool to resolve 3D effects in continuous casting in real-time


Author:
F. Wietbüscher

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Bui, M. Hönig, M. Meinke, W. Klos, W. Schröder

Abstract:
A three-dimensional heat transfer model for the simulation of the transient continuous casting process is presented. The core solver is characterized by an efficient parallel implementation to run on multiple computational nodes. It therefore allows for a real-time prediction of the three-dimensional temperature field in a continuously cast slab. By resolving all three spatial directions, heat conduction effects in casting direction can be taken into account and analyzed in detail. The results, presented in this paper, show the difference between simulations with and without considering the heat conduction in casting direction at strand standstill conditions. The effective thermal conductivity method is furthermore studied in the three-dimensional simulation environment. These generic case studies show that an increased modeling complexity while maintaining real-time capabilities, requires efficient numerical methods, which have been successfully implemented in the presented simulation tool.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 17:

Greatest flexibility in production - width adjust with DeltaSpeed technology at JSW, Dolvi, India

L. Schaps
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Greatest flexibility in production - width adjust with DeltaSpeed technology at JSW, Dolvi, India


Author:
L. Schaps

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Babu, P. Sappa, A. Ratnaprashad, G. Rathore, K. Stieglitz, H. Beyer-Steinhauer

Abstract:
Greatest flexibility in production - Width Adjust with DeltaSpeed technology at JSW, Dolvi, India

Ever smaller batch sizes, especially with regard to different dimensions, force the producers to carry out a large number of width adjustments with different width adjustments within one casting sequence. Conventional adjustment methods require many intermediate slabs for large format differences, resulting in unnecessary output losses.

The SMS group has developed a new adjustment method to significantly shorten the produced transition lengths with larger width adjustments. The additional load of the strand shell is signifi-cantly reduced in comparison to conventional adjustment strategies and is thus particularly suit-able for larger adjustments in crack-sensitive steels.
The Delta Speed technology can easily be retrofitted on both conventional slab plants and CSP® continuous casting plants.

Another advantage is the ability to implement this technology during the production process. The first operating test was carried out after just 36 hours at the CSP® continuous casting plant at JSW in Dolvi, The upgrade took place during ongoing operation and without plant shutdown.

The lecture describes an example of an automation modernization with the replacement of the existing automation system including frequency converter and the implementation of Delta Speed technology on the CSP® continuous casting plant at JSW in Dolvi/India. Likewise, the operating experience after this modernization will be presented.

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 17:

Reduction in tundish loss in multistrand billet caster

D. Kumar
(JSW Steel Ltd., India)

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Title: Reduction in tundish loss in multistrand billet caster


Author:
D. Kumar

Company:
JSW Steel Ltd., India

Co-Authors:
S. Manjini, R. K., R. K., T. Hosahali, P. Tripathi, M. Manish

Abstract:
Flow behaviour in multistrand tundish is different from the single strand tundish. Draining out the metal at the end of the cast is far more complex in multistrand tundish, specially the billet casters. This tundish loss often called as skull loss is always reported higher in multistrand billet casters compared to single strand casters. In the present work water modelling studies were carried out in 0.25 scale perspex model to design a new tundish bottom for reducing the skull loss in a 8 strand billet caster. Based on the actual skull profile measured after casting an existing design, different bottom configuration (wedge, trough, slope) were studied under the steady and unsteady state conditions for their metallurgical performance. Raised bottom design, reduce the metal loss but initiates the vortex formation. Hence the vortexing studies were carried out using flow visualization in water model. Vortex initiation heights were compared in different configurations during drain out. Change in flow characteristics, specifically, short circuiting time, in the central and end strand was studied using electrical conductivity measurement. Results show that there was no change in vortex initiation height but flow characteristics changed between 3 configurations. Based on the water modelling studies and considering fabrication difficulties, use of wedge at turbo stopper region was found to be most optimized design for reducing the skull loss and improving the yield. Plant trials confirmed that the new wedge reduced the skull loss by 40% and had no adverse effect on the cleanliness of the steel.
Keyword: steel making, continuous casting, water model, tundish loss.

Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking VI (27 June / 13:20 - Room 20)

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 20:

The Badische Training Model - a globally unique, but successful approach in the steel industry

S. Baumgartner
(Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany)

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Title: The Badische Training Model - a globally unique, but successful approach in the steel industry


Author:
S. Baumgartner

Company:
Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Meier, A. Volkert , C. Zerfaß

Abstract:
Almost the entire steel industry is currently driven by initiatives and CAPEX projects for improving operational competitiveness, safety levels and environmental footprint.

Industry 4.0, Robotics, Digitization of Industry are just some of the trends observed.

Of course, all those initiatives may have their merits, but we must not forget that ‘steel is made by people’: It was in the past; it is today and it will still be tomorrow. In fact, skilled people will become even more important in the future, in order to understand, maintain and improve the new technologies and complex systems.

By experience, BSW is convinced that the road to success is a well-qualified and motivated workforce. This paper describes the history and the outlook of a unique system for qualifying steelmakers: The Badische Training Model.

Established in 1968 in a rural area, the mini-mill had a design capacity of 350,000 tpy. An unskilled and inexperienced workforce initially operated it. Today, BSW is one of the most productive and efficient mini-mills in the world with a current crude steel capacity of 2.5 Mt p.a. and being an environmental benchmark for low emissions.

The foundation of this ‘continuous improvement’ journey has already been laid beginning of the eighties, and a dedicated training company was founded in 1989.

Today, BSW has established a sophisticated and nationwide-awarded training concept for newcomers, while it also strongly focuses on the continuous multi-skilling of its workforce. To cope with future workforce requirements and to overcome the issue of decreasing birth rates, BSW applies several innovative concepts.
Besides the internal ‘success story’, BSW’s mini-mill operations have also been utilized as a showcase and training platform to third-party steelmakers. Since 1983, more than 8,000 steelmakers from different countries were trained in the Badische mini-mill philosophy in order to learn and create their own success story.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 20:

Rotating equipment performance can help you impact profit!

D. do Vale
(SKF AB, Belgium)

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Title: Rotating equipment performance can help you impact profit!


Author:
D. do Vale

Company:
SKF AB, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Rotating Equipment! That’s what it’s all about. Some are more critical than others. Some are recognized as very critical impacting profit, some are not. Rotating equipment can be more complex or less complex, very well maintained and well known or not. Let’s set up an overview about your assets and figure out how we can use available information in the best way.

Did you know that working in a proactive and reliable maintenance environment you can increase plant’s safety, efficiency and productivity? And result in reduced downtime up to 40%, major revision time by 5-10% and operational cost reduced by 2-10% impacting EBITDA by 2-3% bottom line? Most importantly, the lost time injury frequency rate (LTIF) can be also significantly reduced by increased plant reliability?

We see that the steel industry players are often relying on external engineering companies working on complete projects where SKF is specialized upgrading the rotating performance of the equipment. Internal engineering is often overloaded with projects where specialists are needed. Before acting and start the journey, we need to understand the actual situation and benchmark to identify bad actors and set up the improvement road map with a correspondent business case to justify the economical investment towards the change.

It is in the benefit of both the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) and End Users having trusted, reliable information on how to act and when to act to avoid unforeseen standstill and unnecessary costs. One of the most critical points to success is close collaboration and good local combined with centralized support. New technologies and digitalization facilitate the communication and the decision-making process to an almost automated process to success. This paper showcases a reliable and sustainable maintenance program for the next generation.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 20:

Complex numerical flow simulation of industrial large-scale furnaces using Computational Fluid Dynamics

N. Wichmann
(Andritz Maerz GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Complex numerical flow simulation of industrial large-scale furnaces using Computational Fluid Dynamics


Author:
N. Wichmann

Company:
Andritz Maerz GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
K. Hornig

Abstract:
In the field of industrial furnace design, thermal studies are of great interest in order to interpret the behavior of furnace systems and to achieve effective technical improvements.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be a powerful tool for investigating the effects of heat transfer mechanisms and is able to uncover potentials for design and process optimization in industrial furnaces.
In this study, a detailed CFD model of a large-scale walking beam furnace was developed, which takes into account gas radiation, turbulent combustion as well as the movement of the heated steel material inside the furnace chamber.
The model was developed with the purpose to simulate the heating process of the steel material with predicting the temperature distribution and was finally validated with experimental data.

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 20:

Optimizing steel ladle logistics by predicting and understanding refractory wear

W. Tesselaar
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: Optimizing steel ladle logistics by predicting and understanding refractory wear


Author:
W. Tesselaar

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Steelmaking is a dynamic process, which leads to variations in steel ladle life. Optimal planning and use of steel ladles in service becomes a logistical nightmare when ladle life and capacity are unpredictable, resulting in increased costs.

To make ladle life predictable, correlations between refractory wear on one side and process conditions and refractory properties on the other need to be known. Better understanding of these correlations also enables optimisation of process conditions and refractory properties to get higher value in use of ladles, e.g. through higher life or higher capacity.

Advanced data processing and modelling techniques have been applied to model the interaction between refractory linings and the steelmaking process. Laser scan data is being used to quantify wear of refractories on a per heat basis. A correction algorithm has been developed to deal with measurement errors in the laser scans, leading to high quality input data. Advanced models have been applied to establish correlations between refractory wear, process conditions and refractory properties.

The resulting data has been integrated in plant systems, leading to better planning of ladles in service. Furthermore refractory materials and process conditions will be optimised to achieve higher value in use, based on insights gained from this analysis.