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27 June / 09:00 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace relinings and campaign life extension

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 1:

Remarkable advancements in blast furnace hearth lining

M. Bierod
(Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Remarkable advancements in blast furnace hearth lining


Author:
M. Bierod

Company:
Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
E. Schnaub, M. Engelmann, V. Dulz, R. Hebel

Abstract:
Paul Wurth works on the advancement of durable engineering concepts and design solutions for BF-hearth side walls since many decades. One of the utmost concerns of Paul Wurth’s great efforts is to find the key for improved engineering concepts of BF-hearth side wall solutions. Preventing BF-hearth lining refractory defects, like structural embrittlements, so-called “brittle layers“, is one of the great challenges. This paper will discuss ways to extend the running BF-hearth lining campaign, even with a defective lining, like a “brittle layer“. Preventing structural failures in BF-hearth lining already in the early BF campaign on the one hand and avoiding accelerated hearth lining wear on the other hand will be discussed in the paper as well. Different classical BF-hearth lining concepts and designs will be compared and judged regarding their success. Is it necessary to change the mind-set and develop new BF-hearth lining concepts for high specific hot metal production rates and significantly prolonged BF-hearth lining life campaigns?

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 1:

Multiphysics hearth lining state model

Y. Kaymak
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Multiphysics hearth lining state model


Author:
Y. Kaymak

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Bartusch, T. Hauck, J. Mernitz, H. Rausch, R. Lin

Abstract:
The campaign life of the blast furnace is governed by the erosion of the hearth lining. Therefore, it is essential to keep track of the residual lining thickness not only for the better planning of the relining but also for the operational safety to avoid dangerous hearth breakthrough incidences. Modern blast furnaces are equipped with many thermocouples in the hearth refractory to monitor the temperature level. Higher temperatures indicate lower residual wall thickness. However, the measured temperatures are also influenced by many other effects like thermocouple defects, cooling boundaries, brittle layers in the refractory, or temperature and flow state of hot metal. Existing models lack the comprehensive checks of the data plausibility or of possible effects unrelated to wear. The new multiphysics approach provides a flexible platform to include these influences as well as other physical aspects which are important for operational hearth monitoring. For instance, thermal stresses and the deformation of the hearth lining and steel shell can be analyzed. This enables the integration of strain-gauge measurements into the model which were recently established for the monitoring of liquid levels. The numerical computations for the 3d hearth geometry are performed using COMSOL ServerTM with MATLAB®. Standard web browsers can be used to visualize the results interactively on any device connected to the internal network without any local software installation. The developed multi-physics model has been calibrated and validated by comparing the estimated wear profile with the measured residual wall thickness during the last relinings at Eisenhüttenstadt and Dillingen. Two instances of the multiphysics model are online and in use for monitoring the hearth lining state at these plants.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 1:

Intermediate reline of ArcelorMittal blast furnace A

L. Hausemer
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: Intermediate reline of ArcelorMittal blast furnace A


Author:
L. Hausemer

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
C. Bicalho, P. Pinheiro, E. Valente de Barros, R. Maia

Abstract:
On September 14th, 2017 the intermediate repair of Blast Furnace “A” at ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Brazil was successfully concluded after a 50-day shutdown. With an initial plan of 45 days ( blow-down to blow-in ) the scope was increased mid-project to 55 days to accommodate the exchange of two layers of carbon blocks in the hearth wall initially not foreseen. Through time saving strategies and daily reorganization of teams and activities this was later reduced by 5 days. Blast Furnace “A” fuelled by coke was originally designed and built by Paul Wurth 18 years ago to replace four smaller charcoal blast furnaces. Since initial blow-in it had been operating without a major repair producing ~18 mt of iron. The complete operation required more than 1,000 on-site workers and the participation of cross-functional teams of specialists from ArcelorMittal and Paul Wurth. A sound, collaborative effort established the success of this project; the details of which are described in this paper. Blow-down took place on July 27th. All supervisory tasks, erection and replacement of old by new copper staves were executed successfully by Paul Wurth do Brasil Montagens e Manutenção Industrial. In addition to repairs and services for the blast furnace proper, modernization and upgrades were applied to the pulverised coal injection plant, gas cleaning plant, pre-heater, INBA® slag granulation plant, hot blast system and tap hole relining. Prior to shutdown, the Bell Less Top and cast house components belonging to a non-built similar blast furnace were inspected and refurbished by Paul Wurth Services workshop in Vespasiano, Brazil.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 1:

Emergency hearth repair: an unconventional solution to minimize production loss successfully applied in AST BF 3

M. Uras
(Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 1 ( 10:00 )
Title: Emergency hearth repair: an unconventional solution to minimize production loss successfully applied in AST BF 3


Author:
M. Uras

Company:
Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
V. Dimastromatteo

Abstract:
In May 2018, Paul Wurth was called from Arvedi’s Siderurgica Triestina for an urgent hearth repair at BF 3 at their Trieste works in Italy. BF3 has been in service since 1991 with a total hot metal production of more than 4.5 million tons, in the last two years production has increased with an average daily production of around 1450 tHM/d tons. Some thermocouples had started to show worrying temperatures, an ultrasonic test for residual hearth lining measurement showed reduced thickness in some parts. The new refractory configuration selected by Paul Wurth was a tailor-made combination of a silicon carbide-based unshaped material as hot face lining, a monolithic carbon block in the taphole area surrounded by small carbon bricks, suitably shaped to ensure a proper connection with the remaining carbon lining. A fast delivery time of repair materials was crucial and achieved thanks to the combination of small carbon bricks around taphole and unshaped material; A complete salamander tapping was thus reached with reduced time for hearth cooling, demolition and decreased ramp up period at blow-in with minimized risks of process and safety. The hearth bottom and wall has been replenished with a significant thickness of SiC pumpable castable and several thermocouples have been installed for wear monitoring between residual carbon and new wear lining. Despite organizational complexity and additional unforeseen activities, BF 3 tapped hot metal again on Sunday,1st July, after a furnace stop of only 34 days. Full production was reached after 4 days with the best average monthly production in the entire BF life. Proper execution of the planned activities in full compliance with projected deadline was possible thanks to the joint effort, the high level of cooperation achieved between Arvedi and Paul Wurth teams as well as quick and effective decision making between customer and designer.

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 1:

Smart modernization of existing blast furnace with substantial increase of production with limited changes to plant infrastructure: A Paul Wurth experience...

M. Perato
(Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 1 ( 10:20 )
Title: Smart modernization of existing blast furnace with substantial increase of production with limited changes to plant infrastructure: A Paul Wurth experience...


Author:
M. Perato

Company:
Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
R. Manoranjan , M. Bassetti , N. Kumar, S. Kataria

Abstract:
In February 2016, the upgraded Blast Furnace 1 of JSW Steel Limited (JSW) at its Vijayanagar Steel Plant was blown after that the whole furnace was rebuilt on the existing foundations and within the existing tower structure. Despite several plant constraints it was possible to increase the furnace inner volume by 85% - reaching 2307 m3 from existing 1250m3. The upgradation project covered the stockhouse and its dedusting system, top charging system, furnace profile, furnace cooling system, casthouse and its dedusting system, slag granulation plant, pulverized coal injection plant, hot blast system and gas cleaning plant – with major interventions in order to cope up with the changed operating conditions. The total scope of the project was split by JSW into several packages, all based on design data provided by Paul Wurth. JSW was responsible for coordinating the local sub-contractors along with Paul Wurth which has been appointed as main technology supplier in charge of complete basic and selected detail engineering in the key areas and of the supply of core equipment such as the Bell-less Top®, copper staves, GCP key items and TMT casthouse machines. The main design concept and the key points of the project such as optimization of project ROI, advanced erection concepts as well as a summary of the operating results are presented confirming JSW “BF1” upgradation as one of the latest examples of the current state of the art in the revamping projects.

27 June / 11:00 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace campaign life extension

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 1:

Fit for service assessment of aging ironmaking facilities

K. Chomyn
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Fit for service assessment of aging ironmaking facilities


Author:
K. Chomyn

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
K. Chomyn, M. Al-Dojayli, J. Busser

Abstract:
Pressurized and non-pressurized equipment and containers in ironmaking facilities are exposed to harsh operating conditions, often beyond the originally intended design life. Accidental downtime and safety risks associated with failure of this equipment can impose significant costs. Necessary inspections, fit for service assessment, and repair planning are critical for protecting this equipment. Sample applications of this methodical approach are presented, including the use of guidelines of ASME FFS-1 / API 579-1 code. Finite element analysis may be used to more accurately quantify the extent of damage in this equipment. This methodology enables the operators to detect and more accurately assess damages in their facilities, minimizing the cost of repairs and unplanned downtimes.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 1:

Long campaign design innovations of a large blast furnace at WISCO

Z. Lu
(Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Long campaign design innovations of a large blast furnace at WISCO


Author:
Z. Lu

Company:
Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Long campaign technology of blast furnace (BF) involves special considerations throughout design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the BF. Learning from the reasons leading to pre-mature repair requirements of some blast furnaces in recent years, a number of innovative ideas were implemented in the design and operation of No.8 Blast Furnace with volume of 4117m3 at Wuhan Iron and Steel Company (WISCO). With the application of copper cooling staves and new structure design in hearth, its temperature distribution of lining and cooling staves shows normal behavior after 9 years working. After implementing a new design in the structure and use of cooper cooling staves in tuyere zone, bosh, and lower part of stack, the abnormal erosion and damage of the cooling staves have been effectively limited. Since the blow-in of this BF in 2009, it has achieved highest technological indexes among similar volume large BFs (more than 4000m3) in China, and the cooling staves and pipes of the BF have never been damaged so far, the goal of high efficiency and longevity have been achieved.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 1:

Historical data from long-term blast furnace refractory monitoring for campaign life extension using Acousto Ultrasonic-Echo

A. Sadri
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Close27 June, Room 1 ( 11:40 )
Title: Historical data from long-term blast furnace refractory monitoring for campaign life extension using Acousto Ultrasonic-Echo


Author:
A. Sadri

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
S. Kumar, Y. Gordon, W. Ying, M. Henstock

Abstract:
Proper timing of a blast furnace refractory reline is crucial to the success of any blast furnace operation. A premature furnace refractory relining results in loss of capital and creating unnecessary waste. Nevertheless, reckless furnace operation with inefficient and worn-down refractory lining can result in an costly metal leaks or run-outs and prolonged furnace downtime. Careful long-term continuous monitoring of refractory thickness and integrity allows for refractory wear and condition to be predicted, which results in better maintenance practices and optimum furnace reline schedules. Acousto Ultrasonic-Echo (AU-E) technique is a nondestructive testing technology based on stress wave propagation principals that has been proven to be a reliable and accurate for measuring refractory thickness and quality in operating furnaces. For complete analysis and improved accuracies, the AU-E results are cross correlated with thermal data from various sources in blast furnaces such as thermal couples and water cooling temperature, if the resources are available. For the last few years, blast furnace operators have been utilizing this patented technology for long-term periodic monitoring of refractory thickness and integrity to profound effect. The information generated from AU-E inspections has allowed the projection of refractory wear trends and remaining campaign life of blast furnaces. Additionally, the extensive history of AU-E allows historical benchmarking of wear rate and remaining refractory thickness of an inspection to other similar blast furnaces’ performances, or its previous campaign performance. In this paper, several blast furnaces cases are used to illustrate the effectiveness of AU-E in accurate predictions of refractory wear and subsequent actions for the extension of furnace campaign life. By comparing the subsequent AU-E measurements, we can see the effectiveness of various mitigating actions. Additionally, this paper introduces the state-of-the-art long-term continuous furnace monitoring technique – Furnace Integrity Monitoring System (FIMS). This technique is utilized with AU-E and thermal measurements for continuous and remote refractory wear monitoring to allow warnings and prediction of blast furnaces’ remaining campaign life.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 1:

30+ year campaign of IJmuiden Blast Furnace No. 6

F. Kerkhoven
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

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Title: 30+ year campaign of IJmuiden Blast Furnace No. 6


Author:
F. Kerkhoven

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
G. Tijhuis , J. Stuurwold , B. Nugteren , R. van Laar

Abstract:
Tata Steel Europe is operating two Blast Furnaces at the plant in IJmuiden. These produce more than 6 million tonnes hot metal per year at low coke rates (less than 300 kg/tHM) and high productivity levels (more than 3 tHM/m³WV). Raw materials include pellets and sinter. Blast Furnace No. 6 has been commissioned in 1967, while the current campaign started in 1986. The bosh, belly and stack campaign life has exceeded 32 years and 75 million tHM. This paper will address Blast Furnace No. 6 operations and design which have contributed to its record performance.

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27 June / 12:20 - Room 1:

Blast furnaces campaign extension at JSW

A. Srinavas Rao
(JSW, India)

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Title: Blast furnaces campaign extension at JSW


Author:
A. Srinavas Rao

Company:
JSW, India

Co-Authors:
R. Anand, L. Mallikarjun, L. Singh, M. Henstock, Y. Gordon, A. Sadri, W. Ying, S. Kumar

Abstract:
Reliable and stable operation with longer blast furnace campaign allows an increase in utilization of Blast furnace for production of hot metal. Longer campaign of the furnace to monitor the hearth wear out to initiate actions in time which is critical in extension of campaign of life of furnace. JSW and Hatch systematically monitor conditions of BF #3 lining using Acousto Ultrasonic-Echo (AU-E) non-destructive methodology. Testing of blast furnaces revealed problematic areas with refractory deterioration, formation of elephant foot, extent of accretion and rate of refractory wear, cracks and anomalies. Improvement in coke quality, periodical staves washing, addition of titania, grouting etc. were recommended and implemented to prolong furnace life while maintaining the productivity of furnace. Rate of refractory wear was calculated for various points of blast furnace hearth. The remaining furnace life was estimated and JSW started preparation for blast furnace reline.

27 June / 13:20 - Direct reduction and smelting reduction: Fundamentals in direct reduction and smelting reduction

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 1:

Factors influencing the quality of hot briquetted iron

C. Harris
(voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Factors influencing the quality of hot briquetted iron


Author:
C. Harris

Company:
voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
V. Romo, K. Gruber , E. De Moor

Abstract:
During the production of Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) it is important to control several key properties of the HBI in order to ensure a high quality, shippable product. These Important quality parameters include items such as apparent density, tumble strength and fines content. This paper reports on a series of plant trials performed at voestalpine’ s HBI plant in Corpus Christi Texas, which were done to better understand the major influences on HBI quality. Factors investigated include both process parameters such as incoming feed temperature as well as machine parameters, including operating torque and speed.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 1:

Reaction behavior between CO-CO2 gas mixture and carbon fiber deposited during metal dusting process

K. Nishihiro
(Kyushu University, Japan)

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Title: Reaction behavior between CO-CO2 gas mixture and carbon fiber deposited during metal dusting process


Author:
K. Nishihiro

Company:
Kyushu University, Japan

Co-Authors:
T. Maeda, K. Ohno, K. Kunitomo

Abstract:
CO-H2 gas mixture is often used for gas-based DRI process where carbon deposition reaction and Fe3C metal dusting play negative roles for a stable operation, such as sooting on the surface of gas path and the deterioration in gas ventilation due to the formation of ferrous dust. In particular, decomposition of Fe3C promotes the negative effects because of the formation of iron particle which is a catalyst for carbon fiber deposition around 600℃. Then, there is a possibility that CO-CO2 gas mixture gasifies the carbon fiber at around 1000℃. Investigation of these reactions is complicated because both of them sequentially occurs in sequential heating process. In the present study, thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to focus on the carbon fiber gasification reaction in CO-CO2 gas mixture. To prepare carbon fibers samples, metal dusting process and carbon deposition was carried out on reduced iron. Reagent Fe2O3 was reduced by 100vol%H2 at 800℃ for 120 minutes to get the reduced iron. The course of carbon deposition on the reduced iron were performed at 600℃ in 50vol%CO-50vol%H2. The carbon fiber gasification was investigated at 800, 900 and 1000 ℃ in flowing CO-CO2 gas mixture. Results showed that an increase in the initial gasification rate with an increase in either CO2 concentration or temperature. According to SEM observation, carbon fiber was gasified in the longitudinal direction rather than in radial. Moreover, a sintered iron cluster was observed in carbon fiber sample after gasification. It is assumed that dispersed tiny iron particles in the sample was aggregated and sintered due to gasification carbon fiber in the longitudinal direction.

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 1:

Size optimization of pellet for DRI process

C. Verma
(Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India)

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Title: Size optimization of pellet for DRI process


Author:
C. Verma

Company:
Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In Coal Based DRI process, reduction process mainly depends on size and physical quality of both iron oxide (lump iron ore or pellets) and fuel. In present time, most of the DRI kilns has been running with pellets and as already mentioned that the size of pellets plays crucial role in reduction kinetics inside the DRI kilns and most of the DRI plant uses pellet size 5-15mm and getting 81-82% Fe(M) in DRI at the rate of 92-93% metallization (Degree of Reduction) maximum which ultimately affects SMS yield as the rest Fe apart from Fe(M) is being present in the form of FeO which is not required by SMS. This study includes size wise physical and chemical analysis of both raw pellets and corresponding DRI after the reduction process and it shows +12mm raw pellet has very poor tumbler and abrasion index and reduction behavior also starts decreasing from +10mm size. Study concludes the ideal size for DRI process is 3-12 MM with respect to DRI quality i.e. Fe (M) and energy efficiency. At JSPL Raigarh, we have used the same size range which has reduced the retention time of pellet inside the kiln and ultimately improved the productivity and quality. It also brought down the energy and temperature requirement in DRI production.

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27 June / 14:40 - Room 1:

Experimental study of DRI carburization

M. Farahani
(ArcelorMittal Global R&D, United States)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Experimental study of DRI carburization


Author:
M. Farahani

Company:
ArcelorMittal Global R&D, United States

Co-Authors:
J. Barros Lorenzo

Abstract:
Carbon in DRI provides energy and enhances the steelmaking process in the EAF; in addition, it reduces the DRI reactivity, making easier the storage and material handling. Current article describes the research of DRI carburization phenomenon in a Direct Reduction Shaft Furnace (SF) by ArcelorMittal Global R&D. TGA and gravimetric furnaces were used to provide different reduction and carburizing conditions. The experimental setup is close to actual SF parameters. Obtained results show the importance of availability of reacting components, especially Hydrocarbons, and temperature as two major factors impacting the content and the type of Carbon in DRI.

Room 26

27 June / 09:00 - Rolling: Digitalization and Smart Factory-solutions for processing industry

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 26:

The ever increasing role of automation in the development of the "Intelligent Plant" of the future

A. Mestroni
(Danieli Automation S.p.A., Italy)

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Close27 June, Room 26 ( 09:00 )
Title: The ever increasing role of automation in the development of the "Intelligent Plant" of the future


Author:
A. Mestroni

Company:
Danieli Automation S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Danieli Group is deeply involved in the technological improvements stimulated by Industry 4.0 concepts, widely applied to metal industry and process automation. The development of the so called "Intelligent Plant" is the natural evolution of the consolidated company know-how and of the undisputed leadership in the fields of mini-mill and turnkey plants. Complete and structured data collection is the basis for real-time analysis and process optimization in terms of quality, efficiency and easy maintenance. The centralized repository of information is possible thanks to the strong interconnection between process control system architecture and intelligent sensors, together with dedicated software tools leading to an intuitive approach to data analytics.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 26:

Technology improvements with cyberphysical cooling system at HSM #1 of Thyssenkrupp Steel

K. Weinzierl
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Technology improvements with cyberphysical cooling system at HSM #1 of Thyssenkrupp Steel


Author:
K. Weinzierl

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
E. Hermann, L. Pichler, A. Seilinger, A. Reljic

Abstract:
In 2010 development of a cyberphysical cooling system has been started and finished now with the completion of the pilot project at thyssenkrupp hot strip mill I in Bruckhausen. While a classical automation system divides the plant into its process areas roughing mill, finishing mill and cooling section with separate controllers for each of them, Primetals Technologies has reorganized the automation of finishing mill and cooling section with only one comprehensive controller and underlying model. With a classical automation system, the separate controllers for finishing mill and cooling section often interfere with each other when trying to reach competing control targets resulting in a semi-optimum overall performance. Primetals’s Comprehensive Strip Temperature Control enables optimum performance results of both the finishing mill and the coiling temperature, as presented results from the pilot plant show. The hot strip mill in Bruckhausen is equipped with Primetals state of the art strip cooling technology. For the transfer bar cooling, an equipment which was firstly operated as prototype installation in 2002 at voestalpine is installed. One main feature is a special header design with 3 separate individually flow controllable chambers. In the run out table cooling Primetals Power Cooling is installed featuring 16 pairs of top and bottom headers. The advantages of Power Cooling technology are due to very high achievable cooling rates and homogeneous water flow over the width which are both required to improve production costs and strip quality. Furthermore, the model drives also the transfer bar cooling device and entire water management system. Homogeneous temperatures along length and width of transfer bar when entering the finishing mill are requested and improving material quality. Thus, the newly developed cooling technology combined with the cooling model forms a cyberphysical system with proven superior performance at thyssenkrupp steel WBW 1.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 26:

Metals production in the streaming age: How to create a streamline of non-predictable metal products

E. Meta
(PSI Metals GmbH, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 26 ( 09:40 )
Title: Metals production in the streaming age: How to create a streamline of non-predictable metal products


Author:
E. Meta

Company:
PSI Metals GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
L. Van Nerom, A. Betzold, R. Jäger

Abstract:
The digital revolution changed the way we acquire products and as a result changed customers’ expectations and behavior. Until recent years customers went to stores to find the product they needed and selected from the different available choices. Today customers, instead of selecting from a limited set of options, search for the product they want and place orders through a seamless acquisition process, creating a streamline of products delivered to their door. These changes caused several players in the industry to be under threat by newcomers, while others adapted their business models increasing the value of the products offered to their customers, providing a better customer experience and reduced friction during the acquisition process. The same changes are currently happening in the industrial goods market. Customers’ requirements are propagated upstream through the supply chain up to industrial manufacturers, creating new demands for the market. In response to new market demands, some online retailers are already offering standardized industrial metals products, increasing the pressure for metals producers to process customer requirements faster. To compete in this new business environment, metals manufacturers should improve their business model from an efficiency oriented production to a service oriented production, offering real-time accurate answers to their customers. Such business model requires a combination of real time final product design linked to semi-finished inventories, advanced production planning and scheduling to make accurate delivery promises and end-to-end visibility through the whole production process up to the delivery. The purpose of this paper is to describe how Industry 4.0 technologies allow metals producers to develop the core abilities required for a service oriented production and create a streamline of non-predictable metals products where customers are able to place orders through a real-time seamless acquisition process, a solution only metals manufacturers can provide.

27 June / 10:40 - Rolling: Virtualization and HMI* in rolling and finishing operations

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 26:

Dynamic, Adaptive and Mobile System for Context-Based and Intelligent Support of Employees in the Steel Industry

K. Hermsen
(Celano GmbH, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 26 ( 10:40 )
Title: Dynamic, Adaptive and Mobile System for Context-Based and Intelligent Support of Employees in the Steel Industry


Author:
K. Hermsen

Company:
Celano GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Jansen, N. Zengeler, M. Grimm, Z. Qasem, D. Keßler, A. Arntz, S. Eimler, U. Handmann

Abstract:
In order to fulfill the customer's requests for more product variety and quality, the processes in heavy industry companies are becoming shorter and more complex. These changes will also affect the demands on employees. At last, they make decisions within the diverse hierarchical levels that influence the production planning and the production process and thus ensure economic success. These decisions are increasingly based on a reliable, transparent and real-time provision of production and process data. This data should be provided in a simple and intuitive manner. To ensure this, it is important to recognize and consider the respective context. It must be decided who needs which data, at which moment and which place. The role of the user, the production situation and location must be recognized and evaluated. In the research project “DamokleS4.0-Dynamic, adaptive and mobile system for context-based and intelligent support of employees in the steel industry” (1.7.2016-30.6.2019) explores how new technologies, like mobile and smart devices or augmented reality as envisioned in Industry 4.0, can be used to provide context-based and intelligent support to employees in the steel industry. The project, in which celano and the Hochschule Ruhr West - University of Applied Sciences collaborate, is funded by the European Union. Exemplified by four scenarios derived from real situations in the steel industry the context-based data provision is described as well as the use of mobile devices and wearables with internal and external sensors and image processing methods. For interaction with the user the use of technologies like smart glasses are evaluated concerning usability and safety.

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 26:

The digital twin - one solution for different tasks

M. Haverkamp
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 26 ( 11:00 )
Title: The digital twin - one solution for different tasks


Author:
M. Haverkamp

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract A digital twin can have different characteristic features. Real-time capable models can simulate movements of a plant in a logical way. If these models are coupled via the projected fieldbuses with the real control hardware a control loop is generated (hardware in the loop = HIL). Thereby the real control software can be checked before the real plant is erected at customer site. This approach can be expanded so that real-time process models for e.g. rolling forces, temperature and shape of the rolled product are also calculated in parallel. This approach provides a perfect platform for replicating errors during trainings since the risk for damage or shutdown is excluded. Furthermore the digital twin can be used by experts to identify parameters in the process controls long before they are applied in reality. Additionally, the twin can also be used for the optimization of the production process before it is transferred to the real plant. Thus potential problems can be detected and solved in advance or errors can be reproduced without interrupting the real production. This paper describes exemplarily a digital twin of a ring rolling machine including the achieved real-time simulation results regarding material deformation as well as the identification of optimized parameters for the process control. In case 3D inspections of collisions or trainings are the main interest for using a digital twin, 3D models can be coupled with the simulation and the plant status can be observed by VR glasses. The immersion is increased by the stereoscopic view and the additional use of sound so that the user is one with the virtual world. Hence complex maintenance sequences can be playfully learned in a game with the help of controllers for tracking the hand movement. Another example will be presented in which way 3D collisions could be detected.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 26:

Basic technologies to achieve smart rolling mills

H. Imanari
(Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Japan)

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Close27 June, Room 26 ( 11:20 )
Title: Basic technologies to achieve smart rolling mills


Author:
H. Imanari

Company:
Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:
N. Shimoda, H. Inami, N. Kubo

Abstract:
It is important for the manufacturers to operate and to maintain the production lines efficiently and cost effectively to keep the competitiveness in the market. Against the targets there are some difficulties such as the customer requests on small volume production in many lots, quick delivery with lower prices. Also there are issues that highly skilled employees and their successors have been reduced in their companies. One of the measures to solve these problems is a highly automated production line with flexible control systems, i.e. much more advanced automation systems than before. The system should give or suggest the optimal solutions which include the preventive and predictive maintenance for facilities and for products, easy communication means to assist operators and engineers. The recent technologies related to big data analytics, IoT and AI have become a basis of the advanced automation systems in industries. Also it is principle to acquire, accumulate and utilize the data from the production lines efficiently to apply those technologies effectively to the objective plants. Here we focus on the rolling mills as our objectives, thus the data acquisition speed should be very high, and therefore the amount of accumulated data becomes very large. We call the advanced automation systems for the rolling mills as the smart rolling mills. In this paper we will discuss the basic technologies to build them such as data acquisition tools, HMI based on IoT, and data analytics. The HMI will become a center of cyber-physical systems to get all information and to manipulate everything by operators. Then we will show some examples of the predictive maintenance for main motors and induction heaters, and the methods to predict steel strip tail chews and other failures in hot strip mills. The examples will be shown with actual data.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 26:

CEM® Total Engineering Solution System; engineering, virtual commissioning and operation training.

J. Kim
(POSCO, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: CEM® Total Engineering Solution System; engineering, virtual commissioning and operation training.


Author:
J. Kim

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Since the start of the CEM® plant in 2009, CEM has experienced a lot of trial and error in stabilizing engineering, commissioning and operation for high speed casting and endless rolling technology development. From this trial and error, we accumulated a lot of experience and know-how from engineering to normal operation. As a result, it is possible to build a total engineering solution system that can prevent and solve the problems caused by high speed casting and endless rolling. This system draw the equipment specifications to meet customer requirement and can verify manufacturing drawing and control system in advance before staring the factory. In addition, local employees can learn operation skills by handling HMI and control panel in person. The system development will help customers who introduce CEM technology shorten the time required to achieve normal operation. In addition, it is expected to prevent accidents due to lack of operation skills by allowing local employees enter into the field after enough training in environment similar to real factory.

27 June / 13:00 - Rolling: Reheating and descaling

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27 June / 13:00 - Room 26:

QHEAT: Induction heating system for long and flat products

F. Arduini
(Danieli Automation S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: QHEAT: Induction heating system for long and flat products


Author:
F. Arduini

Company:
Danieli Automation S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
S. Barbanti, E. Gigante

Abstract:
Based on the experience of endless and hot charging process and the know-how in converters units, Danieli Automation has developed a new induction heating system, called Q-Heat. The induction heating furnace is the most environmentally friendly solution for reaching the required rolling temperature without using gas or smoke emissions, and drastically reducing scale formation. Additionally, the induction heating furnace is ready in real time: no need for long start or stop sequences, as with traditional reheating furnaces. The power inverters used to supply the inductor coils are based to the IGBT technology. The control structure is based on a powerful, state-of-the-art Danieli Automation Process Automation Controller (DA-PAC), that communicates with power part controller (modulator board) with Ethercat and with field bus with Level 1 plant automation. Danieli Automation special coils design and the care in the selection of the best materials allow for an high electrical efficiency of the heating coils. Moreover, case by case the system is designed using FEM simulators. The paper focuses on the actual induction heating state-of-the-art technology in metal production process, in the light of considerable experience coming from various QHEAT installations, both long and flat products, analyzing results from field as consumptions and performance reached by Danieli Automation installations worldwide.

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 26:

Maximizing impact force from descale headers using CFD analysis

M. Bodingbauer
(Spraying Systems Co. Europe, ÖSTERREICH)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 26 ( 13:20 )
Title: Maximizing impact force from descale headers using CFD analysis


Author:
M. Bodingbauer

Company:
Spraying Systems Co. Europe, ÖSTERREICH

Co-Authors:
L. Peterson

Abstract:
Descaling is an important step in the rolling process. The oxide is removed from the surface of the product to improve surface quality and maintain the rolls. Nozzle selection and header design are important parts of an effective descaling system. The nozzles need to be sized and placed, so they provide sufficient impact force to remove the oxide with the minimal amount of water possible. Headers need to be sized to maximize the impact performance of the nozzles. Impact testing along with CFD analysis can help to determine if a header has been properly designed to provide maximum impact force. CFD analysis can determine the fluid approach velocity along with the turbulence level in the header. The spray pattern of the nozzle can then be measured for impact force and distribution under different approach velocities and turbulence levels. Comparing these to a nozzle tested under an ideal no turbulence condition can determine minimum header size requirements based on nozzle capacity and pressure. Optimizing the header can help to improve performance and minimize energy costs. This paper will show the results of several existing installations where both CFD and impact testing was used to optimize a descaling operation in hot strip mills and plate mills.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 26:

Transverse flux induction heater at Rizhao's ESP line 4 boosts the efficiency

B. Linzer
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 26 ( 13:40 )
Title: Transverse flux induction heater at Rizhao's ESP line 4 boosts the efficiency


Author:
B. Linzer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
T. Lengauer, S. Grosseiber, B. Linzer, A. Jungbauer, A. Umbrasko, A. Thus

Abstract:
While all currently running ESP lines were using longitudinal flux induction heaters, Rizhao’s ESP line 4 is the first Arvedi ESP line with transverse flux induction heater. Right from the first production sequences drastic energy savings have been monitored. Flexible heater adjustments give the freedom to optimize energy consumption for all operation cases. The installation just beside Rizhao’s ESP lines 1-3 offers perfect comparison possibilities. Measurement results from the newest ESP line operating transverse flux in comparison with the existing ESP lines powered by longitudinal flux will be discussed in this paper.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 26:

Development of Induction Heating System for CEM® process

Y. Cho
(POSCO, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 26 ( 14:00 )
Title: Development of Induction Heating System for CEM® process


Author:
Y. Cho

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The compact endless casting & rolling mill (CEM®), the energy saving steel making process which directly links a single continuous caster and a single hot rolling mill, has been successfully developed by POSCO. From the direct linking of high speed caster and endless rolling mill, CEM® is able to manufacture ultra-thin-gauge hot-rolled products of high and uniform quality. Endless rolling mill includes the rolling stands for the reduction of the thickness and the heating device to obtain the temperature for the rolling. To achieve the metallurgical properties of product which are substantially affected by the desired temperature (FDT), the highly efficient induction heater was developed for the CEM® process. In this paper, mathematical model is presented for the prediction of the temperature distributions during the heating and the cooling. The model in the air cooling regions considers the radiation and the convection. The model at the induction heater considers the heat generation due to the induced eddy current. The types of induction heater are LF (longitudinal flux) type and TF (transverse flux) type according to the direction of magnetic field. There exists the difference in the distribution of heat generation depending on the type of induction heating. From the combination of these mathematical models, the temperature distributions can be predicted in the induction heating regions. The prediction accuracy of the proposed model is examined through comparison with actual data.

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 26:

Influence of injection distance on attenuation of water droplet velocity in high pressure descaling

Y. Tamura
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 26 ( 14:20 )
Title: Influence of injection distance on attenuation of water droplet velocity in high pressure descaling


Author:
Y. Tamura

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Hydraulic descaling is used in hot rolling mills in order to remove scale and prevent surface defects. Because the impact pressure of the descaling jet is one important factor from the viewpoint of mechanically breaking and applying thermal shock to scale layers, the water jet structure and the droplet velocity should have large effects on scale breaking properties. However, the influence of the injection distance on the jet structure and the droplet velocity has not been clearly understood. In this work, the behavior of changes in the descaling jet structure and attenuation of the water droplet velocity along the injection distance were investigated experimentally. High pressure descaling nozzles with pressures up to 25MPa were used, and the injection distance was varied in the range from 30 to 400mm. The jet structure was observed with a high speed camera, and the water droplet velocity and diameter were measured with a phase Doppler analyzer. It was confirmed that the jet structure changes continuously through a process of continuous flow, break-up, water lump, and water droplet. It was found that a continuous flow can be kept for a long distance by using a low injection pressure and large flow rate, and the water droplet diameter also becomes larger, which reduces velocity attenuation. This study showed that the velocity attenuation depends on the ratio of the injection distance to the orifice diameter under all experimental conditions.

Room 27

27 June / 09:00 - Rolling: Process and production control, transportation and logistics I

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 27:

Bar mill dynamic pacing control

I. Grgic
(Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 27 ( 09:00 )
Title: Bar mill dynamic pacing control


Author:
I. Grgic

Company:
Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
L. Sandrigo, H. Tabikh, M. Rinaldi

Abstract:
Dynamic pacing at ABS Marte bar mill is control system improving plant productivity and bar temperature stability at hot saw inlet considering the on-line condition both of rolling and finishing mill, which are directly linked. Rolling mill configuration has 3 reversible stands producing a wide bars section range, but this solution puts productivity under pressure, therefore there is need of optimisation tools. The system is able to detect on-line both maximum pacing achievable by rolling stands and bars jam before hot saw and before NDT, to foresee finishing mill productivity and slow-downs due to order separation/sampling on the cooling bed. Moreover software is able to detect the condition of ‘hot blooms’ at furnace outlet and increase maximum discharging pacing if blooms inside RHF are hotter than aim and there is no risk from internal quality point of view. Software allows collaboration among different single plants, so when it foresees a slow down due to future order separation, it rebalance it increasing accordingly reheating furnace maximum pacing for the blooms immediately before order separation. This event is very frequent in case of special bars qualities due to small orders dimensions and this innovative optimisation needs the management of huge amount of data. Dynamic pacing control allowed a 3-18% net productivity increase depending on sections size together with 1-10% increase in bars having surface within ± 20°C before hot saw for small sections.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 27:

Innovative control concept for thin gauge rolling at ESP

D. Kotzian
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 27 ( 09:20 )
Title: Innovative control concept for thin gauge rolling at ESP


Author:
D. Kotzian

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Grüss, B. Linzer

Abstract:
To enable an outstanding strip thickness quality and a high stability during thin strip rolling up to 0,6 mm exit thickness in Endless Strip Production (ESP), Primetals Technologies has developed an innovative control concept for the Finishing Mill which is called “Ultra-Thin Rolling Control” (UTR). This is an adapted control concept of Tandem Cold Mills, which has been used successfully many times during cold rolling. The UTR is successfully in operation at Rizhao ESP line 4 during thin strip rolling with outstanding stability and exit thickness performance. Depending on the material dimension or the rolling condition the UTR mode will be selected during rolling accordingly and with smooth transition functionality. The UTR consists of an entry tension control via roll gap and roll speed and it contains a Roll Eccentricity Compensation for work and backup rolls. Thereby the load cell of the interstand looper measures the strip tension between the stand while the looper is in position control and holds its position constant.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 27:

Integrated overall quality management

J. Gnauk
(PSI Metals GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 27 ( 09:40 )
Title: Integrated overall quality management


Author:
J. Gnauk

Company:
PSI Metals GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Hackmann, X. Liu, K. Huang, V. Berenzon

Abstract:
Traditional quality management systems (QMS) regard local processes and often still act on level 2 automation systems. A novel type of integrated QMS was developed as part of, and fully integrated in, an existing and continuously developing level 3 production management system. In contrast to former software products, the high integration not only allows the standard functionality of conventional QM installations but also a transparent elaboration of quality targets and indicators as well as traceability and control of intermediate and final quality decisions. Inside the overall integrated structure a knowledge base is defined. Rules derive quality targets and quality indicators from customer orders. These quality targets and indicators are related to a characteristic set of produced materials as well as to details of production processes. The common repository stores quality data provided by arbitrary providers like MES, LIMS, SIS, L1 and L2 systems, etc. Quality Deviation Management allows to automatically resolve recognized quality problems by initiating e.g. rework or down grading. Also tools like statistical process control and root cause analysis are available not only on isolated facilities but also spanning various production steps to better optimize quality tracking and prevention of defect occurrences. Deep learning algorithms, already used in a PSI pilot project will guide and enhance this process in future versions of this software.

27 June / 10:40 - Rolling: Process and production control, transportation and logistics II

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 27:

Modular coil shuttle system - the next generation for coil logistic system operating at ATIs hot strip mill

L. Pichler
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 27 ( 10:40 )
Title: Modular coil shuttle system - the next generation for coil logistic system operating at ATIs hot strip mill


Author:
L. Pichler

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
C. Salzmann, R. Hofer, T. DeLuca

Abstract:
PRIMETALS TECHNOLOGIES (PT) was awarded to build a new, fully integrated hot-rolling mill on a process-turn-key basis including a water treatment plant. The hot rolling mill was put into operation jointly with Allegheny Technologies Incorporated (ATI) in the year 2014 in Brackenridge, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The mill is capable of rolling a wide range of highly diversified carbon and stainless steels and specialty metals at widths up to 2,083mm. A core component of the hot strip mill at ATI is its next generation coil logistic system with the Modular Coil Shuttle (MCS) system. The MCS system is a rail-based fully automated modular coil transport system arranged in a loop design. There is a loaded track (coils are transported from down coiler area to the coil yard or the next processing facility) and an unloaded track (the empty cars are transported back to the coiler). Multiple stations located around the track perform several movements, like shifting, turning or lifting/lowering of the MCS car. These modules can be flexibly arranged to realize each plant layout according to the customer`s needs. The operating cars are controlled independently from each other by using industrial wireless LAN. The quantity of active cars flexibly adapts to the mill requirements. The coil yard area set-up, fed by the MCS cars, is split up into two coil yard bays. It allows storing a maximum number of coils for one shift of production at short pacing by using automatic overhead cranes with automatic coil loaders. The coil loaders pick and place the coils from the MCS cars onto coil saddles in the coil storage and from the coil saddles onto rail road cars. The benefits of Primetals Technologies’ MCS system and operational results from the hot strip mill of ATI will be presented in the paper

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 27:

Ecological and economic optimisation of auxiliary aggregates in steel production

M. Loos
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 27 ( 11:00 )
Title: Ecological and economic optimisation of auxiliary aggregates in steel production


Author:
M. Loos

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Neuer, J. Polzer, M. Feldges

Abstract:
Auxialiary aggregates like the cooling of rolls or ventilation systems show reasonable potential for economic and ecological impacts. But those units have only been scarcely considered in optimisation attempts before and there was an urgent need to explore how auxialiary aggregates can be efficiently automatized by smart control strategies. The talk presents results of the German research project ÖkoSys, which focused on exactly this problem. It investigated how optimal automation approaches can look like, what difficulties have to be overcome and what impact could be achieved. Here, dedicated prediction models were introduced on two different complexity levels, first highly-resolving finite element models e.g. thermal details and second quick reduced models for driving control decisions. The solution concepts were finally analysed and demonstrated in a prototypical way at a steel company that produces long-products.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 27:

The integrated production management system - the platform for innovation

H. Wolf
(PSI Metals GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: The integrated production management system - the platform for innovation


Author:
H. Wolf

Company:
PSI Metals GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Steel production is a complex, data-driven process with a large number of possible intermediate and finished products, specifications and qualities. This complexity is only manageable with the support of tightly integrated IT systems. The steel industry has been embracing digitalization for decades, by introducing shop floor automation (L1 systems), process control systems (L2 systems) and production workflow management systems (L3 systems). Over the last years, L3 systems have moved from specialized manufacturing execution systems (MES) for a certain area, such as the primary liquid production, the hot rolling or the finishing area, to fully integrated production management systems (PMS) that cover the complete steel production process end-to-end. Typical features of an integrated PMS are: • an integrated, consistent factory model, • visibility of all production and quality data along the complete production process, • integration of production tracking, quality, logistics, and planning & scheduling functionalities, • and traceability of each semi-finished and finished piece together with its test samples and each order with all its associated production, quality and commercial information. With the implementation of integrated PMS, steel producers have been able to leverage the availability of end-to-end process information to achieve higher process stability, to plan and schedule with higher accuracy, and to keep quality and delivery promises with higher confidence. With the current hype around Industry 4.0 (I4.0) and Internet of Things (IoT), a lot of promising technologies are arising that could and should be evaluated by steel producers. At the same time, ever-faster changes in the economic environment, and the forces of globalization, force steel producers to innovate and change more rapidly. Both challenges must be met by the integrated PMS. In this paper, we propose an evolutionary system architecture with the integrated PMS as the platform for innovation. Furthermore, we want to highlight some use cases how the integrated PMS is meeting current and future challenges.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 27:

Online materialflow optimization for critical conveyance infrastructure

C. Grubert
(Celano GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 27 ( 11:40 )
Title: Online materialflow optimization for critical conveyance infrastructure


Author:
C. Grubert

Company:
Celano GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Modern factories rely on simulation-based planning tools to provide just-in-time delivery between various aggregates. This minimizes storage costs and maximises the overall material output due to reduced transport times. But these tools usually work offline and therefore lack the ability to react to spontaneous changes like malfunctions, which can cause the precisely planned flow to break down. Recovering from such an event can take some time and may lead to lower quality or irreparable material. Inspired by traffic optimization systems we are using a microscopic model to periodically simulate the expected flow at identified bottlenecks a few hours ahead. Each run is based on the current state of each adjoining aggregate, including the latest material stock and known malfunctions reported by the underlaying systems or user input. It also considers transport rules such as cooldown times of material and maximum throughput at each point, depending on the given task. The result is a forecast containing rated material jams at the bottleneck and idle times for subsequent aggregates. If the probability of occurrence is high enough, the optimization is executed to solve the issue by slowing down aggregates or requesting materials from the warehouse system. The specific actions are defined and weighted by the user to comply with the customers needs. This corresponds to the knowledge gained from traffic research, showing that an average flow leads to better results in the long term than stop-and-go movement. Initial tests on previously recorded production data show reasonable predictions and sensible solutions of either mentioned issue. The influence of these optimizations on regular production systems is currently subject of our research. Commissioning at the customer's plant will take place in January, so that results can be shown in the presentation.

27 June / 13:20 - Rolling: Modelling and simulations

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 27:

Advanced strip shaping by highly sophisticated mathematical modeling and optimization techniques - a way to contour control

A. Thekale
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 27 ( 13:20 )
Title: Advanced strip shaping by highly sophisticated mathematical modeling and optimization techniques - a way to contour control


Author:
A. Thekale

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Kurz, M. Miele, A. Schmidt, J. Frenzel, C. Gusek, M. Vogt

Abstract:
Meeting customer-provided strip profile targets, e.g. C40 values, is a major task of profile and flatness control (PFC). In case of a large variety of steel grades to be rolled and small lot sizes, the application of highly sophisticated mathematical models within the PFC is required to meet given target values. We present the latest versions of Primetals Technologies core models. They take different effects within and between mill stands into account such as roll bending and flattening, material flow in the roll gap, stand stretch, thermal and wear crown as well as inter-stand profile transmission. These models have been verified on a broad spectrum of plant types such as hot strip mills, medium-wide hot strip mills, plate mills, Steckel mills and Endless Strip Production (ESP) mills, and on a broad spectrum of strip dimensions up to 5m width in plate mills and down to 0.7mm thin strips in ESP mills. If one aims at shaping strips correctly, it is important to compare measured with calculated, model-based contours. This comparison can be used as good measure on the model quality as well. Besides models that calculate strip contours sufficiently accurate, collecting real mill process data that allows offline recalculation is important. Having both at hand, we present an optimizer that is able to adjust internal model parameters to improve model accuracy and to analyze external model inputs to reveal input errors. This leads to reduced commissioning times, increased commissioning ramp ups, less adaptation and better extrapolation for new materials. Moreover, these models can be used to analyze and classify contour defects. Some can be resolved by bending and shifting within PFC setup, others by mechanical modification of the plants or by changing the production schedule. Being able to handle these defects, controlling strip contour is the obvious next step.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 27:

FE analysis of influence of roll bending on roller leveling effect of high strength thin plate

J. Negami
(Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Co., Ltd., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 27 ( 13:40 )
Title: FE analysis of influence of roll bending on roller leveling effect of high strength thin plate


Author:
J. Negami

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Recently, in a field of industrial machinery, application of high strength thin plate, having yield stress greater than 800MPa and thickness less than 10mm, is increasing so as to reduce weight and improve safety. High strength thin plate is often manufactured through strong cooling process. The rapid cooling, however, causes a flatness defects such as edge wave and center buckle. In order to eliminate flatness defects, roller leveler is widely applied. The roller leveling of high strength and light gauge plate is difficult because it requires strong bending. As a means of improving leveling capability, application of roll bending to roller leveling is known. In this leveling method, work rolls are deliberately bended so that the roll plunge differs along the plate width direction. The effectiveness of roll bending has been proved by both experimental and analytical studies. On the other hand, there are not so many reports that discuss the mechanism of roll bending leveling. This paper investigate the effect of roll bending leveling of high strength thin plate having an edge wave, and discusses the mechanism of roll bending leveling. By means of an analytical evaluation, a three-dimensional finite element model based on ABAQUS/Explicit was introduced. The simulation results suggested that the major effect of roll bending on enhancement of leveling capability is a longitudinal stress occurred by the lateral distribution of roll plunge.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 27:

Advanced control for continuous line furnaces to optimize performance and quality

J. Naveira
(CMI Industry, Spain)

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Close27 June, Room 27 ( 14:00 )
Title: Advanced control for continuous line furnaces to optimize performance and quality


Author:
J. Naveira

Company:
CMI Industry, Spain

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
CMI Industry Metals’ patented furnace control mathematical models, L-TOP® (vertical furnaces) and LH-TOP® (horizontal furnaces), are controlling all process conditions whether steady or transient, and are all integral parts of an optimized, state-of-the-art CMI furnace design. Both models have successfully been installed on more than thirty processing lines’ furnaces all over the world. The return of experience coming from these lines have allowed CMI to accumulate an invaluable know-how in furnace control and helped to provide clients with considerable performance improvements. As such, the models not only guarantee an important production increase, and considerable quality improvements, they are also, and very importantly, allowing for a consistent high product quality. Building on this expertise, and knowing that progress never stops, CMI constantly keeps adding new features to further improve productivity and the produced strip quality. The latest additions include an optimized architecture and the split between communication and process applications. The model is now modular, and able to optimally manage each section of the line, with very short calculation cycles. This allows the management of various parameters, for instance control of the inductor type section, or speed control around the weld (horizontal lines), within few tenths of a second.

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 27:

Benchmark of resolution methods for the heat equation in Siderurgy L2 thermal modeling

M. Bentivegni
(Vallourec SA, France)

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Close27 June, Room 27 ( 14:20 )
Title: Benchmark of resolution methods for the heat equation in Siderurgy L2 thermal modeling


Author:
M. Bentivegni

Company:
Vallourec SA, France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In the premium steelmaking industry, the heat treatment of steel products is a key process in order to obtain the good final physical properties and in a correct range of values. Industry 4.0 target is a complete management and control of production. Level 2 modeling is one of the keystone for process data generation: in a heating process we know the charging and discharging state by sensors, what is unknown is the physical evolution in between. The L2 model fulfil this lack. The mastering of the processes requires the best comprehension of the temperature field’s evolution and the correlated mechanism. All thermal processes are submitted to the same partial-differential equation, the heat equation. Between the heating, the natural cooling or the quenching of a product, the only mathematical difference comes from the applied boundary conditions which are related to the considered thermal flows on the limits (radiation, convection, conduction). This equation can be analytically solved only in some particular cases which are not relevant for industrial purpose. Therefore, we have to solve the heat equation through numerical methods such as finite-difference (FD), finite-volume (FV) or finite-element (FE). The dedicated commercial software are able to solve the heat equation in a very precise way but they are not adapted to the specific needs of a real-time calculation and consistent with the measurement precision in the plants. The necessity of a model dedicated to the thermal physic, to the specific geometries and to the furnace configurations is based on these plant-oriented requirements. The first point is the way we deal with the temporal derivative of the heat equation. This part is the most important one as it decides the flexibility of the numerical simulation. The two classical approaches, explicit and implicit methods, have their own advantages and drawbacks that we have to evaluate with the perspective of the industrials requirements. Then, we will decide the most adapted numerical method (FD, FV or FE). The choice of the numerical method has to be based on criteria such as the speed, the maintainability, the improvement capacity and the precision. The chosen models will then be tested on temperature uniformity survey trials (TUS) and compared each other.

Room 28

27 June / 09:00 - Rolling: Plant upgrades and new equipment developments I

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 28:

Technical solutions for safe handling of high-strength coils

C. Mengel
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 09:00 )
Title: Technical solutions for safe handling of high-strength coils


Author:
C. Mengel

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
C. Mengel, T. Holzhauer

Abstract:
Hot rolling of high-strength grades is gaining importance. Among the carbon steels, these are particularly the multi-phase steels for the automotive industry, higher- strength structural steels, tube steels and wear- resistant steels. In the segment of stainless steels, these are duplex steels and special-purpose steels, part of which is produced with relatively low coil weights of up to 16 tons. The thicknesses of strip made of the above materials are increasing to as much as 25.4 mm. In addition to the technical challenge presented by the production of these materials on hot rolling mills, there is also the aspect of the safe handling of these coils. Basically, there is a distinction to be made between the temporary securing of steel coils during delivery from the coiler and permanent own securing of the coil due to specific plastic deformation of the final wraps already on the hot strip coiler. A combination of two methods provides a wide production range for the plastic deformation of the outer wraps: The tail end cooling is in particular effective when coiling high strength materials with average and higher thickness at a certain temperature level. The deformation is applied with a thermal-mechanical bending. The tail end forming device offers the highest benefit for ultra-high strength material at average or thinner thickness. The deformation is applied with mechanical bending. The objective is to ensure coil handling without risk at least till the next securing by a strapping machine. The paper presents the technical problem definition, shows already implemented technical solutions, and gives an outlook to further possible future oriented solutions, featuring the following measures: • Stabilization of the coil on the coil car • Coil clamping from above • Clamping in the coil eye • Reduction of residual stresses • Thermal method for stabilization of the outer wrap • Direct pallet system

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 28:

Arvedi ESP: Pioneering mature technology for endless casting and rolling

A. Jungbauer
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 09:20 )
Title: Arvedi ESP: Pioneering mature technology for endless casting and rolling


Author:
A. Jungbauer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
S. Grosseiber, T. Lengauer

Abstract:
Arvedi ESP is the first hot rolling process ever to produce cold rolled substitutes in industrial scale and big varieties of final products are now produced directly from ESP hot band without implementing a cold rolling process. Energy consumption and related CO2 emissions are drastically reduced on the one hand by the compact layout of ESP lines as well as by omitting subsequent cold rolling steps. Details of successful endless strip production as well as new features under development for currently running projects will be discussed in this paper.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 28:

The innovative manufacturing process of steel strips; CEM® Compact Endless casting and rolling Mill

Y. Ko
(POSCO, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 09:40 )
Title: The innovative manufacturing process of steel strips; CEM® Compact Endless casting and rolling Mill


Author:
Y. Ko

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The compact endless casting & rolling mill (CEM®), the energy-saving steel manufacturing process which directly links a single continuous caster and a single hot rolling mill, has been successfully developed by POSCO since 2009. CEM® is most effiecient process to produce high-strength thin guage product. Moreover, CEM® product with uniform material quality, great surface quality, accurate thickness and width quality has been brought the excellent results in application of automative manufacturing. CEM® has two key technology which is thin slab high speed casting technology and endless rolling technology, was been developed. Based on those technologies, CEM® has been developed value added product and has been searching new steel market.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 28:

Revamping of skin pass section for automotive products

F. Dumortier
(CMI Industry, Belgium)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 10:00 )
Title: Revamping of skin pass section for automotive products


Author:
F. Dumortier

Company:
CMI Industry, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Due to the increasingly stringent requirements of the automotive industry, galvanizing lines dedicated to automotive products have to be modernized in order to follow market needs. Beginning of 2017, SEGAL a Tata Steel CGL line in BELGIUM placed an order with CMI to increase the line capacity on the one hand, and on the other, to be able to process a wider range of steel grades according to automotive requirements. One part of the project was to revamp the skin pass section. The objectives were first to increase the work roll diameter from Φ560mm to Φ650mm in order to be able to transfer the required roughness with low elongation on soft material and second to increase the rolling force and tension to reach higher elongation on high strength steels. Existing mechanical elongation system has also been changed to completely new single AC motors per roll. CMI achieved such complicated revamping in a very short time span since the shutdown started only 6 month after the contract signature. Moreover, the shutdown down schedule has been optimized in order to restart the galvanizing line in less than after three weeks, including loopers and furnace capacity increase and new water cooling system.

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 28:

20+ euro/t savings by combining K-weld and K-spool technologies optimizing bar mill yield for the lowest OPEX

M. Cimolino
(Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 10:20 )
Title: 20+ euro/t savings by combining K-weld and K-spool technologies optimizing bar mill yield for the lowest OPEX


Author:
M. Cimolino

Company:
Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
A. Mestroni, D. Vinetti

Abstract:
Some of the most significant Danieli innovations in the field of long products are the EWR® Endless Welding Rolling process and the “Spooler Line” for bar-in-coil production. >> The EWR® system, through automatic flash welding of billets at reheating furnace exit side, enables endless rolling of bars, wire rod and bar in coils, thus granting uninterrupted production at the rolling mill. >> The Spooler process, featuring twist-free winding of hot-rolled rebars into highly compact/ultra-heavy coils is the revolutionary process for bar-in-coil production. Thanks to their unique cobble-free un-coiling capability, spooled coils can be directly fed to the downstream cold-processing lines without any traditional off-line operation (de-coiling, stretching & re-winding). This paper presents the two systems and their combined application, which has made it possible for endless rolling of spooled bar in coils, enabling to cumulate the benefits of the two processes in terms of productivity, efficiency and reduction of production costs thereof.

27 June / 11:00 - Rolling: Plant upgrades and new equipment developments II

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 28:

QSP - the most advanced thin slab technology

M. Knigge
(Danieli Germany GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 11:00 )
Title: QSP - the most advanced thin slab technology


Author:
M. Knigge

Company:
Danieli Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Bulfone, C. Bilgen

Abstract:
Quality Strip Production (QSP) is the latest generation of Danieli’s thin slab casting and rolling technology introducing a new level of quality and flexibility to the market. Starting with a vertical-curved caster this concept enables a higher productivity and realizes an improved slab quality and enlarged product mix capapilties. Together with a mill design which allows true thermomechanical rolling the product portfolio can be extended towards most advanced steel grades including AHSS and API line-pipe steel. Danieli`s latest QSP technology outperforms other thin slab casting and rolling technologies on the market in product quality, energy efficiency and plant flexibility.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 28:

Controlled Rolling and Cooling Technology for Rebar

Y. Chen
(Sinosteel Equipment & Engineering Co., Ltd., China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 11:20 )
Title: Controlled Rolling and Cooling Technology for Rebar


Author:
Y. Chen

Company:
Sinosteel Equipment & Engineering Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Every company wants to maintain the competitiveness in a rapidly changing market environment. In the life cycle of a production line, whether it is an existing rolling line or a new line, two aspects have always to be considered: - higher quality - lower cost For this purpose, Sinosteel can provide our customers with effective technical solutions, as well as core equipments to implement the technical solutions. 1) Hot Rolling Technology During the process of rolling, from roughing mill to finishing mill, most deformation is carried out in the normalizing rolling. For the finishing rolling, the material is rolled in the double-phase zone. After the rolling, whether the low-temperature austenite or the deformed ferrite make results in the grain refining. Our innovative cooling method can guarantee the homogeneous and uniform grain distribution. 2) Rolling Equipment  Wire Rod Mills  RVM230 Module, 2 mills (independent driven)  RVM150 Module, 2 mills (optional)  Ratio  Water cooling and air cooling equipments upstream and downstream the mills.  Unique control module and software  Bar Mill  Two special RNM390 mills (independent driven)  Ratio  Water cooling equipment and cooling bed upstream and downstream the mills  Unique control module and software 3) Actual Effect Taking HRB400E grade rebar as an example, after long-term application, the effects are as following:  Chemical Composition of Billet  Wire rod (Φ6-10mm): 0.20-0.23%C、0.6%Mn. V, Nb and etc. are cancelled.  Rebar (Φ10-25mm): 0.20-0.23%C、1.0-1.2%Mn. V, Nb and etc. are cancelled.  Rolling temperature is 780~820℃, with the speed 90m/s for Φ8mm rebar. Grain refine higher than 9 degree, without martensite or others.  Be capable of developing variety steel grades. This technology of temperature control rolling can be applied in wire rod mill, normalized bar mill, high-speed bar mill.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 28:

FLEX-HI HOT - flexible finishing mill technology for hot rolled product mix extension

M. Hackl
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 11:40 )
Title: FLEX-HI HOT - flexible finishing mill technology for hot rolled product mix extension


Author:
M. Hackl

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Seilinger, S. Bragin, K. Krimpelstätter

Abstract:
Hot Strip Mills can have a wide variety of configurations depending on the material grade, strip range, width, quality requirements and productivity. The demands related to the capabilities of a conventional hot strip mill have changed in the last years. In addition to the high level of output and productivity the demand for quality improvement and extension of product mix is still ongoing. Today there is a clear trend in developing new steel grades like 3rd generation AHSS (Advanced High Strength Steels). This trend challenges hot strip mill technology because it requires new technologies which provide more flexibility in metallurgical treatment during the rolling process. Additional there is a trend to produce a very wide thickness range on today’s hot strip mill starting from 1.2 mm (at even lower) up to thick pipe grades with 25.4 mm thickness. In parallel, the high level of productivity and quality must be maintained. In order to meet and promote these trends Primetals Technologies is developing a new mill stand technology FLEX-HI HOT which allows to adapt the last finishing HSM-mill stand by efficiently switching from 4-high to a WR driven 6-high mode with small work roll diameter based on production needs. A smaller work roll diameter allows to achieve higher reductions and deformation rates resulting in thinner hot-strip gauges with metallurgical benefits. FLEX-HI HOT minimizes the required revamp modernizations and represents a low investment compared to an additional new finishing mill stand. It represents no limitations on the existing product mix (in 4-high configuration) and allows to extend it by thin (and wide) hot strip gauges (produced in 6-high mode). The developed solution concept as well as the technological and metallurgical benefits will be presented in this paper.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 28:

EZDK's comprehensive CSP® modernization - a master plan for competitive edge in a dynamic market

H. Fahmy
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 12:00 )
Title: EZDK's comprehensive CSP® modernization - a master plan for competitive edge in a dynamic market


Author:
H. Fahmy

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Fahmy, K. Hoen, W. Spies, K. Pronold

Abstract:
EZDK’s comprehensive CSP® modernization – a master plan for competitive edge in a dynamic market In a global market characterized by overcapacity and consequently tough price competition, the Egyptian steel producer EZDK looks to increase its competitiveness by more flexible production, superior product quality and by minimizing their operational costs. Only this enables to adapt economically to changing market requirements and customer needs. Since 1999, EZDK, a subsidiary of Ezz Steel, operates a one-strand CSP® plant in Alexandria. After years of operational optimization producing an increasing portion of thin gauge strips, EZDK contracted SMS group for a comprehensive CSP® plant E&A and mechanical revamp. EZDK’s original revamp targets of maintaining plant availability by replacing obsolete automation systems, enlarging their product mix to ultra-thin strips dimensions on the one hand and multi-phase and API steel grades on the other hand and also to significantly improving their product quality was even outperformed. In this paper, the outline of the executed modernization will be presented. Details will be given on operational results and on reached performances after the restart in spring of 2017. Insights to EZDK’s record year 2018 will complete the picture together with a discussion of the fulfillment of the overall targets. Authors: Hossam Fahmy - All Ezz Dekheila Steel Company, Alexandria, Egypt; Klaus Pronold,Wolfgang Spies, Karl Hoen - SMS group GmbH, Hilchenbach, Germany

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27 June / 12:20 - Room 28:

Zoom-Mill for reversible cold rolling

T. Kikkawa
(JP Steel Plantech Co., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 12:20 )
Title: Zoom-Mill for reversible cold rolling


Author:
T. Kikkawa

Company:
JP Steel Plantech Co., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
New rolling method (Zoom-MillTM, Zero-oriented off-gauge minimization) that enables unrolled portions in a reversible cold rolling mill to be reduced using a leader strip and a spot welding machine and thereby aims improvement of productivity has been developed around 10 years back. Several Zoom-MillTM were put into practical use and commercial operation and have been working well as intended initially, achieving approximately 1% improvement of product yield of the products. In this article, recent development and application of Zoom-MillTM Technology will be also introduced.

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27 June / 12:40 - Room 28:

Evolution of CEM® as next innovative technology

J. Hwang
(POSCO, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 12:40 )
Title: Evolution of CEM® as next innovative technology


Author:
J. Hwang

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The features of endless rolling in CEM® were confirmed regarding a solution to material and shape variation problems. On the contrary, the conventional large scale caster, furnace and rolling mill process has great advantages in the quality and productivity point of view. Combining these two different processes make it pssible to achieve the production of 4 million tons per year. This requires some important techniques. The casting thickness should be increased to 250 mm and the casting speed should be 5.0 m / min, twice of the current conventional caster. In such a high throuput process, the rolling speed is increased to about 1,500 m / min. Such specificaton in continuous casting and rolling process absolutely requires the highly advanced technology. These new technologies are introduced.

27 June / 13:40 - Rolling: Plant upgrades and new equipment developments III

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 28:

MI.DA. - latest developments in endless casting and rolling of long products

A. Tellatin
(Danieli & C.Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 13:40 )
Title: MI.DA. - latest developments in endless casting and rolling of long products


Author:
A. Tellatin

Company:
Danieli & C.Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
J. Shuli, A. De Luca

Abstract:
Everything began in USA, in the early 2000’s…. when a Customer asked to Danieli to design an innovative mill to compete, in terms of operating costs and overall investment, with the big steel producers in the country. Nowadays, The Danieli ECR Endless Casting and Rolling process is a well proven real, reliable and cost effective way to produce rebar. Latest developments of the Danieli Micromill technology (MI.DA.) include application of the Endless Casting and Rolling technology in the production of spooled coils and wire rod as well, for both rebar and smooth rounds. Moreover, thanks to the last extraordinary developments, MI.DA. is going to supersede the original Minimill concept mainly due to the revolutionary introduction of the Twin-strands application, matching the more and more market demands. In fact, with Twin MI.DA. configuration, Danieli is able to design and supply to our Customer with a big scale Micromill capable to produce in endless configuration up to 1,5 Mton of finished product with a huge level of efficiency both in terms of environmental sustainability and energy saving to minimize CO2 emission and also to preserve natural resources which are essential to guarantee the future of mankind. Danieli vision, thinking to the near future, is to constantly innovate and develop the ECR process, in order to empower it with the latest digital technologies and to extend the production range to new variety of steel grades with higher added value. This paper deals with an overview of the latest ECR applications, expanding and consolidating the advantages of the MI.DA. technology in terms of efficiency, and last but not least to be the sole environmental friendly, safe and Smart Plant to produce steel.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 28:

3rd generation carbon steel mechanical equipment for processing line

S. Decroix
(Fives DMS, France)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 14:00 )
Title: 3rd generation carbon steel mechanical equipment for processing line


Author:
S. Decroix

Company:
Fives DMS, France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In the past 50 years, steel grades for automotive experienced several revolutions to move from mild steel to the 3rd generation of Advanced High Strength Steel. Responsibility of high-end equipment suppliers, such as Fives is to support their costumers to produce these new grades. We are now in a new breakthrough point of steel development for automotive with introduction of a grade up to 1800 MPa. Fives has developed a new range of equipment to satisfy the new requirements of steel makers to insure strip threading, anticipate bending and tension issue, succeed to fine tune mechanical properties, improve flatness Fives’ NeoKoil® strip processing line is our state-of-the-art solution with integration of: - OptilineTM to anticipate bending and tension control specificity - New threading equipment and concept to insure an entry cycle - New design for skin-pass mills and tension levelers for high elongation on AHSS - New design for side trimmers and scrap evacuation systems

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 28:

Pert laser scanner technology for existing plants upgrade

M. Tomba
(PERT SRL, Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 14:20 )
Title: Pert laser scanner technology for existing plants upgrade


Author:
M. Tomba

Company:
PERT SRL, Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
For over two decade PERT has specialized in the metals, rolling mill, steel melt shop and environmental solutions for steel industry. PERT were one of the first to introduce laser technology to the steel industry revamping since 2007. We understand that thanks to the engineering knowledge acquire in over 800 projects worldwide and the application of 3D laser scanner technology for the upgrade of the existing a lot of benefits can be reach. This paper summarizes the economic benefits of applying 3D laser scanning technologies to the design, construction, refurbishing and operation of existing rolling mill plant. We examine how these technologies deliver four main benefits: risk mitigation; cost reduction and schedule compression; improved safety for capital project delivery, maintenance and operations; and how these benefits are realized . A case history of refurbished and dismantled rolling mill for bar and wire rod production from Malaysia was done by PERT with the shipping and erection in middle east on turnkey basis.

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27 June / 14:40 - Room 28:

Hot Skin Pass Mill & Tension Leveler Line for Ultra High-Strength Steel

H. Uematsu
(JP Steel Plantech Co., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 14:40 )
Title: Hot Skin Pass Mill & Tension Leveler Line for Ultra High-Strength Steel


Author:
H. Uematsu

Company:
JP Steel Plantech Co., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In order to reduce CO2 generated from internal combustion engines, various efforts have been made to reduce the weight of vehicles over the last few decades. High strength steel materials are indispensable for the reduction of vehicles weight. It is for this reason, the materials used for the frames and chassis are being made of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) and/or Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) possessing properties of not only high yield strength, but also better mechanical characteristics. There exist strong requirements for materials to be fed to the automobile production lines to have precise dimensional accuracy, favorable physical shape and improved surface quality. On the other hand, in the production line of UHSS material, higher rate rapid cooling with water on the run-out table is inevitable, which becomes one of the elements of lower flatness performance than conventional strips. To produce UHSS material to the required quality, JP Steel Plantech Co. designed, manufactured and delivered a Hot Skin Pass Mill Line with Tension Leveler adopting various techniques and innovations suitable for UHSS materials. This paper introduces details of such techniques and innovations.

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27 June / 15:00 - Room 28:

Small streams make big rivers: Innovative design & operation of 2 stands reversible mill easily expandable to PLTCM.

J. Peers
(CMI Industry, Belgium)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 28 ( 15:00 )
Title: Small streams make big rivers: Innovative design & operation of 2 stands reversible mill easily expandable to PLTCM.


Author:
J. Peers

Company:
CMI Industry, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Today, there are good solutions extensively described by various OEMs & steel makers to optimize CAPEX & OPEX for small capacity Cold Rolling Mills (CRM) as well as for high capacity. A good solution for small capacity CRM is to start with a single stand reversing mill, which can be expanded in the future into a twin stand mill. The main drawbacks in conventional practice are the off-gauge length in single stand configuration and the shutdown time of the mill, which is quite long for erection of the second stand. For higher productions CRM, it is recommended to go directly for a new PLTCM, with a high CAPEX. But how to start with limited output and limited CAPEX without jeopardizing final ultimate expansion goal for which PLTCM is the best technico-economical choice? Today there are no solution, and CMI has therefore developed an integrated solution which will limit the CAPEX in the first phase, without penalizing the future by an easy and economically viable expansion up to a PLTCM, without a long production stoppage. The solution consists to first, install a twin stand mill, which can be expanded into a PLTCM by a smart layout of the line. Therefore it’s possible to have a first project phase up to 900 ktpy, and a second phase with a conversion into PLTCM for a production from 1.2 to 2mtpy, depending on the market evolution and financial capacities. Therefore, CMI has developed an innovative concept in reversing phase with a new rolling strategy to optimize productivity and limit off-gauge compared to conventional solutions. In addition the layout enables an easy conversion to PLTCM which allows a progressive and flexible investment adapted to the required production capacity. Long stoppage time which could be detrimental to this approach phase by phase is also avoided.

Room 01

27 June / 09:00 - Efficiency increase and CO2 mitigation in iron and steelmaking: Efficient and safe management and expoitation of off-gases in the steel sector

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 01:

Advanced modelling for forecasting off-gas, steam and electricity production and demand in integrated steelworks: the Gasnet Model Library

I. Matino
(Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna/TeCIP, Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 01 ( 09:00 )
Title: Advanced modelling for forecasting off-gas, steam and electricity production and demand in integrated steelworks: the Gasnet Model Library


Author:
I. Matino

Company:
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna/TeCIP, Italy

Co-Authors:
A. Wolff, S. Salame, V. Weber, A. Petrucciani, A. Zaccara, V. Colla, S. Dettori

Abstract:
Improving the sustainability of steelmaking industries is a priority of European Union. In addition, the reuse of by-products is promoted inside the industrial community in order to reduce the exploitation of primary resources with consequent environmental and economic advantages. In integrated steelworks, noteworthy by-products are the off-gases produced during the main steps of production cycle. They are a valid replacement of natural gas for the production of heat, steam and electricity and they are normally recovered. However, their recovery is often not optimized for several technical and non-technical issues. The project entitled “Optimization of the management of the process gas network within the integrated steelworks - GASNET”, which is funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, provides a Decision Support System that allows optimizing the off-gas management. One of the main components of this system is a model library devoted to the forecasting of off-gas (and their features), steam and electricity production and demand during the integrated steelmaking production cycle by taking into account the production plan. Advanced data-based approaches have been used in the modelling phase in order to follow the dynamics and the non-linearity of the different involved processes and phenomena. For instance, Neural Network-based models have been developed and presented for the most complex and highly non-linear processes such as the basic oxygen gas production in which Echo State Neural Networks have been exploited. Equation-based models have been exploited in the case of simpler processes (e.g. the demand of blast furnace gas in the hot blast stoves). The most representative models of the GASNET library are presented in this paper. The abstract is submitted to the special session "Efficient and safe management and exploitation of off-gases in the steel sector"

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 01:

Economical Mixed-Integer Model Predictive Controller for optimizing the sub-network of the BOF gas

A. Wolff
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 01 ( 09:20 )
Title: Economical Mixed-Integer Model Predictive Controller for optimizing the sub-network of the BOF gas


Author:
A. Wolff

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
V. Colla, S. Dettori, S. Bialek, F. Mintus

Abstract:
Abstract: Steel production generates significant amounts of by-products, including some high-energy exhaust gases that are reused both within the production cycle itself and for power generation. To this end, the steel mills have complex gas networks that distribute the gases to the various consumers. The EU project "Optimising the management of the process gas network within the integrated steel mill - GASNET" aims to support the management of each sub-network by developing a Decision Support System. For this purpose, the overall problem is broken down into subproblems: power generation scheduling, steam network, BOF and BF network. The solution to the subproblem is then coordinated via a consensus procedure, so that an overall optimum is achieved. This paper describes in detail the design of the sub-controller of the BOF network. First the overall model of the subnet is described. The model of the subnetwork is nonlinear, by a suitable transformation it can be transformed into a linear mixed integer problem which can be solved efficiently. Subsequently, the quality functional of the Economical Model Predictive Controller (EMPC) for the economic optimization of the BOF gas network is presented. Finally, the first simulation results are presented, and performance is determined

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 01:

Quantification of the impact of an optimal gas network management in integrated steelworks: the gasnet performance indicators

V. Colla
(Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 01 ( 09:40 )
Title: Quantification of the impact of an optimal gas network management in integrated steelworks: the gasnet performance indicators


Author:
V. Colla

Company:
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy

Co-Authors:
L. Romaniello, R. Speets, S. Bastida, N. Zapata, A. Wolff, S. Salame, V. Weber, A. Petrucciani, A. Zaccara, S. Dettori, I. Matino

Abstract:
Worldwide the largest amount of steel is produced through the integrated production route. The reuse of process gases is fundamental in order to improve the environmental footprint of the steelwork and to decrease the exploitation of natural resources, such as natural gas. Indeed the process off-gases (i.e. coke oven, blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace gases) contain carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which provide them with significant calorific values. Therefore, they are exploited to produce heat, steam or electricity. Although the reuse of these gases is a common practice, the management of the whole gas network and of the distribution of these gases is normally not optimized with consequent losses of high valuable resources, mostly due to the complexity of the gas network and the associated numerous technical and not-technical constraints. In order to fill this gap, the GASNET project provides a Decision Support Tool for improving the gas network management. One of the main part of the tool is the monitoring and quantification system. Such tool is conceived to give an easy visualization of the efficiency of the gas management. Considering a plant-oriented approach, it allows reporting the advantages that an optimized management of gas distribution can provide in terms of environmental and economic impacts. In addition, it can support analyses aimed at identifying further improvements or bottlenecks to be addressed in the whole gas network. Six main Key Performance Indicators and further Extra Performance Indicators grouped in different clusters represent the core of the monitoring system. In this paper, the list of the Performance Indicators will be depicted and their meaning will be deeply discussed. This abstract is submitted to the special session entitled: “"Efficient and safe management and expoitation of off-gases in the steel sector"

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 01:

Advanced energy management system at Tata Steel in IJmuiden

R. Speets
(Tata Steel Limited, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 01 ( 10:00 )
Title: Advanced energy management system at Tata Steel in IJmuiden


Author:
R. Speets

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
D. Bernhuis, P. Pronk

Abstract:
By Ramon Speets, Dion Berghuis, Pepijn Pronk Tata Steel Group’s business objectives are to reduce its operational costs and to become the benchmark in terms of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. The reduction of energy consumption and energy costs is therefore very important. To achieve this, Tata Steel in Europe joined the European research project entitled "Optimization of the management of the process gas network within the integrated steelworks" (GASNET). The project overall goal consists in the development of a an energy management system, which enables energy, CO2 and costs savings on an integrated steel site. This system will determine the most optimal distribution, generation and utilization of the energy carriers, such as works arising gases, natural gas, steam and electricity. The system will be based on advanced control methods, such as Model Predictive Control. This contribution describes the work, scope, limitations and expectations of the GASNET system for the IJmuiden site. NOTE: This abstract is a contribution to the special session "Efficient and safe management and expoitation of off-gases in the steel sector"

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 01:

Prediction of the temperature distribution in the hot blast stove with a switching Kalman filter

A. Wolff
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 01 ( 10:20 )
Title: Prediction of the temperature distribution in the hot blast stove with a switching Kalman filter


Author:
A. Wolff

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
C. Hillmann, J. Schlimbach, B. Stranziger, S. Bialek, D. Sonnenschein

Abstract:
Approximately 18 GJ are required for the production of 1 tonne crude steel, where the preheating of the hot blast in the hot blast stoves for the iron ore reduction requires approximately 12 % of the total energy. In order to improve energy efficiency, it is necessary to investigate improvement strategies for the hot blast stove operation. In this paper, a mathematical model was developed to evaluate the performance of the hot blast stoves by using a finite differential approximation to represent the heat transfer inside the furnace during operation. The model developed was calibrated using the process data from DK in Duisburg. Subsequently, a control model was derived. Due to the operation of the hot-blast stoves, a hybrid model has been derived consisting of continuous and logical states. When estimating the temperature distribution, the logical states must also be taken into account; for this reason, a switching Kalman filter was used.. The resulting simulation and observer showed good results compared to the measurement data.

27 June / 11:20 - Efficiency increase and CO2 mitigation in iron and steelmaking: CO2 capture in iron and steelmaking processes

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 01:

Evaluation of pre-combustion carbon capture for coal gasification and direct reduction (DR) plants

A. Maity
(Dastur Innovation Labs, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 01 ( 11:20 )
Title: Evaluation of pre-combustion carbon capture for coal gasification and direct reduction (DR) plants


Author:
A. Maity

Company:
Dastur Innovation Labs, India

Co-Authors:
A. Mukherjee, S. Bose, S. Bhattacharya

Abstract:
It is estimated that by 2020 global CO2 emissions are set reach around 36,000 Million MT. To mitigate the ever increasing CO2 emissions from industrial processes, Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCU&S) is an essential strategy for mitigating climate change. Iron and steel plants are amongst the major carbon intensive industries. While there are several ways to capture the emitted CO2, post combustion carbon capture is more favorable for integrated plants with Blast Furnace (BF) - Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) route. On the other hand, Coal Gasification Plant (CGP)-Direct Reduction Ironmaking (DRI)-Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) route, which is an already established process, offers techno-economically feasible options for carbon capture. As the concentration of capturable CO2 in exit stream is high compared to flue gas exit streams, it offers the opportunity for more cost effective and less capital-intensive carbon capture. Although, the equivalent CO2 emission of coal-gasification to syngas-based DRI-EAF route is not very different from BF-BOF route, the gasification and capture mechanisms can be particularly attractive for regions having enough supply of coal that can be effectively used for coal gasification based DRI production. Additionally, the deployment of pre-combustion CCS facilities can lead to development of circular green economies by utilization of CO2 in various downstream industries like carbonated beverages, baking soda, methanol, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) etc. Along with appropriate policy mechanisms for investment, carbon capture credit and cap and trade systems, like 45Q in the USA and Emission Trading System (ETS) in EU, this can enable a less carbon intensive steel industry in regions with ample supply of low rank coals. This paper evaluates and compares the techno-economics of pre-combustion carbon capture technologies with respect to various coal gasification and syn-gas based DRI plants considering the coal availability and geographical conditions.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 01:

Carbon capture: The scope of carbon capture technologies in indian steel industry

R. Sangode
(MECON Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Carbon capture: The scope of carbon capture technologies in indian steel industry


Author:
R. Sangode

Company:
MECON Limited, India

Co-Authors:
S. Pandey

Abstract:
The steel industry is among the most energy-intensive industries of manufacturing sector emitting significant volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2). On average, 1.9 tonnes of CO2 are emitted for every tonne of steel produced [1] . According to the International Energy Agency, the iron and steel industry accounts for approximately 6.7% of total world CO2 emissions.[1] The industries sector accounted for 21.7 percent of the total GHG emissions or 412.55 million tons of CO2 eq in the year 2005. In the year 2007, iron & steel production resulted in 6.2 percent emissions (117.32 million tons).[2] India have committed 33-35 per cent cut in carbon emissions by 2030 in from 2005 level in the target submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention (UNFCCC) on Climate Change for a global climate pact.[3] The paper discusses various carbon capture storage (CCS) and carbon capture utilization (CCU) technologies are being developed and implemented in pilot plants / commercial plants in Europe and USA ,which may be implemented on commercial scale in Indian steel industries. The Indian steel sector, due to its scale of production and energy intensive nature, represents a sizeable opportunity to reduce CO2 emissions. At 2018 energy and emission intensities, this production would entail 200 MTCO2-eq as emissions Keywords: iron and steel, production, energy intensity, CO2 emissions, CO2 mitigation, CCS & CCU

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 01:

Steel mills advantage for CO2 lean methanol production - a brilliant example for symbiosis between chemistry and steel -

G. Harp
(Harp Process Chemistry Consulting, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 01 ( 12:00 )
Title: Steel mills advantage for CO2 lean methanol production - a brilliant example for symbiosis between chemistry and steel -


Author:
G. Harp

Company:
Harp Process Chemistry Consulting, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Integrated steel mills are industrial parks with coke-, iron and steel making. Their process gases are coke oven gas (COG), blast furnace gas (BFG), and converter gas (BOFG). COG contains more than 60 % H2 and BFG more than 20% CO2. About one half of the produced gases are used for metallurgical heating purposes. The other half is used for electricity production within the steel mills power plant to cover the steel mills demand. Covering steel mills electricity demand by renewables needs an alternative solution for that second half of the steel mills process gases. It will be shown that production of methanol is such a solution which fits excellent into the steel mills environment and is CO2 lean designable. Methanol is a universal intermediate in chemical industry to be used for a lot of different products like formaldehyde, acetic acid, dimethyl ether, light olefins, methyl esters etc. which are used for wide variety of products for home, business, personal, automobile, and electronics applications. Nearly 10 mio t/a are consumed In Europe whereas about 3 mio t/a are produced here which means that about 2/3 must be imported from overseas. CO2 lean Methanol is also basis for green and clean transportation fuels without particle emissions and a big potential to reduce the nitric oxides caused by combustion engines, leading to a big market volume. Based on model calculations it will be demonstrated that the profitability of methanol production is best on hydrogenation of BOF gas with the use of industrial by-product hydrogen from showing clearly the value of the steel mills environment and the symbiosis between chemical and steel industry.

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27 June / 12:20 - Room 01:

CO2 capture in combination with the HIsarna process

S. Santos
(Tata Steel R&D, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: CO2 capture in combination with the HIsarna process


Author:
S. Santos

Company:
Tata Steel R&D, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Authors: Koen Meijer1), Stanley Santos1), Pieter Broersen2) 1) Research and Development, Tata Steel Europe 2) HIsarna pilot plant Operation, Tata Steel Europe Abstract The HIsarna process can contribute to a more sustainable steel industry because it consumes less energy and emits less CO2. Because the HIsarna process uses pure oxygen the CO2 in the process gas is not diluted by nitrogen. At the top of the HIsarna furnace CO2 concentration is excess of 80 % are measured. The little nitrogen that is present in the off gas is used as coal transport and injection gas. In the pilot plant at the IJmuiden site of Tata Steel Europe experiments with an alternative coal carrier gas have been carried out. This even further increases the CO2 concentration in the off gas. For high CO2 concentration different capture technologies with lower energy consumption can be used then for low CO2 concentrations in the off gas. The lay-out of such systems is discussed in this paper. The present research program with the HIsarna pilot plant is jointly carried out by Tata Steel Europe, ArcelorMittal, ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe, voest alpine and Paul Wurth and is supported by the EU Horizon2020 SILC-II-2014 program (Grant agreement: 654013).

Room 02

27 June / 09:00 - Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Emission avoidance from iron and steelmaking I

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 02:

Adding intelligence to environmental plants - the digital gas-cleaning plant

T. Steinparzer
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Adding intelligence to environmental plants - the digital gas-cleaning plant


Author:
T. Steinparzer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Fleischanderl, F. Hartl, R. Schmied

Abstract:
Digitalization has also arrived emission control. In addition to process technologies digitalization approach and automation packages can help plant operators to improve their energy consumption as well as process control of their environmental plants. Secondary de-dusting systems based on fabric filter technology often suffer of non-optimized operation in terms of energy efficiency. Primetals Technologies has developed know-how based solutions which incorporate various energy efficiency measures across the gas cleaning plant and linking the de-dusting operation to the primary plant operation. Such digitalization approach either reduces the energy consumption or increases the suction capacity. Respectively the emission situation is improved or the productivity of the system is positively influenced (i.e reduction of charging time). Beside intelligent process models also online data analysis contribute to reduce the maintenance costs or improve process control. In combination with a video analysis system for emission control and quantification an overall optimization approach is achieved. Practicable solutions and intelligent automation packages for plant improvements to support operators to upgrade their off-gas system and minimizing operational costs of their off-gas system are presented within this paper.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 02:

The latest technology of CDQ (Coke Dry Quenching) system

K. Itakura
(Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 02 ( 09:20 )
Title: The latest technology of CDQ (Coke Dry Quenching) system


Author:
K. Itakura

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In 1976, NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD. (NSENGI) had constructed the first CDQ (Coke Dry Quenching) plant with 56t/h capacity in Yawata Works of NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO METAL CORPORATION, JAPAN. After installation of the first CDQ, we have established numerous original technologies through a lot of construction achievement, and finally developed the world’s largest 280t/h capacity CDQ in 2009. NSENGI is now one and only supplier which can supply most suitable CDQ capacity for each customer by various capacity range from 56t/h to 280t/h. In addition, NSENGI is now developing technology of automatic operation and prolonged life of CDQ, in order to realize our customer`s demand to save man-power for operation and reduce the burden of maintenance work, which has enhanced more and more in these days. The presentation describes our CDQ technologies about cooling large amount of hot coke, automation and extending service life.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 02:

Innovative solutions for diffuse dust monitoring in the steel Industry

P. Bourrier
(ALOATEC, France)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Innovative solutions for diffuse dust monitoring in the steel Industry


Author:
P. Bourrier

Company:
ALOATEC, France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Innovative solutions for diffuse dust monitoring in the Steel Industry Philippe BOURRIER, ALOATEC Diffuse Dust Emissions remains a difficult Environmental question for the steel industry. Such emissions may involve complicated relationship with neighbourhood of steel Plants. Important expenses may be due to local or international regulations regarding the finest dust particles emitted in the atmosphere. State of the art of the innovative monitoring solutions developed by ALOATEC for more than 20 years are presented in this paper. Solutions are installed in different plants of ARCELORMITTAL, THYSSEN, HKM, TATA Steel, APERAM, in Europe and TERNIUM in south America. The solutions cover the full range of particle size, from the coarsest particles involving dust deposition on the ground within the first kilometres around the steel plants to the finest visible particles emitted by the roofs and other diffuse sources of the Steel process. The Aloa_ADA is an automatic dust deposition gauge measuring mg/m2/day on a hourly measurement time. The WEB monitoring interface delivers Alarm and important information such as the location of the main sources. The sensor samples the deposition for accurate analysis. The sensor refers to the sampling method ISO/DIS 4222 similar to most of the national standards in the world. Aloa-DETECT Pollutions is an intelligent camera for monitoring the visible diffuse dust emissions in the atmosphere. It is optimized for steel shop, electric furnace, blast furnace and coke plant. The INTRANET management interface sends Alarms, permit to set the origin of the emission…. A dashboard gives the opportunity to edit statistics for ISO 14001 management. Aloa_PM10 is a solution for the WEB for monitoring Up-wind / Down-wind fine dust at ground level around a plant in order to determine “added” fine dust in the Environment. The sensor measures simultaneously the particle fractions TSP, PM10, PM2,5 and PM1 in µg/m2.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 02:

Application of wet-type electrostatic precipitators in BOF primary gas cleaning systems, experiences and operating results of the first hydro hybrid filter systems

T. Wübbels
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 02 ( 10:00 )
Title: Application of wet-type electrostatic precipitators in BOF primary gas cleaning systems, experiences and operating results of the first hydro hybrid filter systems


Author:
T. Wübbels

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
BOF-based steel mills worldwide are faced with increasing environmental restrictions and rising energy costs. The ferro-alloy production, steelmaking, secondary metallurgy and casting process chains generate off-gases that are rich in energy and laden with dust and other contaminants. That is why SMS group offers sustainable solutions for gas treatment which comply with numerous governmental regulations. These include technologies for gas collection, cooling, cleaning, and recovery. Besides primary gas cleaning systems such as dry-type electrostatic precipitators for new converter shops, innovative technologies that include wet-type electrostatic precipitators (WESP, hydro-hybrid system) for plant upgrades are also provided. Hydro-hybrid systems meet the most stringent regulations and offer significant economic benefits. These systems are based on the integration of an electrostatic precipitator into the existing wet-type gas cleaning system. The key features of this solution are low investment costs as well as advanced and proven technology. Not only that, because this technology can be installed during ongoing operation, production losses are avoided. Steel producers can respond even faster to more stringent environmental regulations. The main principle of this dedusting concept is that the main dust load is separated by the existing wet scrubber, while the additional fine cleaning takes place in the new WESP. With this solution, the gas purification system meets the most stringent environmental regulations with respect to dust content. Clean-gas dust concentrations of less than 10 milligrams per standard cubic meter of converter gas can be achieved. This low clean-gas dust content allows the LD gas to be fed from the gas holder directly to a consumer, without the need for additional final cleaning. By optimizing the overall system pressure drop, the system’s design offers potential power savings of up to 30%. The present paper reports on the results and experiences with the first installations of this kind.

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 02:

Comparison of emissions of conventional and shaft-based electric arc furnaces

H. Beile
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Comparison of emissions of conventional and shaft-based electric arc furnaces


Author:
H. Beile

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Steinparzer

Abstract:
Environmental emission limits are getting more stringent all over the world since years. In order to fulfill local emission requirements and even surpass them, modern electric arc furnaces have to consequently monitor and treat their off-gas emissions accordingly. This paper outlines the differences of conventional electric arc furnaces and shaft furnaces in terms of environmental emissions. All relevant emissions like particle matter, carbon monoxide, NOX, VOCs, dioxins, furans etc. will be discussed in detail. Emission generation within the furnace as well as different technical solutions for off-gas cleaning and monitoring will be presented. The different approaches and technical solutions for both furnace types will be highlighted from the emission source to the stack. The conclusion of this paper will show, that differences in final emissions of the two furnace technologies are minimal.

27 June / 11:00 - Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Emission avoidance from iron and steelmaking II

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 02:

Analysis of operational parameters affecting NOx production in sintering process

W. Zhang
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Analysis of operational parameters affecting NOx production in sintering process


Author:
W. Zhang

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:
Y. Lu, S. Wu

Abstract:
NOx has been widely concerned as one of the contaminants produced by iron ore sintering. There are three ways to reduce the NOx emissions from sintering process. The source control is mainly by reducing the Nitrogen content in the sintering raw materials. Process control is trying to control sintering reaction related to NOx in the sintering layer by regulating sintering process parameters to reduce NOx production and promote NOx conversion. The end treatment is achieved through an additional flue gas cleaning device. In order to clarify the process control adjustment methods (sintering materials matching, process parameters) which are beneficial to reduce NOx production, this study carried out the statistical analysis on the sintering process operation data and the corresponding NOx content in the sintering flue gas of a iron and steel group in China through SPSS. The results are as follows: through correlation analysis, the main sintering process parameters affecting NOx production were found and decreasing the ratio of hematite, increasing the ratio of sintering fines and the return fines in iron-containing materials, decreasing the ratio of dolomite, increasing the ratio of limestone in flux, decreasing the ratio of coke powder in fuel, the higher binary alkalinity, the thick sintering layer are conducive to suppress NOx production. In addition, the regression equation used for predicting the NOx emissions content based on the main sintering operational parameters affecting NOx emissions was obtained through regression analysis. According to the research results, sintering process adjustment methods can be provided for process control of reducing sintering NOx emissions.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 02:

Up-gradation of pollution control equipment in blast furnaces

A. Mishra
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Up-gradation of pollution control equipment in blast furnaces


Author:
A. Mishra

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
N. Sinha

Abstract:
Abstract The process of iron making itself is highly energy and fossil fuel intensive and consequently a major dust emitting process and therefore, the cause of environmental concern across the Steel industries. Steel making industry is normally perceived to be large, dirty and polluting by civil society and environmentalists. Iron & steel industry in India are covered under the Environment Protection Act (EPA) as well as Environment Protection Rules & Regulations enacted & published by Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF&CC) India. At the beginning, industries are required to obtain statutory clearances from the Union/State Governments required under the EPA for setting up of any new iron & steel plants or its substantial expansion. Further, the steel companies are required to install specified pollution control equipment /facilities and operate well within the prescribed Standards/Norms in respect of air, water and noise pollution as also solid waste generation & utilization. These are monitored by Central/State Pollution Control Boards. As a part of the Environment Projects for complying to the conditions stipulated in Environmental Clearance (EC) and Consent to Operate (CTO), it is planned to up-grade existing pollution control equipment both stock house and cast House of G-Blast Furnace at TATA STEEL Jamshedpur without any production loss. With this up gradation, we shall limit the stack emission to ≤ 10 mg/Nm3 and work zone dust level ≤ 2 mg/Nm3 over & above the ambient dust content at a radial distance of 1 metre from the dust generating source. Keywords: Pollution control equipment, blast furnace iron-making system, environmental sustenance project.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 02:

Meeting local requirements with high performance environmental solutions

P. Trunner
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Meeting local requirements with high performance environmental solutions


Author:
P. Trunner

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
T. Steinparzer, H. Pasteiner, A. Steinwandter

Abstract:
Environmental protection has become a decisive factor for steel producers over the recent years. Also existing gas cleaning systems have to comply with the most stringent environmental regulations set by national and local governments. Especially for existing steel plants the modernization and revamp of their off-gas systems is a challenge to achieve the future emission standards. Primetals Technologies has wide experience in revamp projects to fulfill the actual emission standards. Due to high complexity of these projects in terms of technical solutions, interface coordination and strict order management they require excessive knowledge in all technical fields. Within this paper the modernization of basic oxygen furnace primary dedusting system in Europe will be introduced. Furthermore, the revamp of an European electric arc furnace dedusting system including the upgrade to waste heat recovery at a minimum stand-still and and record start-up time will be presented as well as first operational results from the waste heat recovery systems. Besides steelmaking plants Primetals Technologies also successfully implemented gas cleaning solutions and energy recovery solutions for sinter plants and blast furnaces. The modernization of 3 sinter plants with the patented MEROS technology including also waste treatment as well as novel concept for top gas recovery turbine arrangement for a blast furnace will be presented in the paper. The revamp projects as well as operational achievements in terms emissions and recovery rates will be presented.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 02:

Improvement of work safety and reduction of environmental issues with fire resistant lubricants in steel plants

T. Mattern
(Quaker Chemical B.V., The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 02 ( 12:00 )
Title: Improvement of work safety and reduction of environmental issues with fire resistant lubricants in steel plants


Author:
T. Mattern

Company:
Quaker Chemical B.V., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
R. Knecht

Abstract:
Fire hazard in the steel industry is not a new topic and the steel industry is taking any possible efforts to lower the fire hazard in its production plants. Fire hazard is present in several different forms, but fires induced and intensified by mineral oil based lubricants are notorious and feared. For hydraulic fluids, gear oils and greases several alternatives are available. This paper explains typical examples in steel plants of successful conversions and the impact on safety and environment. In addition, the paper describes what change can be made to the choice of lubricants to get to a situation with significant reduced risk, enhanced work safety and a secured productivity in Casters, Rolling Mills and auxiliary equipment.

27 June / 13:20 - Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Water cascades and recirculation, recovery of process chemicals

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 02:

An innovative approach in handling waste water to achieve zero-water discharge from plant at I Blast Furnace, Tata Steel, Jamshedpur

U. Ghosh
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 02 ( 13:20 )
Title: An innovative approach in handling waste water to achieve zero-water discharge from plant at I Blast Furnace, Tata Steel, Jamshedpur


Author:
U. Ghosh

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In Blast Furnace GCP affluent water contains cyanide about 6-7 ppm. To control quality of GCP cooling water almost 1000 m3/day is required to be discharged from the system and fresh water is added. As cyanide is harmful element this water can’t be released in the open drain as it will go to the environment. Moreover, clarified water costs Rs.17/m3 which means Rs.62 lacs is consumed per annum for maintaining water quality of GCP circuit. This was the design of the plant to discharge certain amount of water in drain to maintain quality of the water. So, to challenge the conventional design of the circuit, water balancing was very important. Overflow water from all circuit eg. INBA, GCP and utility flow through the common surface drain and ultimately go to the environment. So, it was big challenge to restrict the water from all overflowing members keeping the water balance of the system un disturbed.2 areas were identified to collect all overflown water. Regular quality analysis was done to identify the source. Once quality was known and source was identified 2 separate tanks were prepared in running water stream.The solution of its own is unique as it was not designed in project phase. Later, it was designed in house and it give very good result in term of zero water discharge from the plant.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 02:

CARLA®: CMI's patented and "ready-to-install" small scale acid regeneration system to efficiently eliminate waste acid streams from galvanizing and pickling plants

D. Konlechner
(Kon Chemical Solutions, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 02 ( 13:40 )
Title: CARLA®: CMI's patented and "ready-to-install" small scale acid regeneration system to efficiently eliminate waste acid streams from galvanizing and pickling plants


Author:
D. Konlechner

Company:
Kon Chemical Solutions, Austria

Co-Authors:
D. Konlechner

Abstract:
Acid regeneration systems, mainly for pickling process plants, are state of the art for all major players in the steel industry. They are to reduce fresh acid demands and waste streams in general. However, the current technologies do not cover all acid regeneration needs. Small capacity waste acid streams are generally not regenerated due to economic reasons, thus generating a negative environmental impact. To address this environmentally unacceptable situation a new batch process called CARLA®, has been developed by CMI UVK in cooperation with KonChem. CARLA® can economically handle waste acid capacities down to 100l/h, thus closing the loop on acid regeneration also for installations only producing small amounts of waste acid. CARLA® provides a unique batch system that allows for everything being processed inside a single reactor, thus reducing investment costs significantly when compared to conventional systems. But CARLA not only considerably reduces the waste streams of the plant, but also the amount of fresh acid to be purchased and the amount of the highly dangerous acids to be transported to a centralized acid treatment location. Another benefit when compared to the conventional acid regeneration systems in the market, is the easy “Start & Stop” feature that provides an unrivalled flexibility, as it allows to run the installation in a two shift operation, but also to easily shut it down over the weekend. Additionally, the CARLA process uses an indirect heating system, with an operation temperature below 200°C. As such, any excess energy available in the plant can be used to heat the system. Furthermore, CARLA® concentrates valuable metals contained in the waste acid, like Zinc or Nickel, which allows for their further treatment and recovery. For surface treatment or waste acid treatment plants with no or limited access to conventional acid regeneration technology, the use of CARLA® will have a significant positive impact on the environmental balance of these plants.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 02:

Case study on failure of thiocyanate removal and inefficient nitrification in AIS biological process treating coke plant wastewater.

S. Sonkhla
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 02 ( 14:00 )
Title: Case study on failure of thiocyanate removal and inefficient nitrification in AIS biological process treating coke plant wastewater.


Author:
S. Sonkhla

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Tata Steel Jamshedpur India operates stamp charge by product recovery coke ovens of capacity 3.5 Million ton per year and generates 220000 Nm3/hr of coke oven gas. Wastewater generated is treated in biological oxidation treatment plant having capacity of 230 m3/hr. The coke plant wastewater has higher concentrations of BOD, COD, ammonia, cyanide, thiocyanate and phenols. BOT plant has two biological process, conventional aerobic system and AIS biological treatment system that includes anoxic, aerobic and integral clarifier system. In this paper, we will discuss a specific case study on AIS biological process upset and operating strategies that can be implemented to improve and revive upset biological process. AIS biological process was upset due to inefficient removal of thiocyanate. Thiocyanate removal was dropped from 98 % to 50 %. This led to increase in Sodium Hypochlorite consumption from 12 t/d to 25 t/d in chlorination chamber after bio treatment. Higher thiocyanate in AIS was due to decreased recycle flow (450 to 150 m3/hr) from aerobic to anoxic zone and decreased MLVSS (3500 to 2500 mg/l) due to high sludge wastage. Further, during this period nitrification was also inefficient and total nitrogen removal was <30 %. The corrective actions include lowering the feed to bioreactor from 60 m3/hr to 30 m3/hr, then feed was increased gradually, increased the recycle flow to 10 times to inlet, addition of new acclimatized sludge from old aerobic bioreactors, pre-treatment of feed to AIS in cell D of old plant aerobic bioreactor and correction in operating parameters like pH, temperature, soda ash dosage etc. This lead to revival from upset, improved SCN removal efficiency back to 98 % and later with continuous process monitoring and corrective actions nitrification increased to >90 %.

Room 2

27 June / 09:00 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Modern process control techniques and models I

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 2:

Integrated tuyere health monitoring & enhancement system at I Blast Furnace, Tata Steel, Jamshedpur, India

U. Ghosh
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 2 ( 09:00 )
Title: Integrated tuyere health monitoring & enhancement system at I Blast Furnace, Tata Steel, Jamshedpur, India


Author:
U. Ghosh

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Tuyere is one of the most important component in Blast Furnace. Tuyere is made of copper due to its high conductivity. Hot wind with huge velocity pass through the tuyere inside the furnace. Along with the hot Blast, oxygen, coal etc also go inside the furnace. Tuyere is water cooled from inside but at the same time water ingress from leaking tuyere inside the furnace is one of the major threat for Blast Furnace operators. Unintended water ingress inside the Blast Furnace not only increases fuel rate but at the same time uncontrolled water leakage from tuyere may lead to serious process incident. So enhancement of Tuyere life is important from the safety as well as business point of view at the same time, timely and accurate detection of tuyere leakage is equally important. As coal is abrasive material and it pass through the tuyere so always possibility of erosion failure of tuyere remain in the system, if not managed properly. Conventional practice is to monitor the lance and tuyere condition manually through the peep hole. In I Blast Furnace, Tata Steel, Jamshedpur,India one integrated Tuyere health Monitoring & Enhancement system was installed through which model can predict probability of tuyere failure in near future with 95% accuracy so that decision can be taken to replace it proactively. After leakage it can be detected online and existing low pressure water line of Tuyere body can be converted into high pressure water line to enhance its existing lifeby increasing heat transfer..Remote monitoring system of Tuyere is installed in-house. Important decision related to furnace movement can be taken by observing the visibility and brightness and logic of coal injection may be modified accordingly.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 2:

Development of longlife blast furnace tuyeres

J. Adam
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 2 ( 09:20 )
Title: Development of longlife blast furnace tuyeres


Author:
J. Adam

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
W. Konrad, C. Neinhuis, S. Konietzko

Abstract:
The damage of a blast furnace tuyere is an unpredictable incident, happening in average between 30 and 100 times a year. As a result, two hours, in some cases up to eight hours shut down are necessary to change such cooling elements. Production loss, extra coke and steam for shut down increase the costs of hot metal (HM) production. Unplanned stoppages due to damages at the blast furnace tuyeres also cause additional emissions like CO2 etc. One of the most frequent reasons for blast furnace (BF) tuyere damages is burning at the tip of the tuyere. It is assumed that temporary peak heat flow at the top of the tuyere is affected by intensive contact of the tuyere tip with molten iron. HM dripping / flowing over the BF tuyere tip is resulting in extreme thermal load upon the tuyere surface. In 2015 the project “Development of longlife blast furnace tuyeres” funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy of Germany started with the aim to extend BF tuyere life-time by developing of 1. advanced BF tuyere coatings based on diffusion coating processes 2. advanced BF tuyere surface structures reducing the wettability by HM and the heat transfer at the tuyere surface The presentation gives an overview about the investigations, preliminary findings and results of the project and points out the demand for future R&D for further extension of BF tuyere life-time.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 2:

Computerized blast furnace training system

S. Zagainov
(Ural Federal University, Russia)

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Close27 June, Room 2 ( 09:40 )
Title: Computerized blast furnace training system


Author:
S. Zagainov

Company:
Ural Federal University, Russia

Co-Authors:
S. Filatov, L. Gileva, S. Myasoedov, A. Sorokin, Y. Gordon

Abstract:
Modern method of technological processes mathematical modelling allows to conduct education of blast furnace specialists and university students using computerised training systems. Operators study the response of blast furnace to various controlled and un-controlled changes in operating situation and acquire the knowledge to compensate the deviation of thermal state from set-up conditions. The training system uses dynamic model of blast furnace operation supplemented with models of various disturbances on furnace thermal state. Tuning of the dynamic parameters of blast furnace process uses regularities of heat and mass transfer. The temperature fields are used to estimate location and sizing of zones of chemical reactions. The system is implemented at NLMK Russia and allowed increase in personnel qualification and reduction in sub-standard hot metal production.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 2:

Process visualization and modelling in ironmaking enabling higher performance

G. Saran
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Process visualization and modelling in ironmaking enabling higher performance


Author:
G. Saran

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
A. Singhal, A. Kumar, A. Ganguly, S. Raj

Abstract:
Ironmaking processes, being complex metallurgical phenomena require deep understanding of the process for taking informed decisions well in time. Seeking this information from different measurements, making data flow on continuous basis, subjecting data to analysis of trends and cause effect analyses is needed to assert that one can quantitatively connect causes to effects. This is where process visualization and empirical modelling plays a major role thereby enabling generation of insights, connecting measurements to phenomena, diagnosis of disturbances, finding improvement opportunities, devising innovative approaches and maximizing value chain. This makes the data acquisition and knowledge accretion more important than ever. Real-time data visibility has been established with Blast Furnace & other Iron making units to take the relevant data to the central data repository named as iMonitor. Enhanced process visibility has helped in the development of advanced visualizations, statistical and empirical diagnostic models. This paper gives a flavor of some of these models such as ‘Blast Furnace Cohesive Zone’, ‘Sounding O/C’, ‘Stave visualization, ‘Liquid Level in hearth’ and how they contributed to achieve the current level of understanding.

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 2:

Consistent hot metal quality at the blast furnace by machine supported decisions

T. Hauck
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 2 ( 10:20 )
Title: Consistent hot metal quality at the blast furnace by machine supported decisions


Author:
T. Hauck

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Böhnisch, C. Hillmann, U. Paul, M. Kannappel, R. Klock

Abstract:
The blast furnace process is extremely complex and actually not fully understood, yet. Numerous spatially distributed measurements have to be considered but provide just incomplete, indirect information about the crucial inner process states. The control is still done manually, so it is an important topic to support the operators during this hard and essential work. Aim is to standardise the control in order to decrease fluctuations and, in succession, to decrease costs and emissions. A rule-based system for machine supported decisions was developed with main focus on the online control of hot metal quality but also on the monitoring of measurement and control systems. Instead of aiming at closed loop control, the system was especially designed to provide maximum transparency for the BF operators in daily practice. This approach is necessary since a closed loop control at BFs so far is just possible during normal operation, but not during special incidents when manual control with full awareness of the operators is essential for fast and correct trouble-shooting. All conclusions of the system are dynamically explained, step-wise and closely oriented to the individual best practice of knowledge-based process control of the respective BF. The system was successfully implemented at a small and a large BF. The recommendations were validated within several operational trials. The results exceeded the expectations, showing a 25% decrease of the standard deviation of hot metal temperatures and in particular a decrease of large target-deviations by up to 75%. Due to these benefits the system was transferred to a further large BF within 6 months. Comparing process efficiencies along the project time showed a saving of approximately 500.000 GJ/a. The system is also useful for benchmarking and training. Further enhancement by integration of complex statistical and analytical models into the current knowledge-based control strategy was already started.

27 June / 11:00 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Modern process control techniques and models II

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 2:

Successful deployment of a tuyere leak soft-ensor at USS Blast Furnace No. 14

Y. Ghobara
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 2 ( 11:00 )
Title: Successful deployment of a tuyere leak soft-ensor at USS Blast Furnace No. 14


Author:
Y. Ghobara

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
R. Albanese, J. Grindey, J. Busser, M. Sukhram, I. Cameron, R. Pula, M. Bodley

Abstract:
Leaking tuyeres damage hearth refractories, chill the hearth and cause production losses. U.S. Steel and Hatch implemented a soft sensor at Blast Furnace No. 14 to identify small water leaks as early as possible. The soft-sensor statistically compares inlet and outlet water flows for each tuyere. Leaks are found quickly by tracking fast and slow drifts in the differential water flowrates. The soft-sensor captured 100% of the leaks in advance of traditional testing over a 6-month period. This paper will discuss the development of the soft-sensor and present examples of the leak events that were successfully detected.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 2:

Raceway instrumentation

C. Plancq
(CRM Group, Belgium)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 2 ( 11:20 )
Title: Raceway instrumentation


Author:
C. Plancq

Company:
CRM Group, Belgium

Co-Authors:
F. Van Loo, O. Ansseau, G. Moreas

Abstract:
Nowadays, the control of the blast furnace coke rate reduction by increasing the coal injection is more and more a priority. Therefore, behaviour and impact of coal char (from injected coals) on melting, smelting and burden permeability will be addressed by innovative techniques. Subsequently, several newly developed tools will enable to highlight the (coal) char regimes. Three measurement techniques have been developed and validated in order to characterize the raceway behaviour. The first one is the raceway depth measurement, the second technique is the temperature evaluation and the last technique is the chemical analysis. The raceway depth measurement method consists in aiming the target point with two spaced laser lines. Depending of the distance at which the reflection (or diffusion) occurs, the apparent distance between the two spots will vary because of the perspective on the condition that the objective is not telecentric. This distance will be measured using a camera and automatic image processing. Normally classical chemical analysis is performed with an absorption measurement inside a chamber filled with a gas. A laser emitter is installed at one side and a spectrometer at the other side to analyse the transmitted light. The classical method is not usable because only one side of the chamber (the raceway) is accessible. So, an emission measurement has to be performed. Emission bands were identified at around 589.6 nm for the Na, at 670.9 nm for the Li and at 766.5 and 769.9 nm for the K. The temperature measurement is combined with the spectrometric gas analysis. The raceway will be considered as a black-body. So the Planck’s law, giving its spectroscopic thermal radiation, can be directly fitted on the measurement. Deeper description and results will be shown during a presentation.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 2:

Tuyere tipping, phenomena understanding and measures to control at F blast furnace TATA Steel

M. Tiwari
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Tuyere tipping, phenomena understanding and measures to control at F blast furnace TATA Steel


Author:
M. Tiwari

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Tuyere is a water-cooled cast copper device that allows hot blast to be blown into the raceway of Blast Furnace. Tuyere tipping is a phenomenon when a tuyere is pushed inside blast furnace due to burden weight or descending scabs. This leads to equipment damage and subsequent loss of hot metal production due to furnace stoppage for changing of tuyere and sometime damaged tuyere cooler. High Productivity in furnaces, high injection rates with high oxygen enrichment and inferior raw material qualities are supplementing tuyere bending and tipping phenomenon in blast furnaces. F Blast furnace at Tata steel India suffered with such problem frequently in recent past. This paper discusses about the phenomenon of tuyere tipping and primary causes for its occurrence. Basis for the project was to study the impact of recent operation on cohesive zone root position, gas flow pattern in furnace and its subsequent effect on heat losses. Different trials were done to study burden distribution and effect of coke and metallic proportion in Blast furnace periphery. Liquid buildup inside hearth and frequent drainage issues have also been considered in study as higher slag volume in hearth affects the gas flow pattern. Outcome of the project has been implemented and has resulted in reduction in tuyere tipping rate at F Blast furnace of Tata Steel, Jamshedpur, India.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 2:

Wind rate control amongst blast furnace tuyeres

N. Spirin
(Ural Federal University, Russia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 2 ( 12:00 )
Title: Wind rate control amongst blast furnace tuyeres


Author:
N. Spirin

Company:
Ural Federal University, Russia

Co-Authors:
O. Onorin, A. Polionov , A. Pavlov, Y. Gordon

Abstract:
Uneven distribution of hot blast amongst the tuyeres leads to variation in raceway length, causes a difference in material descent and gas flow in various areas of blast furnace cross-section. Because of this the information on gas distribution along the tuyeres is very important technological parameter. A new technique is proposed for determining the blast flow rate through tuyeres, based on the usage of the wind thermal energy and the value of the heat removal from this tuyere. It is shown that, with an uneven distribution of hot blast amongst the tuyeres, stabilization of the raceway thermal state requires an adjustment in natural gas flow per tuyere to maintain the theoretical combustion temperatures at a given level.

27 June / 13:20 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Modern process control techniques and models III

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 2:

Fuel rate reduction by optimizing gas distribution & stack temperature at E BF of Tata Steel Ltd

B. Seal
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Fuel rate reduction by optimizing gas distribution & stack temperature at E BF of Tata Steel Ltd


Author:
B. Seal

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
D. Kumar, D. Viswakarma, R. Kumar, S. Saha, M. Patra

Abstract:
Controlling of blast furnace stack temperature is very important for process stability, fuel rate reduction, hot metal chemistry control and for improvement of its campaign life. For controlling stack temperature, gas distribution in furnace plays a major role. Productivity, fuel rate, process stability, hot metal chemistry, campaign life all are affected to great extent in case of adverse gas flow in blast furnace is happened. E Blast Furnace, one of the oldest furnace (Working Volume 595 m3) of Tata Steel Ltd(India) started its 20th campaign from Aug’2017. E BF faced very high stack temperature, less central gas flow, high fuel rate and wide fluctuation in hot metal chemistry for couple of months since it started its new campaign. Since E BF having only coke screening facilities and availability of agglomerate is less (i.e. 60% agglomerate & 40% iron ore), hence reduction of fuel rate with high fines input through iron bearing material & high Al2O3 load through iron bearing material is quite difficult because of adverse gas flow & high slag rate operation of furnace. Formation of wall accretions due to high fines input and its frequent dislodge used to cause wide fluctuations of hot metal chemistry and fuel rate at E BF. For optimization of stack temperature measures like improvement of central gas flow by modifying bell less top chute rotation logic for controlling fines distribution, adjustment of burden distribution in furnace, improvement in raw material batching practice at stock house, inclusion of center coke charging in existing charging matrix, improvement of cast house management was taken. By adopting these measures, gas distribution inside furnace improved and optimization of stack temperature became possible. Fuel rate achieved as 560 Kg/THM with 60% agglomerate from earlier 600 Kg/THM along with consistent hot metal quality and productivity.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 2:

Development of a simplified process tool for blast furnace inner conditions mapping

M. Lima
(ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 2 ( 13:40 )
Title: Development of a simplified process tool for blast furnace inner conditions mapping


Author:
M. Lima

Company:
ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France

Co-Authors:
M. Fernandes Ferreira Lima

Abstract:
Based on the measurement of gas temperature, chemical composition (CO, CO2 and H2) and pressure across the radius from charging level down to the cohesive zone, one can characterize inner conditions of blast furnaces and determine suitable guidelines for process improvements, as for instance how to decrease total equivalent coke rate, etc. On the other hand, such measurements are heavily deployable, being time and resources consuming. Such information is of high interest to support operators to adjust furnace’s process KPIs to reach expected operation and would be even more useful if trials could be carried out more frequently during some specific periods like the characterization of very different working points when varying burden composition or injecting gas in the shaft. Thus, a new process tool has been designed with the objective to simplify such measurements, reducing needed time and resources, and improving its employability. On this way, blast furnace process teams would be empowered to easily perform a complete characterization of inner conditions as a complement to all accessible process information supporting different decision-making processes. This new development is under implementation in a 10.5m diameter blast furnace of ArcelorMittal Dunkerque, where this process tool will be used as an enhancer for operation, supporting the definition of required actions to improve process stability, productivity and PCI rates, and providing more autonomy to local process teams.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 2:

Autonomous operation with artificial intelligence in blast furnace

J. Kim
(POSCO, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Autonomous operation with artificial intelligence in blast furnace


Author:
J. Kim

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:
S. Son, K. Son, S. Choi

Abstract:
The artificial intelligence, AI, especially deep learning algorithm has been remarkably developed. This new technology has been applying to steel processes preemptively in POSCO. Autonomous control would be most difficult to apply in blast furnaces due to numerous unstructured data, such as video information from tuyere or burden etc., and long term sparse data, such as burden properties and hot metal temperature etc. We defined smartization as autonomous control with machine learning algorithm including deep learning, and digitization as conversion to structured data from unstructured to get real-time data. Smartization can be realized on the basis of digitization. This paper will introduce overall activities for digitization and smartization for Pohang No.2 blast furnace, which is main test bed for AI technology in POSCO.

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 2:

Blast furnace heat balances usage to control heat losses

N. Spirin
(Ural Federal University, Russia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 2 ( 14:20 )
Title: Blast furnace heat balances usage to control heat losses


Author:
N. Spirin

Company:
Ural Federal University, Russia

Co-Authors:
O. Onorin, A. Polinov, A. Pavlov, Y. Gordon

Abstract:
In modern blast furnace conditions, the specific coke consumption is determined by the development of heat exchange processes in bottom zone of the furnace. The heat losses estimated based on bottom zone heat balance sufficiently reflect specific coke consumption and silicon content. Knowing heat balance makes it possible to determine heat losses in the bottom zone of the furnace and to estimate the correction factors when the conditions of blast furnace process change. The control of heat losses is also necessary for estimation of condition of a refractory lining, optimum gas distribution and also for correction of the coke rate. The control system is implemented at blast furnaces of MMK, Russia.

Room 3

27 June / 09:00 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace charging and gas cleaning I

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 3:

Soft sensors for blast furnace stack monitoring

H. Bartusch
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 3 ( 09:00 )
Title: Soft sensors for blast furnace stack monitoring


Author:
H. Bartusch

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Pethke, T. Mirkovic, T. Hauck, Y. Kaymak

Abstract:
The blast furnace is the most important aggregate for hot metal production. In 2017 around 1.2 bn. t hot metal has been produced as base of around 1.7 bn. t worldwide steel production. A modern blast furnace is equipped with hundreds of sensors delivering information about local temperatures, pressures, gas compositions, etc. Nevertheless, even after more than hundred years of blast furnace ironmaking, it is not possible to directly measure information about the current process state like position of process zones, homogeneity of gas flow through the whole stack, etc. In consequence it is task of the operators to interpret all available data and to deduce to the inner stack state. With the raising number and complexity of measurement data this task gets more challenging. Furthermore, with increasing number and quality fluctuations of charged raw materials the stack processes are more and more difficult to control. The soft sensor concept has been developed to deduce the internal process parameters, which are of real interest, by exploitation of numerous measurements of auxiliary quantities. During the last years measuring techniques like 2D measurement of top gas temperatures, 3D burden surface radar, etc. became state-of-the-art of blast furnace process monitoring. These techniques enable together with innovative simulation methods like CFD-DEM modelling to compute a far more accurate insight in the current blast furnace stack state. During actual research projects, BFI has developed models basing on the soft sensor concept, in cooperation with steel plant operators and measurement technique providers. They interpret e.g. top gas temperature developments over time or aggregate burden layer models with process data providing information about stack gas flow. These tools are designed to support the blast furnace operators in their daily challenge of correctly interpreting the multitude of available data series.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 3:

Upgrade of BF sludge treatment in U. S. Steel Kosice

J. Curilla
(U. S. Steel Kosice, Slovakia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 3 ( 09:20 )
Title: Upgrade of BF sludge treatment in U. S. Steel Kosice


Author:
J. Curilla

Company:
U. S. Steel Kosice, Slovakia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Originally designed system for the BF sludge separation for the low and high zinc fractions consists of multi hydro-cyclone battery, dewatering of low zinc sludge by continual operating rotary vacuum disc filter and dewatering of high zinc fraction by discontinue operating chamber press filter. Due to the technical difficulties to operate, this system was out of service for many years which resulted to low BF sludge recycling rate and high and costly dumping rate. In first step BF sludge separation was restored through the old hydro-cyclone battery and high zinc fraction started to be continual dewatered by new automated belt press. To eliminate cyclone underflow nozzles clogging and necessity of manual cleaning, old multi hydro-cyclone battery was replaced by modern abrasive resistant polyurethane hydro-cyclone with the simple flexibility of underflow and overflow nozzle size setting. Upgraded system consists of new hydro-cyclone with the bigger size of underflow nozzles, old fashioned vacuum disc filter and new belt press. New continual system allowed establish stable, more effective and very reliable one stage BF sludge separation. This resulted to the higher iron units recycling to the sintering blend/BF process and lowered high zinc BF sludge dumping rate.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 3:

Mitigating the emission of acid pollutants from dry blast furnace gas cleaning plants

P. Klut
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Mitigating the emission of acid pollutants from dry blast furnace gas cleaning plants


Author:
P. Klut

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Engel

Abstract:
Given the improved operational economics and – in some areas – the physical or economic scarcity of water, steel producers are shifting towards the application of blast furnace gas cleaning systems, in which the wet scrubber has been replaced with a dry second gas treatment stage. While in traditional systems, acid pollutants leave the system with the scrubbing water, dry gas cleaning systems need to incorporate additional measures such as absorbent injection to eliminate acid compounds. This article evaluates several solutions for the dry elimination of pollutants such as hydrochloric acid, hydrogen fluoride and cyanides. Removal mechanisms of the different approaches are compared as well as their efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the elimination and reduction of unwanted consequences downstream of the gas cleaning plant, such as acid-accelerated corrosion in ducting or plant equipment and NOx emission from the hot blast system.

27 June / 10:40 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace charging and gas cleaning II

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 3:

Introduction of pellet and center coke charging lead to improve blast furnace process efficiency by 5% and production by 14%

K. Das
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Close27 June, Room 3 ( 10:40 )
Title: Introduction of pellet and center coke charging lead to improve blast furnace process efficiency by 5% and production by 14%


Author:
K. Das

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract: Tata steel blast furnaces were operated with sinter and lump iron ore. Pellet was new for Tata Steel. At the starting pellet quality was not up to the mark as it was a new technology for Tata Steel. It was a challenge to start pellet charging in blast furnace, get benefits of pellet and stabilization of furnace. Initially, pellet was charged 10% in the burden and gradually increased to 30%. Blast furnace permeability improved with pellet introduction. It was an opportunity to push more wind into furnace that will help to increase hot metal production. With the increase of wind volume, it was observed that permeability resistance in furnace suddenly shoot up, high staves temperature and wall heat loss. Blast furnace process got disturbed. Based on data study it was observed that with increasing pellet and wind volume, peripheral working of blast furnace increased resulting high wall heat loss and very high staves temperature. To address the above issue, first time center coke charging started. With center coke charging, wall heat loss decreased, staves temperature decreased and furnace permeability improved that allowed to increase wind volume into furnace. As a result of pellet introduction in burden and center coke charging, blast furnace process efficiency improved by 5%, carbon rate decreased by 17 kg/thm and production increased by 14%. Keywords: Pellet, center coke charging, heat loss, coke rate, process efficiency, production

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 3:

Operational experience with the Danieli Top Charging Unit at Zaporizhstal Blast Furnace No. 3

E. Tesselaar
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 3 ( 11:00 )
Title: Operational experience with the Danieli Top Charging Unit at Zaporizhstal Blast Furnace No. 3


Author:
E. Tesselaar

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
A. Fomenko, E. Engel

Abstract:
The Danieli Top Charging Unit is the latest generation chute type charging units with newly developed distributor of robust hydraulic design. The hydraulic distributor is a proven concept in blast furnace charging technology however it was recognized that several improvements could be done to increase lifetime, redundancy and maintainability of its components. The full scale Danieli Top Charging Unit arrangement is based on a maintenance concept whereby all key equipment and components are conveniently positioned on rail systems or such that they can be removed and re–installed in minimum time. A unique feature is the optional capability for operating on hot sinter. The first unit was installed at Zaporizhstal Blast Furnace No. 3 during a modernization project that was completed in 2017. After recommissioning, the furnace was ramped up and operational practices were developed including charging strategies for optimized process efficiency and stability. This article presents the experiences and achievements during this first year in operation with respect to process efficiency and coke rate reduction as well as practical experiences in maintenance and operation.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 3:

Bell-less top charging unit with rotor distributor: background, process peculiarities, application and maintenance.

D. Tikhonov
(DDG Technologies, LLC, Russia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 3 ( 11:20 )
Title: Bell-less top charging unit with rotor distributor: background, process peculiarities, application and maintenance.


Author:
D. Tikhonov

Company:
DDG Technologies, LLC, Russia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Bell-less top charging unit with rotor distributor: background, process peculiarities, application and maintenance. Temir Boranbaev, Dmitrii Tikhonov, Bell-less top charging unit with rotor burden distributor (BLRU) as compared to contemporary bell-less units implements absolutely different burden charging process in BFs and its circumferential and radial top distribution. In the report main stages of this charging unit equipment and process development, process peculiarities and its application experience are highlighted. The unit maintenance demonstrated equipment simplicity and reliability and, as a result, minimal operation costs. Key word: blast furnace, charging, top, burden distribution

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 3:

Impact of altered coke distribution practice and process diagnostic tools on blast furnace performance at Tata Steel

S. Kumar
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Close27 June, Room 3 ( 11:40 )
Title: Impact of altered coke distribution practice and process diagnostic tools on blast furnace performance at Tata Steel


Author:
S. Kumar

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
A. Reddy, S. Halder

Abstract:
Over the years, improved process visibility enabled by reliable measuring instruments, process practices, models and derived parameters have helped BF operators to stabilize and further improve the efficiency of blast furnace. Several such measurement and diagnostic tools/models were used to improve the process efficiency and reduce carbon rates with higher coal injection rates at Tata Steel Jamshedpur blast furnaces. In addition to offline burden distribution models, use of profilometers and under burden probes to fine-tune the burden distribution logic for improving gas utilization helped in achieving the desired result. A change in the distribution philosophy of the coke fraction inside the furnace for optimizing the coke layer thickness helped to sustain furnace stability during low coke rate operations. It also helped in improving the gas utilization in the central and wall regions of the furnace. Increase in coal injection further enabled a reduction in the humidification steam requirement, which also aided in an improvement in the carbon rates.

Room 5

27 June / 09:00 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Hot blast stoves and blowers I

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 5:

Blast furnace hot stove despressurization control

R. Nadur Motta
(CSP, Brazil)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 5 ( 09:00 )
Title: Blast furnace hot stove despressurization control


Author:
R. Nadur Motta

Company:
CSP, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The hot stoves have got the function of to utilize the enthalpic energy from the gases produced by the blast furnace process through combustion cycles and air blow from the blower motor. This article shows how that was made in CSP´s Blast furnace at Ceará State in Brazil. The quick hot stoves depressurization cause vibration, wear equipment out, decreasing the lifetime and can lead to dragging of the refractory bricks from the checker chamber and to combustion to the smoke channel. In addition, it has the inconvenience of the associated audible noise that exceeds the 85 dB allowed by working legislation. The implemented depressurization control is novel because it does not have neither discharge pressure process variable transmitter nor proportional relief control valve. The novel consists in the actions performed in the regenerators process control to promote a controlled relief by the pressure derivative using the pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. The relief time increased from 3 to 8 minutes decreasing the audible noise and the vibration in the area without any extra investments in control equipment.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 5:

Paul Wurth top fired stoves - from paper to industrial implementation

E. Schaub
(Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 5 ( 09:20 )
Title: Paul Wurth top fired stoves - from paper to industrial implementation


Author:
E. Schaub

Company:
Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
R. Allmannsdoerfer, M. Bierod, S. Kessler, S. Thaler, J. Simoes

Abstract:
Top Fired Stoves were originally invented already fifty years ago. Although during the first 25-30 years after the invention this technology was not accepted by the market, top fired stoves became more and more popular during the last years. In order to serve the increasing market demands, Paul Wurth decided to develop its own Top Fired Stove technology five years ago. The design was developed, based on theoretic analysis and numerical modelling. As a second step a pilot plant was built, tested and is in operation for more than two years. The design has been scaled up and currently industrial implementations are carried out. This paper describes the development process for the top fired stove, illustrates and analyses the installation and commissioning, shares operational results of the pilot plant and gives an outlook on the industrial implementation.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 5:

Improved energy efficiency of innovative design of Kalugin top combustion stoves

S. Ivlev
(KALUGIN JSC, Russia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 5 ( 09:40 )
Title: Improved energy efficiency of innovative design of Kalugin top combustion stoves


Author:
S. Ivlev

Company:
KALUGIN JSC, Russia

Co-Authors:
M. Aksyushin, A. Subbotin, Y. Murzin, M. Kalugina, B. Prokofiev

Abstract:
Continuously growing competition in ironmaking as well as toughening of requirements for environmental safety requires application of innovative engineering solutions by iron-makers. Selection of the hot blast stove design significantly influences capital and operating expenditures for iron production. Kalugin Top Combustion Stoves (or Kalugin Shaftless Stoves) provide the hot blast temperature of 1300-1350°C using standard refractory and provide high economic and environmental performance with the service life of 30 years. In these stoves combustion is performed by pre-chamber type burner with jet and vortex supply of gas and air. The burner is installed at the top of the dome and provides full combustion of gas without flame pulsation and uniform distribution of combustion products over the checkerwork. These stoves have small dimensions, which provides 30-50% saving on refractory as compared to conventional stove designs. In addition, for improvement of energy efficiency Kalugin stoves can be accompanied by waste heat recovery systems of different types developed by our company. Energy recovery in these systems makes it possible to save 30%-40% of energy consumption. Furthermore, the use of preheated combustion air and gas improves fuel combustion and reduces chemical and mechanical fuel underburning. As a result, the quantity of heat received during the combustion process increases by 10-15% with the same fuel consumption. Moreover, WHRS enables to reduce significantly consumption of expensive high-calorie gases (NG or COG) used for enrichment of BF gas. Energy efficiency of these solutions is confirmed by the analysis of heat balances of stove operation in the “checkerwork heating – blast heating” operating cycle. The paper presents an innovative design of Kalugin Stoves exemplified by successful cases of stove construction in the world, provides calculation results of the heat balance in Kalugin stoves and describes the major advantages of preheated gas and combustion air supplied to the stove.

27 June / 10:40 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Hot blast stoves and blowers II

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 5:

Sequential repair of stove plants considering different stove technologies

R. Allmannsdoerfer
(Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 5 ( 10:40 )
Title: Sequential repair of stove plants considering different stove technologies


Author:
R. Allmannsdoerfer

Company:
Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Bierod, E. Schaub

Abstract:
Many Blast Furnaces (BFs) in the world were originally built already decades ago. While the BFs are relined on a regular basis, the corresponding stove plants remain often in service since they have been built. Some of them reached the end of their normal service life and need to be revamped soon. However the relining time of a BF is typically too short for the relining or revamping of a hot blast stove. Therefore hot blast stoves are often relined sequentially; sometimes even the installation of an additional stove is necessary, in order to minimise interferences with the BF operation. Paul Wurth has carried out sequential stove revampings in different plants with different stove designs. This paper will illustrate three of these projects, each with its own challenges. The technology for the different projects is always considering constrains given by the existing plant configuration and special requirements by customers. Therefore a different stove technology was considered for each project (internal combustion chamber stoves, external combustion chamber stoves, top fired stoves), which will be illustrated as well.

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 5:

Performance and recently orders of top combustion type hot stove with metallic burners

N. Hashimoto
(Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Performance and recently orders of top combustion type hot stove with metallic burners


Author:
N. Hashimoto

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
NIPPON STEEL ENGINEERING CO., LTD (here in after called “NSE”) started to supply hot stoves from the 1960s and we have constantly improved both external and internal combustion types. For the external combustion type hot stove, we developed NSE original type with stable refractory design. For the internal combustion type hot stove, we improved the refractory design to adopt in large size blast furnaces over 5,000 m3. On the other hand, in recent years, large-capacity and compact hot stoves have been aimed, and since the 2010s, the top combustion type hot stoves with ceramic burner for large blast furnaces have started to spread in Russia and China. However, with the method of installing the ceramic burner at the top of the hot stove, there are some problems with regard to initial cost, and the long-term service life time as a refractory structure, etc. For these reasons, NSE had developed the top combustion type hot stove with metallic burner which has low initial cost and stable refractory structure, after actual burning test with actual size metallic burner in 2009, this technology was adopted in a commercial blast furnace in Japan in 2014. NSE have received evaluation about the following some points from customers delivered the hot stove. The ability to blow air as planned equivalent to the conventional type has been achieved stable operation is possible without trouble. The hot stove is compact and low cost and has excellent maintainability. The ratio of unburned CO and NOx is extremely small, BFG exclusive combustion is also possible, and the flammability and environment are excellent etc. Because of this reference, NSE has received many orders for this hot stove in 2018 for large blast furnace. NSE will continue to strive to disseminate excellent hot stoves in the future.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 5:

Reducing carbon dioxide through improving operation of hot stove efficiency

S. Kang
(POSCO, South Korea)

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Title: Reducing carbon dioxide through improving operation of hot stove efficiency


Author:
S. Kang

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Hot Stoves at POSCO Gwangyang No.4 BF Gwangyang No.4 blast furnace was blown in 2009 with 5,500㎥ inner volume (first half in 2018, Po 2.08t/d/㎥, fuel ratio 496.5kg/t-p), and Didier type for a hot stove is installed at that time. The background of improving performed to reduce the rate of coal among iron making cost and decreasing CO2 gas. The Hot stoves of Gwangyang No.4 BF consist of 4 stoves. While the Two Dome type was previously applied, the system was improved to prevent stress corrosion cracking by changing the dome type into One Dome Type. Compared with the Two Dome Type, there is no hole occurrence in the exterior of the structure and falling off graphite in the contact tube. The following issues have arisen during operation, and improvement several activities are done. (1) [Problem] Unstable mixed gas and air-fuel ratio due to operator control. [Solution] Prevent loss through automatic control reflecting combustion, exhaust gas, and checker temperature. (2) [Problem] Fluctuations in flow rate and heat loss during stove switching. [Solution] Minimize valve opening speed and adjust the CBCV (cold blast control valve) differently for the combustion cycle to prevent damage. In result, compared with the initial operation, CO concentration in flue gas (34,000→100ppm) and Mixed gas consumption (378→367Mcal/t-p) have increased in recent. For the overall economy, there is economic merit.

27 June / 13:00 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Coke quality requirements and reduced coke rates

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 5:

Characterization of coke surface using topographic and specific surface area measurement techniques

A. Bhattacharyya
(Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria)

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Title: Characterization of coke surface using topographic and specific surface area measurement techniques


Author:
A. Bhattacharyya

Company:
Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The properties of coke play a crucial role in the blast furnace process. Coke, a highly cost intensive raw material, is the most important reducing agent for the furnace. During the burden descend inside a blast furnace, coke undergoes several macro and microscopic changes in its structure due to the combined effect of chemical and mechanical process conditions inside the furnace. A strong and stable structure of coke is necessary in order to secure smooth movement of the burden as well as to maintain the bed permeability. The surface properties of coke play an important role to influence coke properties. Previous research works have demonstrated the effect of slag penetration in the coke structure due to the change of coke surface caused by Boudouard reaction. In this work, several blast furnace coke samples of different qualities (in terms of their CRI and CSR values) are investigated microscopically in order to characterize the topographic nature of their surface. Coke samples before and after CRI tests have been tested and their surface roughness and other topographic parameters are measured along with successive correlation to their reactivity indices. The samples are also analyzed using BET technique to measure their specific surface areas and these values are correlated with the topographic parameters. The results reveal a better understanding of the changes of surface properties of coke caused by similar conditions as blast furnace.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 5:

Importance of coke quality and optimization for higher pulverized coal injection rates in blast furnace

H. Upadhyay
(Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India)

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Close27 June, Room 5 ( 13:40 )
Title: Importance of coke quality and optimization for higher pulverized coal injection rates in blast furnace


Author:
H. Upadhyay

Company:
Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India

Co-Authors:
H. Upadhyay

Abstract:
Coke is a fuel with few impurities and high carbon content. It is the solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. Coke is the most important factor in blast furnace iron making which alone, other than providing heat, reactants and mechanical support to burden, accounts for more than 50% of hot metal production cost. In modern blast furnace operational practices significant efforts are made to decrease the costly coke consumption mainly by introducing cheaper coals in pulverized form through tuyeres. This alters the in-furnace aerodynamics, reduction conditions, burden distribution and demands on raw material, particularly coke, quality. Therefore coke quality such as its hot and cold strength, reactivity, composition, size fraction and granulometry etc. exerts great influence on the performance of blast furnaces. With increasing productivity & pulverized coal injection the quality requirement becomes more and more stringent. It is due to the fact that ascending injection rates cause descend in coke unit per charge and the function of coke from being thermal, chemical and mechanical equally shifts to become predominantly mechanical. Hence in order to maintain stable operation with higher rates of performance, it is important to have lowest possible degradation of coke during its travel from top to bottom of the furnace. This in turn demands proper understanding of the conditions coke has to face in the BF (i.e. effect of alkali, lime, other oxides, char/dust & reactions with surrounding gases) and mechanisms of fines generation & consumption in the blast furnace. In this work a study on role of coke and its functions in traditional as well as modern high PCI furnace operation has been made. The mechanisms inducing and affecting coke degradation have been investigated and correlated with the actual experience from one of the best blast furnaces.

Room 6

27 June / 09:00 - Surface technologies

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 6:

Industrial applications of on line and real time microscopy

G. Moreas
(CRM Group, Belgium)

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Title: Industrial applications of on line and real time microscopy


Author:
G. Moreas

Company:
CRM Group, Belgium

Co-Authors:
O. Herbiet

Abstract:
The On Line Microscopy system (OLM), developed by CRM, has several applications in industry. Some of these will be detailed in this presentation. This measurement system has the following specifications: a field of view from 250µm to 5000µm with a precision down to less than 1µm, a software-controlled auto-focus, an acquisition rate up to several kHz depending on the camera, a light pulse down to a few nanoseconds and image processing dedicated to the various applications. Among the applications, one consists in the characterisation of the pickling state based on the shadowed zones put in evidence by dark-field illumination. A second application currently daily running concerns the characterisation of the galvannealed strip by the analysis of the type and the amount of crystals present at the surface of the product. A third application, nowadays sold worldwide at more than 60 exemplars, is used to measure the roughness of the strip surface especially for automotive applications. This has been recently upgraded with the measurement of the waviness also for automotive applications. Another application, under way, consists in the study of the grain size evolution on galvanised product in relation with the final quality of this product in term for example of zinc coating properties. The applications are not limited to the above mentioned ones. The last version is using LED illumination with very short pulse (200ns) leading to a system requiring less maintenance. This is also using an electrically tunable lens for the focus. The result is an industrial system with increased compactness and modularity for every kind of measurement based on surface characterisation at microscopic level.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 6:

Towards measuring surface quality by means of automatic surface inspection systems

J. Brandenburger
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Towards measuring surface quality by means of automatic surface inspection systems


Author:
J. Brandenburger

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Even today, no one in the world can precisely quantify ASIS performance for the whole running production as in contrast to common measuring systems where the accuracy of the measurement is well defined, it is almost impossible for the user to determine comparable quantities for an ASIS. In the European RFCS project “CHECKSIS” methods were developed to enable the automatic verification of the ASIS performance. Results of the project were used to initiate the definition of a first official standard for ASIS in flat steel production that will be released as part of the well-established VDI/VDE/VDMA guideline 2632 for machine vision systems. This guideline should lead to comparable ASIS results of proven reliability as a first step towards real measurement of surface quality. The proposed methods are able to detect de-creasing ASIS performance, ensure long-term ASIS stability and reach documented reliability mandatory to turn ASIS into certified ASIS. This paper discusses the project results and the concepts developed for ASIS stability testing.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 6:

Advanced technology for high quality and high productivity in hot dip continuous galvanizing line

H. Kakuno
(Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan)

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Title: Advanced technology for high quality and high productivity in hot dip continuous galvanizing line


Author:
H. Kakuno

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Nippon Steel& Sumikin Engineering (hereinafter referred to as “NSENGI”) has supplied fivty-six(56) Hot Dip Continuous Galvanizing Lines (hereinafter referred to as “CGL”) for automotive and construction use all over the world. Recently, the request for high-quality and high-productivity of CGL is increasing. NSENGI has developed the advanced technology in order to accommodate the request focusing on surface quality of products and high-speed line operation. 1. Advanced Air knife system(NS blade® ) NSENGI has been developing the Air knife for Coating machine as the key technology of CGL. NS blade® was developed to prevent the zinc splash of strip edge and edge over coating which harmed the high speed and thin coating operation. After a pilot test in an experimental line, NS blade® was already applied in lots of customer at present. As a result of actual operations, NS blade® conduced to the following effect. ・Splash: High speed and thin coating weight operation (at operation speed 200mpm of 55%AL-Zn) ・Edge over coating: No edge over coating, off course flat winding ・Dross reduction: Blade effect can achieved dross reduction In consideration of industry 4.0, Remote maintenance and observation system is provided. 2. Advanced work roll cleaning system for Skinpass mill Skin pass mill work rolls have been used in order to improve the final strip quality such as mechanical property, strip flatness, and surface roughness in CGL. Before now, In-line cleaning device for work rolls of several type cleaning systems are applied. However, these systems are adequate in the complete removal of the solid sticking substance (e.g., zinc powders) from work rolls while maintaining its rough surface. NSENGI has developed the “Cavitating Jet in Air” cleaning system to realize the removal of the solid sticking substance with its roughness kept in the desirable condition. Moreover, NSENGI introduced “Cavitating Jet in Air” cleaning system into a CGL in commercial production and it has obtained fruitful results.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 6:

Influence of surface profile on rust resistance of IF Steel during interval of working processes

B. Fang
(Baosteel-NSC Automotive Steel Sheets Co., Ltd., China)

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Title: Influence of surface profile on rust resistance of IF Steel during interval of working processes


Author:
B. Fang

Company:
Baosteel-NSC Automotive Steel Sheets Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
During the manufacturing process of cold rolled auto sheet steel, a short transiting time are of demand between two processes, which is commonly about one to three days. In order to prevent the steel from rusting during these days, some measures have to be used, among which the residue rolling oil are the option in most cases. This paper is aimed to investigate the relationship among three-dimensional (3D) surface profiles, surface residues and corrosion rates of IF steel, further to explore the influence of surface morphology on the rust resistance during the interval of working processes. A white-light interferometry profilometer, scanning electrochemical polarization measurements and chemical analysis were used in this study. Results showed the residue oil is the key factor to affect the rust resistance of the sheet. Meanwhile, rolling oil is more likely to stay in the valleys. Therefore, a parameter of three dimensional surface profile, valley proportion, was the critical to determine the corrosion resistance of the sheet. It was found that sample AO presented the least proportion of valley, the least amount of residual oil, which promoted the penetration of corrosion media, and subsequently the worst rust resistance during the interval of working processes. This study will be of great help to improve the rust resistance of the auto steel by simply changing the valley proportion.

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 6:

Influence of Surface Roughness of Full Hard Steel on Spangle of Galvanized Steel Used in Exposed Galvanized Steel

T. Park
(Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 6 ( 10:20 )
Title: Influence of Surface Roughness of Full Hard Steel on Spangle of Galvanized Steel Used in Exposed Galvanized Steel


Author:
T. Park

Company:
Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea

Co-Authors:
S. Choi

Abstract:
According to rising demand of galvanized steel using automotive panel widely, Many studies related to surface quality improvement of galvanized steel have been done. In case of galvanized steel, Zn grain called as spangle is formed during solidification of Zn. It is known that surface quality properties of galvanized steel vary depending on spangle size. In this paper, we focus influence of surface roughness of Full hard steel by surface treatment condition on spangle size of galvanized steel. Difference in surface treatment condition leads to difference of surface area of full hard steel, which caused different spangle size.

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 6:

Numerical evaluation of surface roughness influences on cold formability of DP steel

P. Wechsuwanmanee
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Numerical evaluation of surface roughness influences on cold formability of DP steel


Author:
P. Wechsuwanmanee

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Lian, W. Liu

Abstract:
The microstructural configuration of DP steels with a soft ferritic matrix with embedded islands of hard martensite is the key feature to guarantee high strength, excellent ductility and cold formability, and high energy absorption in case of crash. However, due to this complex configuration, a variety of so far unknown damage initiation mechanisms has been activated, e.g. martensite-ferrite or ferrite-ferrite interface debonding or cracking of martensite. Depending on the subsequent damage accumulation, these mechanisms can result in critical macroscopic phenomena like fracture prior to necking in cold forming or pronounced edge crack sensitivity. Both phenomena are strongly influenced by surface roughness issues. The suggested contribution therefore presents an approach to explicitly consider surface roughness effects in a numerical simulation framework to predict the mechanical behaviour of DP steels. The approach is based on the coupling of damage mechanics modelling on the macroscopic scale and RVE simulations on the microscale. The latter ones geometrically consider roughness profiles that have been experimentally determined through surface investigations with confocal white light microscopy. The homogenization between the scales is achieved via weak macro-micro coupling in virtual experiments. The presentation will highlight some application examples where the suggested approach could serve to quantitatively assess roughness effects on cold formability of DP steels.

27 June / 11:20 - Additive manufacturing: Properties and quality of additive manufactured components II

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 6:

Innovative continuous process for AM metal powder production

M. Boccadoro
(Tenova S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Innovative continuous process for AM metal powder production


Author:
M. Boccadoro

Company:
Tenova S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
C. Cattalini, F. Memoli, W. Hopkins, K. Kemper

Abstract:
Tenova, a Techint group company, worldwide partner for innovative, reliable and sustainable solution in the metal and mining, and Phoenix Scientific Industries Ltd (PSI), well known provider from R&D to large scale production atomization systems and other solidification techniques, are developing together an innovative continuous process for metal powder production addressed to the Additive Manufacturing market. The aim of the paper is to illustrate a continuous processing route for AM metal powders production developed to maximize productivity rates, efficiency and flexibility while minimizing production costs and environmental impact. Together with other benefits, this processing system is designed to face the challenge of the industrialization phase relevant to AM Powder production processes.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 6:

Production of high-grade metal powder for additive manufacturing by using the powder atomization plant of SMS group GmbH

T. Brune
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Production of high-grade metal powder for additive manufacturing by using the powder atomization plant of SMS group GmbH


Author:
T. Brune

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
P. Weiland, M. Hüllen, J. Schlüter

Abstract:
In order to control and investigate all major steps of metal additive manufacturing, SMS group has set up a 3D Competence Center at their location in Moenchengladbach, Germany. A full scale powder atomization plant for the production of high-grade metal powders has been built to gain detailed operator know-how and production expertise to develop and produce different AM powders. A fully equipped laboratory guarantees high qualities for the further processing using a laser based powder bed fusion printer. The main goal is to analyze and develop the different influencing factors during atomization and further powder processing and the correlating properties during the downstream processing steps. By this full liner approach for the entire value chain of additive manufacturing, SMS can bring the best value to customers. In this paper, the Powder Atomization Plant and its technical features are described in detail to show the correlations of the powder processing and best results of the laser based powder bed fusion printer. To realize highest cleanness of the powder, the melting and refining of metals and alloys is taken place under vacuum or inert gas atmosphere. The atomizing process with argon or nitrogen, using the close-coupled principal, guarantees defined grain sizes and distribution of metal powders. An anti-satellite system is used for the needed spherical particles shapes which guarantee good flow properties during the 3D printing process. Combining a high utilization grade of metal powder and the right particle size and shape for additive manufacturing at highest quality, the new plant concept of SMS group demonstrates customers how to become the leading supplier of the AM industry.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 6:

Automated tool-path generation for rapid manufacturing and numerical simulation of additive manufacturing LMD geometries

M. Biegler
(Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 6 ( 12:00 )
Title: Automated tool-path generation for rapid manufacturing and numerical simulation of additive manufacturing LMD geometries


Author:
M. Biegler

Company:
Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Wang, B. Graf, M. Rethmeier

Abstract:
In additive manufacturing (AM) Laser Metal Deposition (LMD), parts are built-up by welding layers of powder feedstock onto a substrate. Applications for steel powders include forging tools and structural components for various industries. For large parts, the choice of tool-paths influences the build-rate, the part performance and the distortions in a highly geometry-dependent manner. With weld-path lengths in the range of hundreds of meters, a reliable, automated tool path generation is essential for the usability of LMD processes. In this contribution, automated tool-path generation approaches are shown and their results are discussed for arbitrary geometries. The investigated path strategies range from classical approaches like “Zig-zag” and “contour-parallel-strategies” to more unusual solutions based on Hilbert-curves or the Travelling-Salesman problem. After generation, the tool-paths are automatically formatted into g-code for experimental build-up and ASCII for a numerical simulation model. Finally, the tool paths are discussed in regards to volume-fill, microstructure and porosity for the experimental samples and temperature flow for the numerical model. Guidelines are presented for the geometry-dependent selection of path-strategies. This work presents a part of the IGF project 18737N “Welding distortion simulation” (FOSTA P1140)

27 June / 13:15 - Additive manufacturing: Properties and quality of additive manufactured components I

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27 June / 13:15 - Room 6:

Physical and numerical modeling of close-coupled atomization processes for metal powder production

N. Vogl
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Physical and numerical modeling of close-coupled atomization processes for metal powder production


Author:
N. Vogl

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
A full-scale pilot plant which uses the close-coupled atomization principle for metal powder production has been built up from SMS group. The properties of the final product depend on the uniformity of size and consistency of the powder. The particles are produced by close-coupled atomizers. An atomizer consists of a primary nozzle for the injection of liquid metal and a secondary coaxial nozzle for generation of a high speed gas jet. The secondary nozzle is designed as Laval nozzle resulting in supersonic flow conditions with complex shock and expansion wave pattern. The challenge lies in modeling of the mechanisms of liquid metal atomization under extreme process conditions. Better understanding of these phenomena is important for quality improvement, cost reduction and expansion of the product design pa-rameter space. The goal of this cooperative project is to develop a CFD model that calculates the particle size distribution for varying process parameters such as steel grade, superheating melt temperature, size of nozzles, gas-to-liquid ratio and others. In this paper, the pilot plant is introduced. In a laboratory setup for water atomization a model of the pilot plant has been built-up. In this model the operating conditions of the pilot plant are reproduced using the dimensional analysis of the scales influencing the atomization process. The setup allows to investigate the interaction between shock/expansion waves and water flow by Schlieren, PDA, and high speed measurements. Parallel to pilot-plant and experimental operation, the development of a CFD model for the atomization process has been started. The model shall be able to predict the behavior of the liquid fragments beneath the nozzles, the interaction between liquids and gas (shocks, ex-pansion waves) and lick-back phenomena. The status of this interdisciplinary project is de-scribed. Results from pilot-plant operation, laboratory tests and CFD simulations are discussed.

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27 June / 13:35 - Room 6:

Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and main applications

A. Altay
(Saar Pulvermetall GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and main applications


Author:
A. Altay

Company:
Saar Pulvermetall GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract: Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is used for 2 main applications. Re-densification of casted, sintered and additive manufactured parts with pores to obtain a theoretical density of 100%. The 2nd area is the production of near-net shape components as composite or solid piece. It is filled into a steel capsule with powder and compacted under isostatic pressure and high temperature depending on the alloy. In composite parts, a solid shell or core serves as a carrier material to have a powder coating by diffusion bond connection with each other. As powder alloys are selected, which are not conventionally produced. Alloys with a high proportion of wear and corrosion-resistant components are melted and than gas atomized. This allows to obtain a uniform homogeneity of the atomized powder grains and to prevent segregation due to the high cooling rate. The subsequent shaping takes place by filling the powder in a sheet metal capsule. The filled capsule is evacuated and placed later into the HIP facility. Due to the isostatically applied argon gas pressure under the influence of temperature, the powder sinters. There is a solid-state diffusion at the grain boundaries and at the same time a 100% compaction of the pores. The homogeneity of the component is ensured by limiting a HIP temperature below Solidus. The subsequent processing can be carried out with conventional tools and machines or with other methods before and after a heat treatment. Examples of this technology can be listed as components for the extrusion machinery used for plastic market and the offshore industry. Other applications can be rollers, pressure vessels etc. with increased demands on the strength and wear and corrosion.

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27 June / 13:55 - Room 6:

Powder flow characterization for AM applications

F. Francqui
(Granutools, Belgium)

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Close27 June, Room 6 ( 13:55 )
Title: Powder flow characterization for AM applications


Author:
F. Francqui

Company:
Granutools, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Granular materials and metallic fine powders are widely used in many industry (3D Printing, sintering, alloys, …). To control and to optimize processing methods, the physics of powders must be precisely analysed. The measurement method based on the rotating drum can serve this purpose because the powder flow is analysed precisely (2.2%) at the powder / air interface without any compressive load. Moreover, it allows studying the relevant powders properties for AM: The Powders spreadability. Indeed, we have shown recently that the probability to obtain waves during the layer formation is proportional to the cohesive index measured by GranuDrum instrument. In addition to the flowability, the powder packing fraction is the other key parameter. Indeed, a high packing fraction reduces the porosity of the produced part. Therefore, a precise measurement of the range of packing fractions accessible by the powder is also necessary as precursors quality control. GranuPack instrument measures a compaction curve very precisely (0.4%). The bulk density, the optimal density, the compaction range and speed are extracted from this compaction curve. Moreover, the compaction curves of different samples can be compared to evidence differences regarding both density and flowability.

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27 June / 14:15 - Room 6:

Additive manufacturing at SMS group - a key technology for future production processes

T. Nerzak
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 6 ( 14:15 )
Title: Additive manufacturing at SMS group - a key technology for future production processes


Author:
T. Nerzak

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
METEC & 4th ESTAD 2019 Title Additive Manufacturing at SMS group – A key technology for future production processes Authors R. Banse, S. Hornickel, Th. Nerzak, A. Roßbach, N. Uppenkamp SMS group GmbH, Moenchengladbach, Germany Abstract Being a manufacturer of plants and machinery for the steel and NF-metals industry, SMS group’s objective is to provide integrated high-end turn-key solutions for our customers also in the field of Additive Manufacturing (AM). Following this path, we are equipped with a powerful 3D printer for a short time, which has been provided by our cooperation partner Additive Industries. The metal-powder bed printer will enable us to implement new production concepts in future. At the same time, it is a further step towards the integral AM approach by adding this laser beam melting machine to the full-scale pilot plant for metal powder production at our location in Moenchengladbach. The powder production plant as well as detailed backgrounds of the physical and numerical modelling of the respective atomization process will be presented separately. In laser beam melting processes, a high-purity homogeneous metal powder is melted by means of laser energy, layer by layer at defined positions. In this way, the component is gradually built up. By means of the powder bed technique it is possible to produce components of complex and unprecedented structures, which would not be feasible by conventional processes. The AM team at SMS group, which has been set up to advance and promote this innovative technology within the company, has already implemented a great number of innovative solutions for machine parts based on digital 3D design data, which impressively demonstrate the advantages Additive Manufacturing processes provide. Their most important benefits include significant weight reduction of dynamically actuated components, improvement of energy efficiency as a result of optimized flow patterns and minimized weight, simplification of mounting and adjusting procedures, easily customized design, dramatically shortened delivery periods and the possibility to produce locally. The paper and presentation will give a detailed look into a few typical AM design solutions that have already been implemented with success, thereby effectively contributing to significant increase in performance of our customer’s plants.

Room 8

27 June / 09:00 - Industry 4.0 in Ironmaking I

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 8:

Digital solutions for modern and efficient ironmaking at ROGESA

F. Hansen
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: Digital solutions for modern and efficient ironmaking at ROGESA


Author:
F. Hansen

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
Y. Reuter, S. Weyer, A. Schmitz, J. Simoes, R. Lin

Abstract:
Digitalization of our industry is bringing new opportunities to further optimize operation including production and maintenance. One of the biggest drivers of this digital wave is the artificial intelligence based on big data in combination with process knowledge and IoT technologies. This paper describes the approach to and the status of implementation of modern digital solutions at Rogesa ironmaking plant. The Rogesa implementation includes L2 automation packages for sinter plant and blast furnace process optimization, deep learning with data-driven models. staves wear monitoring by smart sensors, production KPI monitoring via mobile dashboards, condition-based predictive and prescriptive maintenance for tapping equipment and the slag granulation plant as well as a digital twin of the blast furnace using virtual and augmented reality for the visualization of live data, alarms etc. on a 360° tour through of the plant. Key words: Industry 4.0, blast furnace, sinter plant, process optimization, energy and resources efficiency, wear monitoring, KPI dashboard, smart maintenance, predictive maintenance, digital twin, 360 tour, smart sensors

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 8:

Ironmaking expert and Through Process Optimization - a holistic approach for ironmaking optimization

D. Bettinger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Close27 June, Room 8 ( 09:20 )
Title: Ironmaking expert and Through Process Optimization - a holistic approach for ironmaking optimization


Author:
D. Bettinger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
H. Fritschek, T. Kronberger, W. Oberaigner, J. Plaul, M. Schaler

Abstract:
Up until recently ironmaking process optimization systems focused on the production processes of stand-alone operations such as individual sinter plants, pelletizing plants and blast furnaces. This control has been based on locally-stored recent – and therefore limited – data. Process models convert data into usable information, expert systems judge the process conditions and derive required actions by rule based decision support systems to achieve a standardized operation strategy. “Holistic Ironmaking” offers a wider view, covering the interaction and coordination of the related plants in order to aim at the plant-wide optimum. The two key pillars of Holistic Ironmaking are the “Ironmaking Expert” and “Through Process Optimization” systems. These systems provide a digital assistant to supervise the overall plant and to offer decision-making solutions to meet the required KPIs of (for example) productivity, cost and quality. Automatic control and decision support systems naturally rely on data: The integration of innovative data sources as Acoustic Measurements, Tuyere Optics and Intelligent Staves into the automation landscape and related benefits are discussed. Together with the individual process optimization systems Holistic Ironmaking offers an increased degree of transparency and standardization in order to orchestrate the ironmaking plants closer to the optimal operational setpoint. The interaction of these systems with the local optimization systems is described in this paper: Together with the individual process optimization systems Holistic Ironmaking offers an increased degree of transparency and standardization in order to orchestrate the ironmaking plants closer to the optimal operational setpoint.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 8:

Smart equipment - the next generation of equipment for ironmaking

P. Tockert
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Smart equipment - the next generation of equipment for ironmaking


Author:
P. Tockert

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
F. Hansen, D. Meyer, C. Hoffmann

Abstract:
Paul Wurth has a long history in equipment and plant unit design in ironmaking. Much effort and considerations went into continuous improvements and designing new generations of equipment. Besides bettering the equipment is there a way to make a leap in terms of productivity and delivered value on new and existing equipment by making them smart? The answer is a definitive yes. The label “smart” is a very general one and the article will focus on conveying the series of features and functionalities that define a Paul Wurth smart equipment. Constitutive features are: advanced automation, virtual commissioning, on board I/Os, embedded diagnosis, vibration analysis, embedded historian, remote support, dash-boarding… The article will give insights to each feature. It will describe the application of the Smart philosophy to the Bell Less Top equipment and the gains in performance, reliability and the possibility to train operators prior installation and minimised duration for commissioning.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 8:

Industrial change: Impact of emerging technologies on the Steel Industry

M. Boedecker
(Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Industrial change: Impact of emerging technologies on the Steel Industry


Author:
M. Boedecker

Company:
Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States

Co-Authors:
C. Cotton

Abstract:
With the mainstream adoption of technologies, such as Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Data Analytics and Digitalization, many industries are exploring these areas to understand how each solves unique challenges in their operational value chain. This paper explores non-steel producing industries to see what solutions are being adopted, problems they are solving, and how this relates to the steel industry. Further, this paper discusses how Midrex is making these technologies available in Midrex Connect, a connected services platform, designed to help customers understand Industry 4.0 adoption and how it can drive greater operational efficiency.

27 June / 11:00 - Industry 4.0 in Ironmaking II

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 8:

The benefits of integrated decisions over sulphur content along the process chain production of pig iron and steel

E. Marchal
(Cassotis Consulting, Brazil)

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Title: The benefits of integrated decisions over sulphur content along the process chain production of pig iron and steel


Author:
E. Marchal

Company:
Cassotis Consulting, Brazil

Co-Authors:
E. Marchal, F. Silva, G. Martino

Abstract:
Keywords: Integrated decisions, processes integration, mathematical model, optimization, sulphur content, trade-offs Abstract: The definition of the chemical specification at multiple steps of the steelmaking process is very common in the industry. Among all elements and compounds, the sulphur content has a special control over several stages, from the coal blend to the final products. Coke, iron and steelmaking specialists usually agree on a static specification for each intermediate product according to their local operation capacity and production cost. However, local decisions have major impacts on the whole production chain and many global factors should be considered in order to make the best decision. In this study, we will exemplify focusing on sulphur content concepts and techniques that could be applied to many decisions in an integrated carbon steel plant. The variation of coal and coke prices, the desulphurization cost and time, the processes operating points, the hot metal rate at converters, prices and demands of low and ultra-low sulphur steel grades are some of the integrated factors that are usually disregarded during the specification process. Mathematical modeling presents itself as a proper option into dealing with all the complexity that emerges from integrating all these processes' trade-offs and decisions. This study presents the results of a mathematical model that encompasses economic, thermal, chemical, and mass balances, physical quality of materials and productivity constraints of all processes of a hypothetical integrated carbon steel plant. It optimizes the iron and steelmaking process on a global and unique objective, dynamically defining targets for product quality to achieve the lowest steel production cost. This study details multiple market-plant scenarios in order to compare economic and operating results of a static vs dynamic specification practice.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 8:

Advanced BFXpert with artificial intelligence at ROGESA

J. Simoes
(AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Advanced BFXpert with artificial intelligence at ROGESA


Author:
J. Simoes

Company:
AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Agrawal , F. Hansen, Y. Reuter, C. Schockaert , F. Giroldini, P. Bermes, R. Lin, J. Simoes

Abstract:
BFXpert is considered as one of the most advanced application in the field of level 2 and process control technology. In order to advance the BF operation and reduce the cost of production, ROGESA decided to install BFXpert at their blast furnace No. 4 and 5. The performance test of BFXpert resulted in significant coke savings of 5 kg/t hot metal on BF 4, and 7 kg/t hot metal on BF 5. Furthermore, blast furnace operation with BFXpert resulted in stable and smooth process, in addition to improvement and stability in the product quality of both the furnaces. Close cooperation between Dillinger and Paul Wurth resulted in further process optimization as well as introduction of new technologies, such as machine learning. In particular a data-driven model for the prediction of hot metal temperature has been put in place. A precise prediction of hot metal temperature with a time horizon of three to six hours is mandatory information for optimal thermal regulation of the BF: It ensures stable hot metal quality, as well as reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emission. Several data-driven models covering particular operation states of the blast furnace have been developed. These predictions are further enhanced by a so-called meta model. A meta model is dedicated to learning the behaviour of each base model together with process data in order to provide an improved temperature prediction. This article describes the particularities of the project and achieved performances. It highlights the metallurgical and economic benefits of automation and digitalisation in terms of fuel saving and improvements in the process stability. Keywords: Industry 4.0, Blast Furnace, Iron Making, BFXpert, Machine Learning, Artificial intelligence, Deep Learning, Hot Metal Temperature

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 8:

Improving production process with digital solutions for iron ore pelletizing

S. Haus
(Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Improving production process with digital solutions for iron ore pelletizing


Author:
S. Haus

Company:
Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Missalla, M. Bergmann, L. Emich

Abstract:
The digital transformation is one of the main technology drivers in the metallurgical processing industry today. In several industrial scale applications, Outotec could prove excellent operational improvement in different process technologies. As one of the next areas of application, Outotec has finalized its concept for the digital solution to optimize the operation of iron ore pellet plants and is currently in preparation of starting up first applications. Outotec’s digital solution for pelletizing, Optimus, is based on extensive process know how as well as laboratory experiments and operational experience. It is developed to offer solutions to the operational challenges of modern pellet plants, which were identified in several extensive data analyses. Such identified operational challenges can be stability issues, enhanced electrical or enhanced thermal energy consumption. Optimus combines several features, such as process stabilization, process monitoring and process optimization with the experience in plant manufacturing and commissioning. In addition, the operational know-how of operating companies can be included in the system, providing a flexible and individually-tailored solution to enhance the process operation. The Optimus system is based on the Outotec ACT platform and allows continuous improvements and extensions with new features. Thus, the system can be interpreted as part of a long-term modernization journey, guiding a customer plant towards operational excellence. As an example, the system can be combined with additional devices such as PelletSize, a newly developed solution based on machine vision in a challenging environment to improve the green pellet size distribution.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 8:

Smart and safe - the digital heart of ironmaking

D. Bettinger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 8 ( 12:00 )
Title: Smart and safe - the digital heart of ironmaking


Author:
D. Bettinger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
H. Fritschek, N. Laister, R. Lamplmayr, M. Lehner, H. Lindbichler, B. Schwarzbauer, D. Ulrich, W. Braunschmid

Abstract:
Higher demands regarding flexibility is a key request of modern plant operation and hence for the respective automation system. At the same time any downtime of a production facility causes loss of production and can even harm your plant. Especially the complex processes of ironmaking – in particular in blast furnaces and direct reduction plants – require a reliable and highly available automation backbone. This system has to control the process at any time, deliver sound performance in daily operation and guarantee easy and flexible maintainability. A clearly structured system (based on proper system design, advanced programming tools and software management), flexible communication and interfaces, inclusion of smart sensors, simulation with a digital twin for operator training and development of software modifications, online documentation (to support the operating and maintenance personnel) as well as virtualization concepts, belong to the cornerstones of digitalization – features that are offered by state-of-the-art automation systems. Common features of the control systems as well as the individual approach – tailored to the boundary conditions and respective requirements - are illustrated by means of four recently finalized projects for high-end customers: • raw material handling and ore preparation • blast furnace revamping • new blast furnace • direct reduction plant

Room 13

27 June / 09:00 - Efficiency increase and CO2 mitigation in iron and steelmaking: Carbon direct avoidance

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 13:

ΣIDERWIN project: electrification of primary steel production for direct CO2 emission avoidance.

H. Lavelaine de Maubeuge
(ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 13 ( 09:00 )
Title: ΣIDERWIN project: electrification of primary steel production for direct CO2 emission avoidance.


Author:
H. Lavelaine de Maubeuge

Company:
ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
ΣIDERWIN project proposes to develop a breakthrough innovation compared to the actual steel production process bringing together steel making with electrochemical process. The electrolysis process using renewable energies will transform any iron oxide, including those inside the by-products from other metallurgies, into steel plate with a significant reduction of energy use. This process decomposes under mild conditions but at intense reaction rate naturally occurring iron oxides such as hematite into iron metal and oxygen gas. By offering a CO2-free steel production process, the project will contribute to the reduction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Compared to traditional steelmaking plants, this innovative technology has several positive impacts such as: a reduction by 87% of the direct CO2 emissions; a reduction by 31% of the direct energy use; the ability to produce steel from by-products rich in iron oxides from non-ferrous metallurgy residues; an increased integration with renewable energies with a more flexible process.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 13:

Techno-economic assessment of the transition from coal-based steelmaking to hydrogen-based steelmaking

E. Reichelt
(Fraunhofer-Institut für Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 13 ( 09:20 )
Title: Techno-economic assessment of the transition from coal-based steelmaking to hydrogen-based steelmaking


Author:
E. Reichelt

Company:
Fraunhofer-Institut für Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
To meet the environmental goals of the Paris Agreement, namely the reduction of CO2 emissions, alternatives to the use of coke and coal in steelmaking must be found. The stepwise integration of a hydrogen-based direct reduction (H2-DR) process combined with electric arc furnace (EAF) into the current primary steelmaking based on blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace (BF/BOF) offers the opportunity to make use of renewable electrical energy and thus enables the stepwise decarbonization via carbon direct avoidance (CDA). Hydrogen produced via water-electrolysis may be used in different, incremental shares (with a future target of 100%) as reducing agent in the DR process, with natural gas providing the respective energy balance. Despite being rated as a technically feasible decarbonization approach in steelmaking, an immediate transition to this route requires investments while the operating costs of H2-DRI-EAF steelmaking are likely to be higher than those of the current BF/BOF-steelmaking. The BMBF-funded joint research project MACOR carried out by Salzgitter Group, Fraunhofer IKTS, Fraunhofer UMSICHT and Fraunhofer ISI examines the concrete technical and economic feasibility of a stepwise introduction of H2-DR-EAF into the existing integrated steelworks of the Salzgitter Group (Salzgitter Low CO2 Steelmaking, SALCOS). In the present study, a model-based investigation on the influence of this gradual transition from the BF/BOF-route to the H2-DR-EAF-route on CO2 emissions and energy balance is carried out. Therefore, models for the major process steps are developed in Aspen Plus and applied for the analysis of the concept. The influence of feeding DRI to the BF/BOF-route (as a possible intermediate step) or directly to the EAF is evaluated. From the simulation results, the CO2 reduction potential, the demand of fossil fuels as well as the related demand on renewable energy are derived. The implications of the integration of renewable energy on the economics of steelmaking are discussed.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 13:

Transition technologies for an inevitable transformation process of integrated steelmaking route

M. Dorndorf
(Tenova S.p.A., Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Transition technologies for an inevitable transformation process of integrated steelmaking route


Author:
M. Dorndorf

Company:
Tenova S.p.A., Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The final asymptotic target world steel demand in future will be covered by 80 - 85% with recycled steel scrap and only 15 – 20% has to be substituted by iron ore considering worldwide economic growth and the related product lifecycle in emerging markets. Next to that, raw material quality and availability, different energy sources on changing price levels, the European Emission Trading System (ETS) with rising prices for CO2 certificates in conjunction with stricter environmental regulations and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and the upcoming hydrogen era are topics iron- and steelmakers has to consider in future planning and strategic business development. What the steel industry and especially integrated plants need is a paradigm change, a transformation process to be prepared for the future, to fulfill environmental laws, specifically on carbon footprint and to cope with raw material availabilities and final product qualities. Tenova recognized at an early stage the necessity to modify its product portfolio towards sustainability, flexibility and cost efficiency, to support iron- and steelmakers with the right products and solutions and to walk the path of transformation together. Such transition technologies, e.g. iBOF® measurement and automation package, energy recovery solutions (iRecovery®), the flexible modular furnace (FMF®) concept and the direct reduction technology, especially the ENERGIRON-ZR process with its characteristics and features such as selective CO2 removal, hydrogen utilization and High-C DRI production providing already the capabilities to meet future challenges. The incremental electrification of the integrated route in subsequent steps, the avoidance of carbon (CDA) instead further utilization (CCU/CCS), a steel plant designed as recycling facility dealing with various input materials and produces various products next to steel, these are the key elements to create additional business, to fulfill environmental regulations and to remain competitive.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 13:

Green hydrogen for low-carbon steelmaking

K. Rechberger
(K1-MET GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Green hydrogen for low-carbon steelmaking


Author:
K. Rechberger

Company:
K1-MET GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Sasiain Conde, A. Spanlang, T. Bürgler, I. Kofler, C. Harris

Abstract:
The iron and steel industry is responsible for approximately 30 % of the global industrial CO2 emissions. Achieving 80 % CO2-reduction by 2050, using the actual production routes without breakthrough technologies, seems to be an unachievable goal. Since there are multiple technological pathways to reduce CO2-emissions, different steelmaking routes are analysed in terms of feedstock consumption, energy demand and carbon saving potential. Model-based calculations for the transformation towards a low carbon iron and steel industry are performed in this research. The Blast Furnace/Basic Oxygen Furnace (BF/BOF) route is defined as the reference process whereas the natural gas based Direct Reduction route in combination with an Electric Arc Furnace (DRI/EAF) is established as the initial decarbonization phase, since it is the first step to reduce the CO2-emissions from primary steel production. The high flexibility of this process allows the use of hydrogen as a single reducing agent. Therefore, a possible process design model for the hydrogen based DRI/EAF route is developed and evaluated. The goal of this study is to point out possible CO2-reduction potentials of the considered routes as well as the additional energy demand required for the Direct Reduction with hydrogen. Hence, the availability of sufficient amounts of renewable energy to produce hydrogen and greening of the power sector play a dominant role for the decarbonization of the steel industry. Building up a 6 MW PEM-electrolysis plant for producing CO2-free hydrogen and doing research work on hydrogen plasma smelting reduction are one of the first steps to overcome the technological barriers towards low-carbon steelmaking.

27 June / 13:00 - “Workshop – Requirements for realization of Low-Carbon steelmaking in Europe”

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27 June / 13:00 - Room 13:

"Workshop - Requirements for realization of Low-Carbon steelmaking in Europe"

G. Stubbe
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 13 ( 13:00 )
Title: "Workshop - Requirements for realization of Low-Carbon steelmaking in Europe"


Author:
G. Stubbe

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Workshop

Room 14

27 June / 09:00 - Casting: Control of solidification structures and management of defects I

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 14:

DynaJet Flex secondary cooling for reduced corner cracks

P. Pennerstorfer
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: DynaJet Flex secondary cooling for reduced corner cracks


Author:
P. Pennerstorfer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
J. Park, S. Lim, A. Mittermair

Abstract:
In May 2018, the newly introduced DynaJet Flex spray cooling system from Primetals Technologies has been started up at the two-strand continuous slab casting machine CC2 in the Dangjin, Korea plant of Hyundai Steel. This is the first industrial application of DynaJet Flex technology. DynaJet Flex allows for pulse width modulated cooling, thus enabling highest discretization of cooling zones in width direction and widening the operation window with higher turn down ratios compared to cooling systems currently in use. This minimizes the appearance of corner cracks especially for advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) and consequently scarfing losses are reduced. In addition air consumption for secondary cooling is reduced compared to conventional air mist systems. This paper described the DynaJet Flex system itself, the installation at Hyundai steel and the operational results achieved.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 14:

Experimental study of the effect of mechanical vibration on steel ingot solidification

S. Niu
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 14 ( 09:20 )
Title: Experimental study of the effect of mechanical vibration on steel ingot solidification


Author:
S. Niu

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
D. Senk

Abstract:
The present study focuses on 100 kg slim steel ingot solidification with the grain refinement method of mechanical vibration. The effects of mechanical vibration on the solidification structure of 100Cr6 bearing steel ingot and Fe-22Mn-0.6C TWIP steel ingot were investigated using steel mold with and without vibration excitement. The experimental results were analyzed from the aspects of macro, and microstructures by means of sulfur print, hot etching, and metallography. It was found that by applying mechanical vibration to the solidifying steel, an increase of equiaxed grains proportion was detected. Meanwhile, the grain morphology was also changed from the equiaxed dendrite to globular grain when mechanical vibration has been applied. Moreover, the macro-segregation degree of the ingot, characterized by the Optical Emission Spectrometry (OES), was also reduced with the imposition of mechanical vibration during solidification. The results of trials with slim mold with H/D=6.2 (H: Ingot height, D: ingot diameter) are compared to those with H/D=1.1 proposed by the same method.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 14:

Effect of cooling strategy on hot ductility of micro-alloyed steels during continuous casting

H. Ibrahim
(Technische Universität Clausthal, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 14 ( 09:40 )
Title: Effect of cooling strategy on hot ductility of micro-alloyed steels during continuous casting


Author:
H. Ibrahim

Company:
Technische Universität Clausthal, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Different grades of steel slabs are subjected to cracking, taking place in the casting shop or even on the route to hot rolling. One of the causes is the low ductility during straightening at a temperature range between 700 °C – 1100 °C which might lead to surface cracking. This effect is believed to be due to the presence of titanium and niobium precipitates at higher temperature ranges and a low percentage of formed ferrite during unbending at lower temperatures. Hot tensile testing of two steel grades (Grade A: 0.08% C, 0.12% Ti and 0.04% Nb and Grade B: 0.15% C, 0.01% Ti and 0.01 Nb) was performed at different temperatures using DIL805T thermo-mechanical simulator to evaluate the hot ductility, study the regions of ductility trough and the parameters affecting crack sensitivity. The effect of thermal cycle and deformation during straightening on the precipitates were investigated by means of LOM, SEM and EDX analysis. Modelling of the solidification process by Scheil–Gulliver approach was simulated using the MatCalc software to study the primary precipitation, furthermore the precipitates kinetics after solidification were modelled for every cooling strategy. Ferrite start temperatures were measured by dilatometry experiments. It could be shown that reducing the casting speed and straightening at lower temperatures are detrimental to hot ductility.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 14:

Numerical and experimental investigation of electromagnetic stirring for control of columnar-to-equiaxed transition

H. Cho
(POSCO, South Korea)

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Title: Numerical and experimental investigation of electromagnetic stirring for control of columnar-to-equiaxed transition


Author:
H. Cho

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The magnetohydrodynamics with Electro-Magnetic Stirring(EMS) plays an important role in a continuous casting process of steel manufacturing field for producing cast slabs using refined molten steel. During continuous casting of ferritic stainless steel, the quality of final products is determined by as-cast slab microstructures divided into columnar crystals and equiaxed crystals. Increasing the ratio of equiaxed crystals is effective in terms of quality of products since the ridging defects on the coil surface are generated by columnar crystals after rolling. To increase the ratio of equiaxed crystals, it is necessary to stir the liquid molten steel in the slab through the EMS. In the present study, not only the flow pattern of the liquid steel in the slab was understood according to the number of EMS and operating conditions but also EMS conditions enabling maximum equiaxed crystal ratio were derived. When the only one EMS unit is activated, a single loop is formed with simple and strong flow at the center position of EMS. However, the various cases of stirring loops are formed according to the operating conditions, while the two units of EMS are operated. As a result, it was confirmed that the optimized agitating force could be generated when 88% of current of lower EMS than the current of upper EMS was applied and the two stirring directions were opposite to each other. When the optimum EMS operating condition was applied, the equiaxed crystal ratio was enhanced 1.3 times. Furthermore, the criteria of average velocity on the liquid steel of slab was investigated as 0.02~0.06 m/sec in order to produce the equiaxed crystals. The numerical simulation results are in very good agreement with the actual casting results.

27 June / 10:40 - Casting: Control of solidification structures and management of defects II

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 14:

New sensor technology gives a sharp view on initial solidification: Mold Expert Fiber

O. Lang
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: New sensor technology gives a sharp view on initial solidification: Mold Expert Fiber


Author:
O. Lang

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
N. Oberschmidleitner, C. Ortner, M. Schuster, F. Ramstorfer

Abstract:
New sensor technologies enable previously unimagined insight into the casting process, improving both operational control and quality as well as optimizing maintenance practices. The positioning of Fiber Bragg Gratings can be individually arranged to suit the customers mold configuration and monitoring objectives. Depending on the orientation of the fibers there is almost no limitation to the number and location of measuring points in the mold. There are two possibilities for the fiber orientation. Typically a horizontal installation with 2 - 4 rows of fibers replaces the conventional thermocouples. This not only provides more accurate breakout prevention but also makes better crack detection possible. Maintenance is easier too as it eliminates the enormous amount of cabling required by the thermocouples. The horizontal installation thus provides a cost-effective alternative to the traditional thermocouple arrangement. Although there is an associated higher cost, a vertical installation arrangement allows a high density of measuring points over the entire mold. This makes the solidification process and the flow in the mold much more transparent than the traditional thermocouple arrangement. Thus, the view inside the mold now provides a presentation of the solidification process as never seen before. This leads to a variety of new analysis options and possibilities of evaluation of defects. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each configuration and show that Fiber Braggs can be used in standard production and not only for research and test purpose.

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 14:

Numeric simulation of the liquid steel flow in a slab caster with linear electromagnetic stirring positioned in the secondary cooling zone

M. Barna
(Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 14 ( 11:00 )
Title: Numeric simulation of the liquid steel flow in a slab caster with linear electromagnetic stirring positioned in the secondary cooling zone


Author:
M. Barna

Company:
Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria

Co-Authors:
M. Javurek, P. Wimmer

Abstract:
M.Barna1*, M. Javurek1, P. Wimmer2 1 Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Altenbergerstr. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria 2 Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Turmstrasse 44, 4031 Linz, Austria *martin.barna@jku.at The usage of electromagnetic actuators in the continuous steel casting process is on a steady rise, due to its possibilities for a sophisticated, contactless flow control. The complexity of the casting process and the ever-increasing quality demands require a well-founded knowledge of the interaction between the electromagnetic actuators and the liquid steel flow. Plant trials are not sufficient to build up this knowledge. Numerical modelling and simulations provide a better and more detailed view and are therefore crucial for understanding the interaction between the electromagnetic fields and the liquid steel flow. Only a deep insight into the coupling between the liquid steel flow and the electromagnetic forces makes it possible to improve/optimize the whole continuous casting process. The work presented here is part of an on-going research to bridge the gap between the liquid steel flow and the grain structure of the end product. The focus of this paper lies on the liquid steel flow modified by the employed traveling magnetic fields and the investigations rely mainly on numerical simulations. Various modelling approaches with differing complexities are used to simulate linear electromagnetic stirring in the secondary cooling zone of a slab caster. These models are then ranked in terms of accuracy and computational effort. The best model is chosen to investigate the influence of various stirring parameters, stirring modes and stirring positions onto the liquid steel flow. With these results, further conclusions for the real casting process can be drawn.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 14:

Slab Casting in China 2025: Trends seen in Primetals Technologies Slab Casters fit for the “Made in China 2025” program

M. Hirschmanner
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 14 ( 11:20 )
Title: Slab Casting in China 2025: Trends seen in Primetals Technologies Slab Casters fit for the “Made in China 2025” program


Author:
M. Hirschmanner

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
H. Willeit

Abstract:
Made in China 2025 is a strategic plan of China issued by Chinese the Chinese government in May 2015. The goals of Made in China 2025 include increasing the Chinese-domestic content of core materials to 40% by 2020 and 70% by 2025. This initiative is directly inspired by the German Industry 4.0. It is an attempt to move the country's manufacturing up the value chain Even if the steel industry in China is already very advanced and one could assume that there are no further efforts needed to improve the Chinese domestic content, several new Primetals Technologies slab casting orders prove otherwise. So for example the LiquiRob system, which offers a high repeatability of metallurgical processes is already supplied in 3 slab casters in China. Also hard reduction up to 20mm, which will allow better center quality is supplied for 2 slab casters in China. Several other advanced technologies like Opal or the DynaTac high temperature casting package, which allow to produce higher quality grades are described in this paper and how they fit in the China 2025 strategy.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 14:

Design of as-cast structures of continuously cast steel grades: Modelling and prediction

C. Fix
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 14 ( 11:40 )
Title: Design of as-cast structures of continuously cast steel grades: Modelling and prediction


Author:
C. Fix

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Design of As-Cast Structures of Continuously Cast Steel Grades: Modelling and Prediction C. Fix , D. Senk The prediction of the solidification structure by means of calculations and simulation programs is of great importance for controlling the quality of the CC semis. Plant components, different process control options and the chemical composition of the cast product require optimized coordination of those factors in order to be able to set the optimum structure. For this, it is necessary to be able to describe exactly the controllable factors with regard to subsequent processing and final product properties and their effects on the final as-cast structure. Solidification structures are path functions. Therefore, criteria for a dendritic structure development have to be considered in each time step of a solidification model. These criteria depend not only on the temperature field but also on the history of a simulation cell. Main reason for this location dependency is the effect of gravitation on the solidified grains that can move free in the melt. Free globular grains can sink and thus move solidifies mass and change element concentrations. Furthermore, knowledge about hot ductility of different steel grades helps avoiding fatal defects due to bending effects by matching both casting machine and material tolerance. In this paper the possibilities of implementing such aspects on structural development will be discussed on basis of real CC semis, following the overall goal of designing the as-cast products with regard to subsequent processing. Keywords: continuous casting; modelling; hot ductility; solidification; as-cast structure; temperature field Carolin Fix, M.Sc., research assistant at the Steel Institute, RWTH Aachen University Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h. c. Dieter Senk, professor of the department of ferrous metallurgy at the Steel Institute, RWTH Aachen University

27 June / 13:00 - Electric steelmaking: Refractory linings and durability

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27 June / 13:00 - Room 14:

Utilizing waste refractory in steel making process

N. Behera
(SABIC, Saudi Arabia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Utilizing waste refractory in steel making process


Author:
N. Behera

Company:
SABIC, Saudi Arabia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The environmental problems caused by refractories have become an increasingly important issue in recent years. Many kinds of refractories are used in iron and steelmaking process. Major Quantiles of refractory are MgO based, which used for Electric arc furnace, Basic oxygen furnace and ladle lining. The aim of this study is to use waste refractory as MgO source to partially replace dolomite. Laboratory trial conducted with different size varies from 50 to 5 mm to measure the dissolution with different temperature. Confocal microscope are used to study the reaction with steel making slag at different temperature. After successfully Laboratory experiments plant trial conducted to recycling of MgO refractory during the melting of direct reduced iron (DRI) in electric arc furnace. This paper evaluate the impact of waste refractory on EAF energy consumption, meting time and Slag foaminess in electric arc furnace process.

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 14:

Improvements of corrosion resistance and volume stability at Alumina-Spinel-Magnesia ladle castable

S. Kim
(Chosun Refractories Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 14 ( 13:20 )
Title: Improvements of corrosion resistance and volume stability at Alumina-Spinel-Magnesia ladle castable


Author:
S. Kim

Company:
Chosun Refractories Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In steel-making process, a teeming lalde to produce higher purity steel through secondary refining process is facing severer operational condition and its repair pattern is getting shorter. Accordingly, erosion resistance of working lining castable of a ladle needs to be improved so as to secure stability while operation. Currently, Al2O3-Spinel or Al2O3-MgO based castable is commercialized in general, and this time, we wanted to develope Al2O3-Spinel-MgO based one by combining spalling resistance of Al2O3-Spinel and erosion resistance of Al2O3-MgO. To make this happen, while the composition of grain size is optimized, low water content and high workability became available by using new type of dispersant. In addition, the content of alumina cement and spinel has been adjusted to have a volume stability and erosion resistance. As a result, repair pattern of a ladle has lengthened with improved volume stability and erosion resistance.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 14:

Improving tap hole and ladle free opening rate through customized grain size distribution and chemistry

E. Ruisanchez
(Pasek Minerales, Spain)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Improving tap hole and ladle free opening rate through customized grain size distribution and chemistry


Author:
E. Ruisanchez

Company:
Pasek Minerales, Spain

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Dunite Pasek Minerales (PM) is an ultramaphic rock exploited in the north of Spain with a basic chemical classification being olivine and serpentine its principal minerals. This mineral composition allows its application as ‘Eccentric Bottom Tap hole’ (EBT) sand in electric arc furnaces for steelmaking. The main objective of this report is investigate the excellent behavior of Dunite PM as EBT sand during the tap to tap, from the theoretically point of view, through a numerical simulation program in APDL, and experimentally, by a special test developed with a tap hole at 1:3 scale. That allowed to distribute the product in 28 countries and use the knowledge to developer a ladle sand product line which lab simulation will be presented.

Room 15

27 June / 09:00 - Electric steelmaking: Process control, automation and modelling I

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 15:

AMI SmartFurnace Off Gas Analysis for EAF optimization

F. Martinez
(AMI, Mexico)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: AMI SmartFurnace Off Gas Analysis for EAF optimization


Author:
F. Martinez

Company:
AMI, Mexico

Co-Authors:
G. Fernandez

Abstract:
The use of AMI SmartFurnace optimization modules in Electric Arc Furnaces and the developments in the optimization of the Oxygen, Natural Gas and Carbon Injection have been continuously improving the steelmaking process in EAFs around the world. One major milestone has been to close the control loop of chemical energy control with the introduction of a Laser Off Gas Analyzer, measuring the CO, CO2, H2O and Temperature of the off gas. The measurements taken by the instrumentation are used by the SmartFurnace Off Gas and Oxygen Module to calculate the optimal setpoints of the EAF burners and lances. The chemical energy modules are complemented dynamic process models and algorithms for electrical energy providing an integral furnace control. The latest implementations of this technology in plants with a wide range of raw materials, EAF mechanical characteristics and production needs are described in this paper, and the achieved results are shown.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 15:

Multivariate statistical analysis of the scrap composition in electric steelmaking

M. Rojas Sánchez
(Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 15 ( 09:20 )
Title: Multivariate statistical analysis of the scrap composition in electric steelmaking


Author:
M. Rojas Sánchez

Company:
Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract Steel scrap is an important feedstock in the production of steel. Different types are used in different proportions to achieve the desired physical and chemical properties of the finished product in consideration of the customer requirements. Huge quantities of measured data are produced during steel production, which can be used to describe each scrap type: size, density, chemical composition, cleanliness, and many more unique features. For this reason, data analysis is the key to detect and understand the important factors that significantly affect the melting process. In this research work, the objective was to build a multivariate model using principal component analysis for understanding the effect of the input recycling material, scrap, in the melting process. The multivariate statistical method used for this study is the principal components analysis (PCA) because it is an exploratory statistical technique and can be used to predict or to estimate values. The PCA is frequently applied where datasets may be large and difficult to interpret, and where complex inter-relationships between variables are unclear to identify and visualise. The database consist of the composition of the chemical input and the variables that are taking part in the process.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 15:

Tenova Imeltshop: the Integrated process manager for the coordination of the whole melt shops production line

D. Masoero
(Tenova, Italy)

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Title: Tenova Imeltshop: the Integrated process manager for the coordination of the whole melt shops production line


Author:
D. Masoero

Company:
Tenova, Italy

Co-Authors:
A. Grasselli

Abstract:
TENOVA iMELTSHOP: THE INTEGRATED PROCESS MANAGER FOR THE COORDINATION OF THE WHOLE MELT SHOPS PRODUCTION LINE A. Grasselli, R. Girelli, M. Longobardo – Tenova SpA, Via Gerenzano, 58 – 21053 Castellanza (Italy) U.De Miranda, N.Gaudenzi, M. Zanforlin – Ori Martin SpA, Via C.Canovetti, 13 – 25128 Brescia (Italy) In the present market situation, in order to meet the challenging demand of an ever increasing operating efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility, ORI Martin and Tenova collaborate for the optimization of the production line as a whole to obtain a careful management of quality, productivity and costs. Tenova iMeltShop is the integrated process route manager that acts between the Process Control Systems of the single equipment (Levels 2) and the Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES, ERP, etc.). It’s a real-time monitoring and dynamic control of the entire steel production flow with the aim of maximizing the availability of the production line and improving the overall performance. To obtain the desired results according to all the specific requirements, the modular structure of the iMeltShop counts on the most advanced solutions for the process control supported by the integration of innovative sensors and actuators fully compliant with the concept of indstry 4.0. The coordination granted by Tenova iMeltShop enhances the continual improvement of ORI Martin’s production process and propote the development of a new concept of smart factory in the steel industry.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 15:

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of capture efficiency of secondary off-gas in an electric arc furnace (EAF) shop

A. Senguttuvan
(Dastur Innovation Labs, India)

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Close27 June, Room 15 ( 10:00 )
Title: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of capture efficiency of secondary off-gas in an electric arc furnace (EAF) shop


Author:
A. Senguttuvan

Company:
Dastur Innovation Labs, India

Co-Authors:
S. Chatterjee

Abstract:
On account of the strict environmental regulations, Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) shops are constantly under pressure to efficiently capture their dust and off gases. Secondary emissions constitute the fumes and dusts emitted during charging and the fugitive emissions that escape through the electrode ports and other furnace openings during melting and refining operations. These emissions are sucked out of the working area through a canopy hood. The efficient capture of these emissions is not simple, due to their unsteady generation rate and interference of cross-drafts in the shop and therefore requires flow analysis. In the present work, computation fluid dynamic simulations of the fugitive emissions were carried out to visualize their flow pattern and assess their capture efficiency. Considering a typical EAF shop layout and by the varying suction rates, performance of a conventional hood and a deep storage hood designs are compared. The analysis is further extended to an enhanced design and is shown to be significantly energy-efficient.

27 June / 10:40 - Electric steelmaking: Process control, automation and modelling II

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 15:

Numerical modelling of slag cooling

A. Kärnä
(University of Oulu, Finland)

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Title: Numerical modelling of slag cooling


Author:
A. Kärnä

Company:
University of Oulu, Finland

Co-Authors:
P. Sulasalmi, V. Visuri, E. Heikkinen, T. Fabritius, P. Torvinen, J. Koskinen

Abstract:
Stainless steelmaking produces different types of slags, which need to be stored and pre-treated before further use. In current practice, the slag is cooled in an air atmosphere, but water cooling has been envisaged to speed up cooling. The aim of this paper is to simulate the cooling of AOD slag under the conditions of ambient cooling and water cooling. The effect of the thickness and thermal conductivity of the slag layer is also studied. Finally, practical means to improve the cooling practice are evaluated based on the model predictions.

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 15:

EAF optimization with AMI dynamic process models for special steel production

G. Fernandez
(AMI, Mexico)

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Title: EAF optimization with AMI dynamic process models for special steel production


Author:
G. Fernandez

Company:
AMI, Mexico

Co-Authors:
F. Martinez

Abstract:
During 2017 and 2018, AMI has commissioned its Electrode Regulator DigitARC PX3 together with its process optimization models SmartARC and SmartFurnace Oxygen Module in several plants in Europe producing special steels. These artificial intelligence modules dynamically adapt the furnace operation parameters including electric power input as well as the burners and lances to the conditions of the EAF, which are continuously changing due to raw materials / scrap quality and produced steel grades. In this paper, the projects for customers producing quality and special steels focused mainly in the European region will be described, and the improvements with the AMI installation will be shown.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 15:

Advancements in Tenova's NextGen® off-gas based process control technology

D. Zuliani
(Tenova Goodfellow Inc., Canada)

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Title: Advancements in Tenova's NextGen® off-gas based process control technology


Author:
D. Zuliani

Company:
Tenova Goodfellow Inc., Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Tenova’s Intelligent EAF technology (iEAF®) provides a multistep roadmap for continuous improvement, cost saving and increased safety. iEAF® combines complete real-time measurements and fundamental process models to provide a robust, stable process control solution and avoid the imprecision and drift associated with incomplete measurements, assumptions & statistical models. iEAF®’s 1st STEP reduces operating costs using NextGen® full spectrum analysis (CO, CO2, O2, H2, H2O & N2) to holistically optimize & dynamically control chemical energy and fume system suction. The 2nd STEP adds off-gas temperature & velocity sensors, fundamental thermodynamic models, a PLC link and a precise real-time mass & energy balance to further reduce costs and increase yield & productivity by dynamic control of both electrical & chemical energy. The industry’s most comprehensive water leak detection using both H2 & H2O vapor analysis can be integrated into either STEP 1 or 2. The iEAF® represents a powerful, stable and robust process control engine for EAF Level 2 automation.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 15:

Optimization of EAF process control through application of self learning procedures based on process monitoring through KPI's

P. Frittella
(Feralpi Siderurgica S.p.A., Italy)

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Close27 June, Room 15 ( 11:40 )
Title: Optimization of EAF process control through application of self learning procedures based on process monitoring through KPI's


Author:
P. Frittella

Company:
Feralpi Siderurgica S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The EAF process sees periodical modifications in process performances caused by variation on scrap charged conditions, that are usually not measured, and by variations of plant configurations. For this reason adaptations in process performances estimations and in applications of process control strategies are necessary. Feralpi Siderurgica and Rina Centro Sviluppo Materiali have developed a specific EAF process control system able to auto adapt its logics of EAF process simulations based on monitoring of process performances through KPI’s to let the possibility to take into account variations on conditions of scrap charged. Through these functions, the steel and slag conditions can be estimated during the process in terms of masses, composition and temperature through an approach periodically tuned when variations in scrap conditions are revealed to maintain continuously the model accuracy as necessary for an optimized procedure. The system is able also to suggest variations of process controls through guidelines for variations of chemical injections settings taking into account on-line process monitoring based on KPI’s and estimations of process conditions. These functions are also auto-adapted periodically depending by heat by heat process monitoring based on KPI’s through an auto-learnign procedure that let the system all time fitting with process conditions and constrains. This functions described in the present paper are applied and tested in Feralpi Siderurgica EAF in the frame of a project co-financed by European funding scheme RFCS (Research Fund for Coal and Steel).

27 June / 13:00 - Electric steelmaking: Process control, automation and modelling III

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27 June / 13:00 - Room 15:

EU supported research projects on secondary metallurgy technology with focus on on-line measurement and control - evaluation of results and outlook to future developments

B. Kleimt
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 15 ( 13:00 )
Title: EU supported research projects on secondary metallurgy technology with focus on on-line measurement and control - evaluation of results and outlook to future developments


Author:
B. Kleimt

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Jemson, J. Pierret, M. de Santis, R. Safavi Nick

Abstract:
In the frame of the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS programme), in the last 20 years many research and demonstration projects have been carried out on different aspects of Sec-ondary Metallurgy technology, aiming at improving the process performance in terms of liquid steel quality, energy and resource optimisation and flexibility. This effort contributed to the development of a number of technological solutions in terms of process modelling, measurement systems and process control. Within the RFCS programme, in 2016 and 2017 the project “Valorisation and dissemination of tech-nologies for measurement, modelling and control in secondary metallurgy” (DissTec) was carried out. This project aimed at analysing and promoting the most important results of European research projects dealing with the different aspects of Secondary Metallurgy technology. The paper will present the applied methods as well as the achieved results and deliverables of the dissemination work performed in the DissTec project, with special focus on the aspects of on-line measurement and control in Secondary Metallurgy. It will cover a critical analysis of the results obtained in 60 EU funded projects with respect to the topics of measurement technologies, process models, on-line control approaches and connected auxiliary materials. The most important results in these fields were selected for valorisation and dissemination within a web site, a series of seminars and webinars as well as a workshop, to provide a clear picture of the current status of European Secondary Metallurgy technology and to promote the further industrial exploitation of the research results. Finally industrial targets and requirements for further research activities and a roadmap for future developments of Secondary Metallurgy technology with focus on on-line measurement and control will be presented.

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 15:

EAF based melt shops: smart products, assistance tools and service solutions for digital production

J. Apfel
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 15 ( 13:20 )
Title: EAF based melt shops: smart products, assistance tools and service solutions for digital production


Author:
J. Apfel

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Beile, T. Reindl, B. Laimer, R. Stadlmayr

Abstract:
The understanding of a digital EAF production means the seamless interaction of the installed equipment and any new feature and digital assistance system, which are added during a continuous plant modernization and step-by-step upgrade activities. It covers the implementation of small automation steps, the usage of digital information of smart sensors as well as major changes in the automation system towards digital assistance tools like a dynamic Know-How database and a flexible Rule Engines for an efficient production of demanding steel grades. Digital EAF steelmaking starts with automated scrap handling and preparation, followed by a fully automated melting process guided by camera systems and automatic measuring devices. Autonomous transport systems for ladles and materials guarantee a safe handling and the precise execution of the defined process logistics. Powerful tools for the process analysis and Business Intelligence systems allow a deep insight in the physical production and provide required information for important decisions and Life Cycle measures at a glance. Encrypted state-of-the-art cloud technology for selective data exchange in combination with service contracts with a dynamic duration offer access to professional big data analysis algorithms to fix insufficiencies. In cooperation with a powerful service center the end-user is able to establish modern maintenance strategies in the EAF melt shop.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 15:

Development of process control for industrial electric arc furnaces with optical emission spectroscopy

H. Pauna
(University of Oulu, Finland)

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Close27 June, Room 15 ( 13:40 )
Title: Development of process control for industrial electric arc furnaces with optical emission spectroscopy


Author:
H. Pauna

Company:
University of Oulu, Finland

Co-Authors:
M. Aula, J. Seehausen, M. Huttula, T. Fabritius, J. Klung

Abstract:
Electric arc furnaces are used to produce steel from scrap-based raw material, which is melted using high electric currents. The downside of the metal scrap usage is the high fluctuation of both the size and composition of the scrap. The next step in improving the electric arc furnace operation is to develop an industrial on-line process control and slag composition analysis. In this work, we report on the results of optical emission spectroscopy tests for industrial scale electric arc furnace that were made in Autumn 2018. The optical emission spectra of each individual process step are unique, from the heat radiation of melting scrap to the high-intensity atomic emissions of the electric arc itself. Optical emission spectroscopy tests for pilot-scale electric arc furnaces have already shown great promise in the evaluation of process conditions, and the purpose of this study is to emphasize the suitability of the measurement method also for industrial-scale furnaces. Since the electric arc radiates throughout the melting process and the measurement equipment can be placed away and protected from the harsh furnace conditions this method can be used for on-line monitoring. Validation of the optical emission spectra can be done with plasma diagnostics, which can also be used to study the properties of the electric arc, such as plasma temperature and electron density. The plasma properties of the electric arc, on the other hand, are indicators for the stability and optical emission conditions of the electric arc. Furthermore, the electric arc spectra are dominated by optical emissions from the slag components, which means that the spectrum analysis can also be used to estimate the slag composition.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 15:

EAF dynamic process optimization with AMI SmartFurnace modules

C. de los Santos
(AMI, Mexico)

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Title: EAF dynamic process optimization with AMI SmartFurnace modules


Author:
C. de los Santos

Company:
AMI, Mexico

Co-Authors:
S. Jackson

Abstract:
The optimization task in the Electric Arc Furnace requires a very precise balance of the interaction between the chemical and electrical energy. With the increasing number of high productive EAF, the use of burners, coal injectors and oxygen injection in coordination with electric power play a significant role in improving the efficiency of the steel making process. Besides, with constant changes in demand, produced steel grade, and raw material quality among other constraints, the need for a system capable of adapting to the current operation conditions becomes critical. This paper describes how the AMI SmartFurnace system, featuring the DigitARC PX3 Electrode Regulator together with Electrical and Chemical Energy Input Modules has helped improve the operation of highly productive EAFs. The advantages of this system are discussed and results of its functionalities are shown.

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 15:

Towards a complete thermodynamic description of the steel making process from scrap to bar

A. Grundy
(Thermo-Calc Software AB, Sweden)

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Close27 June, Room 15 ( 14:20 )
Title: Towards a complete thermodynamic description of the steel making process from scrap to bar


Author:
A. Grundy

Company:
Thermo-Calc Software AB, Sweden

Co-Authors:
J. Jeppsson, A. Jansson, J. Bratberg, R. Rettig, L. Kjellqvist, M. Powell

Abstract:
Internally consistent thermodynamic databases developed using the CALPHAD approach have continuously been expanded and improved for the last 30 years. The thermodynamic database TCOX9, that is to be released in June 2019, is well suited for calculating thermochemical interaction between liquid steel and slag during steel making and refining. It now contains all the major steel alloying elements (Fe-C-Co-Cr-Cu-Mn-Mo-Nb-Ni-V-W-Ti) as well as the most important slag elements (Ca-Mg-Si-Al-F-O-P-S) to be truly applicable to real-life industrial metallurgical processes. The liquid phase is modelled by the ionic liquid model, that describes the liquid phase over the whole composition range from metallic liquid (liquid steel) to oxide liquid (slag phase). The database also contains descriptions of the most important metallic and non-metallic solid phases, meaning inclusion formation, inclusion modification, steel solidification, slag solidification, steel-refractory reactions, slag-refractory reactions and steel-mould powder reactions can be calculated. It also contains a gas phase. In part 1 of this paper some basic equilibrium calculations are presented (oxidation of steel, steel-slag interaction, oxide stability diagram for the Fe-Al-Ca-O system, calculation of Ca treatment). In part 2 a kinetic model of the steelmaking process is developed based on the concept of effective equilibrium reaction zone and applied to the processing of a simple Al killed steel grade with standard steel-making recipe. This kinetic model can be employed by steel plants for off-line optimization of the day to day steel making practices or for the development steelmaking practices for new steel-grades. It can also be run in real time parallel to production using Level 2 plant data as part of the quality assurance system. Thermo-Calc's recently released application programming interface (API) based on Python programming language (TC-Python) is ideal for such applications.

Room 16

27 June / 09:00 - Casting: Metallurgy and flow control in the tundish

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 16:

Overcoming thermofluid challenges in purging air from a preheated continuous casting tundish using argon

T. Plikas
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Overcoming thermofluid challenges in purging air from a preheated continuous casting tundish using argon


Author:
T. Plikas

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
J. Woloshyn, D. Mysko, M. Del Gobbo, S. Kumar, G. Koenig

Abstract:
Creating an oxygen deficient atmosphere using argon gas purging for reducing reoxidation of liquid steel and undesirable solid inclusions during tundish filling operations is effective for improving slab quality. This has a significant impact on enhancing the overall yield (improved quality of 1st and 2nd slab cast in a tundish). Challenges arise with argon gas purging of tundishes due to strong buoyancy forces induced by the preheated tundish surfaces (>1000°C). This effect draws cold, surrounding air into the tundish from one end, and expels the heated gases from the other end. This naturally driven flow pattern can overwhelm the forced flow of argon making it difficult to achieve the desired low oxygen level in the tundish. This paper presents a case study where Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling was used as a design tool to develop a concept for injecting strategically cold argon gas whilst minimizing the ingress of cold air so that the desired oxygen level can be achieved prior to pouring of metal in an empty preheated tundish. The study investigated the use of argon "air curtains”, argon injection through the preheater, variable argon flows, and the covering of tundish openings to determine the most effective and efficient method to achieve the purging requirements. The solution adopted involved covering the openings on one side of the tundish and injecting argon gas downward, which creates a forced flow of argon through the tundish sufficient to overcome the buoyancy effects. Cold air ingress into the tundish is greatly minimized and the tundish is purged relatively quickly (<30s). This short time requirement affords the opportunity to initiate purging once the tundish is moved to its final casting position with specially designed covers that can be placed over the openings once the tundish reaches the casting platform.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 16:

The effect of Zr on the internal oxidation behavior of Al-containing high Mn steels

D. Lee
(GIFT POSTECH, South Korea)

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Close27 June, Room 16 ( 09:20 )
Title: The effect of Zr on the internal oxidation behavior of Al-containing high Mn steels


Author:
D. Lee

Company:
GIFT POSTECH, South Korea

Co-Authors:
C. Yim, M. Kang, W. Cho, J. Lee, Y. Heo

Abstract:
Al-containing high Mn steel forms a relatively deep internal oxide layer, which may cause surface defects during hot-rolling. In this study, the effect of Zr on the temperature-dependent internal oxidation behaviors are investigated in Al-containing high Mn steels. Two Al-containing high Mn steels with and without Zr addition were prepared by vacuum induction melting. The specimens were cut and polished from the surface of the ingot, and then oxidized at a high temperature of 1000 ~ 1200℃ for 30 minutes. The cross sections of the oxidized specimens were analyzed by EPMA, EDS, and TEM. The depth of internal oxidation increased as the oxidation temperature increased. Zr-containing steel shows relatively lower internal oxidation depth. The role of ZrN on heterogeneous nucleation of AlN is identified with EDS mapping. Low internal oxidation depth in Zr-containing steel is understood to the Al scavenging effect in the matrix by active AlN precipitation

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 16:

Numerical modelling of liquid steel alloying by pulse-step method in two strand slab tundish

A. Cwudzinski
(Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland)

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Close27 June, Room 16 ( 09:40 )
Title: Numerical modelling of liquid steel alloying by pulse-step method in two strand slab tundish


Author:
A. Cwudzinski

Company:
Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Developing a technology for introducing alloy addition to steel also during the course of continuous casting process seems to be an interesting approach to enhancing the steelmaking process. Especially as the effective introduction of micro-additives or non-metallic inclusion modifiers to the liquid steel is the key to the production of the highest-quality steel. In the tundish, the chemical homogenisation process is influenced by the feed stream flowing out from the steelmaking ladle, which can be controlled through the selection of tundish flow control devices. This paper presents the results of investigation describing the process of liquid steel chemical homogenisation in the two strand slab tundish. The alloys was fed to liquid steel by pulse-step method. Computer simulations of liquid steel flow and alloy addition behaviour were performed using the commercial program Ansys-Fluent with species model. Two tundish variants with different flow control devices were considered. Additionally computer simulations for different alloy feeding locations and type of alloys were performed. The obtained fields of liquid steel flow and alloy addition distribution and the mixing curves in time constitute a source of information about the dynamics and complexity of the steel alloying process during continuous casting of slabs. For all simulations cases the mixing time was calculated.

27 June / 10:30 - Casting: Formation of non-metallic compounds in the solidification process

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27 June / 10:30 - Room 16:

Microstructures and origin of inclusions leading to clogging during casting of a Ti-alloyed Al-killed steel

B. Karnasiewicz
(Tata Steel Europe, Poland)

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Close27 June, Room 16 ( 10:30 )
Title: Microstructures and origin of inclusions leading to clogging during casting of a Ti-alloyed Al-killed steel


Author:
B. Karnasiewicz

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, Poland

Co-Authors:
E. Zinngrebe

Abstract:
Post-mortem tundish skull samples after casting of Ti-alloyed, Al-killed, IF steel, have been studied regarding the formation of clogging phenomenon. By using modern characterization equipment and applied methods, we were able to perform following research on collected samples: - profound metallographic examination, - application of newly developed methods of Particle Size Distribution (PSD) analyses of clog inclusions, - new EDS template mapping procedure allowing differentiation of complex particles according to phases and its interphase contact relationships - EDS analyses of individual inclusions with complex substructure regarding minor and trace elements. Microstructures of the clog (alumina and minor spinel) show presence of layering in the studied clog: "Coarse" layers (abundant microbubbles and internally complex alumina aggregates ) and "Fine" layers (no microbubbles and complex alumina aggregates). Particle Size distributions of the clog have shown two populations of particles: a Population I (2 - 5µm) and a Population II (5 - 20 µm). Both populations have lognormal PSD, and are thereby different from suspended inclusions during secondary metallurgy which are known to have power law PSD. Both populations are present in Coarse and Fine layers, but in varying proportions. Spinel has a lognormal PDF as well and is selectively concentrated in the Coarse layers. Complex alumina aggregates of the Coarse layers are characterized with multiple metal sub-inclusions in their cores, which analyses of minor or trace elements showed a distinct contents of Cr, Si, V alloyed in the Fe metal. Based on these observations, we derive a model for the origin of the inclusions making up the clog. Neither of the two lognormal populations is derived from the bulk steel inclusions, although those are also contributing to the clog. Overall microstructures show that the clog behaves as a coherent solid, and is able to displace and fracture.

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27 June / 10:50 - Room 16:

The role of FeTi-addition on micro-inclusions in the production of ULC steel grades via RH-process route

C. Bernhard
(Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: The role of FeTi-addition on micro-inclusions in the production of ULC steel grades via RH-process route


Author:
C. Bernhard

Company:
Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Titanium is the most commonly used stabilizer for ULC and IF steel grades. In the production of ULC steel grades via the RH-process route, Al is first added for deoxidation after the end of decarburization and FeTi after a certain period of separation of alumina particles and the related reduction of the total oxygen content. The FeTi-addition is well known to cause clogging problems in the following casting process. The present work deals with results from plant investigation, indicating an increasing clogging tendency with higher Ti/Al-ratio in the steel. Automated SEM/EDS investigations on lollipop samples show the existence of a newly nucleated Ti-containing alumina-particle population after the FeTi addition. These particles are comparably smaller as the alumina particles and even if thermodynamically unstable, they still exist as a large population of small particles in samples taken from the tundish. The addition of Al and FeTi into a molten steel sample with controlled initial oxygen activity for varying Ti/Al-ratio was afterwards simulated in laboratory scale. Same as in the plant, a new population of small Ti-containing alumina particles nucleates, with size and number in dependence of the Ti/Al-ratio in the melt. The local supersaturation of Ti and O during the dissolution of the FeTi-particles seems to be the main reason for the nucleation of these inclusions. Sessile drop experiments indicate that the wetting angle between these Ti-containing alumina particles and ULC steel is at the same level as for pure alumina particles. However, due to only moderate convection of the melt in the ladle after the FeTi-addition, the agglomeration tendency for these particles is low and as previous work has shown, a large number of non-wetting small particles is most critical for clogging. Laboratory experiments and plant observations are in correspondence and indicate some countermeasures for the better control of clogging.

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27 June / 11:10 - Room 16:

Failure analysis of clogging related defects in steel products integrated with computational thermodynamics for process optimization

E. Aivazoglou
(ELKEME Hellenic Research Centre for Metals S.A. , Greece)

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Title: Failure analysis of clogging related defects in steel products integrated with computational thermodynamics for process optimization


Author:
E. Aivazoglou

Company:
ELKEME Hellenic Research Centre for Metals S.A. , Greece

Co-Authors:
P. Sismanis, A. Vazdirvanidis, T. Tzevelekou, A. Antonopoulos

Abstract:
Presence of non-metallic inclusions (NMIs) can essentially influence the process performance, quality and technological properties of steel products. Calcium treatment aims to improve the castability, quality and machinability of aluminum-killed steels through the modification of inclusions’ chemistry to become liquid and their shape control. However, improper calcium addition can lead to the formation of high melting point calcium aluminates and/or calcium sulfides that remain solid at casting temperatures. These have the tendency to accumulate and agglomerate on the SEN ceramic surface leading to clogging incidents during continuous casting. Clogs detachment due to mould level fluctuations and entrainment in liquid steel can give rise to surface defects (cracks, slivers) during hot working. In order to suppress potential clogging issues and related surface defects, the addition of calcium shall be tightly controlled. In the present work, computational thermodynamics was employed in cases of steel bar products with surface defects, where their root-cause analysis by conventional metallographic investigation techniques had revealed the presence of clogging-related NMI. Their phase composition at casting temperature was projected by thermodynamic simulation of their SEM-EDS analysis using Thermo-Calc Software SLAG4.0 Fe-containing Slag database, illustrating predominately the presence of solid inclusions. Subsequent thermodynamic modeling of the corresponding heat analysis by Thermo-Calc was performed in order to determine the process conditions’ window that would have prevented their formation. Proper adjustment of calcium addition for the applied steel chemistry and casting temperature to hit the liquid window of the calculated stability phase diagram of calcium and oxygen could be proposed. Failure analysis of clogging related defects integrated with computational thermodynamics can assist not only in closer determination of process parameters accountable for the defect generation, but also as a tool to provide suitable countermeasures, namely an optimized “castability window”, improving overall productivity and product’s quality.

Room 17

27 June / 09:00 - Casting: Automation, computer simulations and modelling I

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 17:

Model to reduce bleeding breakout at thin slab caster

A. Kumar
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Model to reduce bleeding breakout at thin slab caster


Author:
A. Kumar

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
H. Shah

Abstract:
Method for detection of bleed in continuous casting of thin slabs of steel Alok Kumar*, Md B Arif, Anil Pujari, Ashutosh Kumar, Ravi Ranjan, Ashutosh Panda Tata Steel, Jamshedpur One of the major problem that plagues continuous casting is leakage of liquid steel from the solidified shell. The solidified shell may crack or break due to various factors. Liquid steel which breaks out may damage mold assembly and one or more of the secondary cooling segments and nozzles. Such an event is called a breakout. Breakouts are a major contributor to loss of productivity and adverse equipment life for a continuous caster and must be avoided. To prevent breakout occurrence, it is required to detect leakage in the solidified shell and consequently reduce the strand withdrawal speed to allow healing of solidified shell. Various embodiments of the present invention take a supplementary approach to prior art improving upon their limitations. This invention is a real-time system for detection of bleeding of liquid steel from the solidified shell. This system is a part of multiple system strategy for breakout control and operates independently of a sticker detection system. While using a statistical anomaly detection based algorithm, the system is designed to spot a bleed and initiate remedial action. Detailed description of the invention The present invention comprises following aspects arising in case of on-line implementation: a) Pre-processing of input data b) Design and implementation of detection algorithm and alarm logic c) Implementation of remedial action

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 17:

Smart Maintenance - the digital continuous casting mould

O. Wiens
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Smart Maintenance - the digital continuous casting mould


Author:
O. Wiens

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Precisely coordinated plant components are essential owing to the increasing demand for continuous casters that can be utilized flexibly in respect of casting speed, product variety, product widths and thicknesses, improvement of steel and slab quality, longer and trouble-free casting times, minimized production and maintenance costs, and energy savings. In the continuous casting technology, one of the numerous main criteria is the primary solidification which takes place in the mold. The copper plates, which act as heat exchangers, must on the one hand ensure homogeneous and targeted solidification and on the other hand live up to the high production requirements. To ensure this, a pocket size battery powered sensor attached on each copper mould integrates artificial intelligence and sends automatically information like: • ID number and manufacturing date, • exact degree of wear: thickness of copper, • number of operations: lifetime cycles and costs, • number of estimated operations, spares on stock and ordering advice,to users.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 17:

One step further in no man casting using advanced robot technology in a semi collaborative environment

M. Stiftinger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: One step further in no man casting using advanced robot technology in a semi collaborative environment


Author:
M. Stiftinger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
M. Hirth, G. Gerstorfer

Abstract:
For many years steel makers have been increasing efforts to support human operators and increase safety. Manipulators are standard equipment in most plants nowadays. These manipulators are typically designed for a specific task and operated semi automatically. Therefore, whilst these operations are state of the art they still do not allow operators to remain completely out of the hazardous area. Using the newest robot technology in combination with state of the art machine vision devices of Primetals Technologies, it is possible to eliminate the disadvantages of the manipulators and establish a full integration of this technology into the steelmaking and the continuous casting process. Robot technology in the steelmaking area There is an advantage in using standard 6 axes industrial robots. Robot systems can perform tasks fully automatically and the robotic movements can be easily reconfigured to suit different process requirements. An obvious example for a fully automated robot in steelmaking is probe attachment, measurement, probe disposal and tool check. Robot technology on the continuous caster Besides the standard tasks of sampling and all variants of measurements in the tundish, with the combined technology package of Primetals Technologies it is possible to fully automate the ladle exchange process not only on the LOP but also in the ladle preparation area. This means one robot takes care of connecting media to the ladle and attaching the ladle gate cylinder and a second robot connects the shroud before the ladle is opened. In this paper Primetals Technologies will share their experience with different applications in various areas of steel melt shops and continuous casters. Achieved performance targets for a fully automated solution for horizontal measurements at a tilted converter vessel as well as fully automated (without endangering workman) casting applications will be presented.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 17:

Autonomous Engineering to improve Ingot Quality

S. Koldorf
(MAGMA GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Autonomous Engineering to improve Ingot Quality


Author:
S. Koldorf

Company:
MAGMA GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Autonomous Engineering to improve Ingot Quality Authors: I. Hahn, E. Hepp, J. Fainberg, MAGMA Giessereitechnologie GmbH, Aachen, Germany Ingot casting production concentrates on special alloys and on product dimensions and specifications for which this type of process is advantageous. Although typical quality issues are to some extent accepted, it is absolutely clear that the quality demands from the market are strongly increasing. The quality of cast ingots is influenced by various defects, for example segregation, shrinkage or cleanliness issues. Ideally, the ingot and process layout are suited to prevent serious defects in the product and to keep the quality constant even with respect to inevitable variations in production conditions – like varying melt chemistry, pouring conditions, quality of insulation materials as well as many others. Casting process simulation is a well-accepted tool to team, solidify and cool an ingot virtually inside the computer, to lay out the casting process before melting or pouring any steel. Beside the simulation of filling and solidification of the ingot, many further aspects such as ingot macrostructure, inclusions and different segregation phenomena can be considered. By fully integrating virtual ingot casting with algorithms for Designs of Experiments and genetic optimization, a new methodology for evaluating ingot production under both quality and cost/productivity perspectives called autonomous engineering becomes available. In particular, the possibilities of autonomous engineering can be used to clearly identify the most relevant process parameters for ingot quality, evaluate the sensitivity of the quality to varying process conditions and set-up a robust cost-effective process ensuring a high quality product, balancing the often conflicting requirements on quality and productivity. This paper uses concrete examples to illustrate how the autonomous engineering approach is used to lay out an optimal casting process which is also robust to the inevitable variations in process parameters which occur in practice.

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 17:

Sticker detection based on convolutional neural networks during continuous casting

D. Lieftucht
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Sticker detection based on convolutional neural networks during continuous casting


Author:
D. Lieftucht

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Breakout is the most expensive and dangerous issue of continuous casting, which causes loss of production time and significant yield penalties. The common cause of breakout is sticker that is a part of strand shell, which adheres to a mold surface. Stickers can be detected by a temperature pattern in a mold heat-map. SMS group develops HD mold, a cyber-physical system for sticker detection by monitoring and analysis of the temperature data from the fiber optical sensors during casting. Currently, HD mold exploits an analytical sticker detection algorithm that gives a large number of false alarms. This leads to significant loss time and quality overheads. We utilize deep learning and design Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that recognizes sticker pattern and can be employed as a full-fledged substitute or an assistant of the current algorithm. Experiments show that being an assistant, CNN reduces the number of false alarms of the current algorithm by 47%. Our CNN can be used for any caster after fast additional training on small data set from new caster.

27 June / 11:00 - Casting: Automation, computer simulations and modelling II

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 17:

Robotic applications for safety improvements in casting area

D. Corsini
(DANIELI TELEROBOT LABS S.R.L. a Socio Unico, Italy)

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Close27 June, Room 17 ( 11:00 )
Title: Robotic applications for safety improvements in casting area


Author:
D. Corsini

Company:
DANIELI TELEROBOT LABS S.R.L. a Socio Unico, Italy

Co-Authors:
D. Senesi

Abstract:
Safety in industrial plants is an objective value in terms of productivity, quality and efficiency. However, safety is frequently seen as an obstacle to accessibility and the possibility of intervening during the process. Danieli Robotic solutions applied for years in the melting area, in the casting area, in the tracking of semi-finished products and in the skimming of galvanizing baths for coils, have shown to reduce operator accidents by more than 90%. This paper describes the QROBOT CAST LADLE characteristics, a multifunction Robot cell designed and realized to allow fully automatic operations in ladle area. The main functions carried out by this robotic installation are: SAMPLING & MEASUREMENT: tundish steel bath temperature and chemical composition measurement. LANCING nozzle emergency oxygen lancing in case of opening failure SHROUD MANIPULATION Shroud picking and reliable positioning by means of 3D vision system and its repositioning after casting. TUNDISH POWDER automatic powder distributing system to guarantee an uniform powder thickness CYLINDER PREPARATION ladle sliding gate hydraulic cylinder manipulation and mounting in fully automatic or remotely operated mode.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 17:

Digital Twin for continuous casters - the playground for metallurgists and process engineers

R. Leitner
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Close27 June, Room 17 ( 11:20 )
Title: Digital Twin for continuous casters - the playground for metallurgists and process engineers


Author:
R. Leitner

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
D. Fuchshuber, P. Pennerstorfer, C. Brugger

Abstract:
State-of-the-art automation technology enables digitalization of the continuous casting process that goes far beyond conventional automation of industrial production. Primetals Technologies provides a digital twin that combines an intelligent digital representation of a casting machine as well as the casting process and the slabs, blooms or billets that are produced. It allows metallurgists and process engineers to predict the behavior of the involved complex production process and optimize parameters before using them in real production. New steel grades or production processes can be evaluated off-line without any risks to process stability and product quality. Primetals Technologies installs the digital twin with every new installation of a continuous caster optimization system. This paper describes how the setup and simulation possibilities of the digital twin provide numerous benefits by modelling and simulating the casting process. It allows for example the calculation of material properties according to the actual composition, strand surface temperature profiles and dynamic soft reduction before the final point of solidification. An outstanding feature of the digital twin is the replay functionality provided for various models to analyze and further optimize real production situations. The paper also gives examples how usage of the digital twin optimized production at various customers.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 17:

Increasing safety, operation efficiency and process reliability: Implementation of robotized tundish operations at Ternium Brasil

V. Cunha Aranda
(Ternium Brasil, )

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Close27 June, Room 17 ( 11:40 )
Title: Increasing safety, operation efficiency and process reliability: Implementation of robotized tundish operations at Ternium Brasil


Author:
V. Cunha Aranda

Company:
Ternium Brasil,

Co-Authors:
L. Mascarenhas Fernandes, E. Hernandez Duarte, W. Junior Correa, L. Martins Demuner, V. Cunha Aranda, F. Lourenço, V. Sinhorely Oliveira

Abstract:
During manual tundish operations like temperature measurement, sampling, powder application and ladle shroud manipulation, the operator is exposed to heat, dust, physical exertion, and inherent danger from tundish reactions or ladle scull. Even though working in this environment, important operational tasks have to be performed in order to guarantee process stability and product quality. By implementing robotized tundish operations using two robots, a major increase in safety, operation efficiency and process reliability could be achieved. The present work gives a detailed overview of the project layout, its components, features and operational performance.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 17:

HD LASr

M. Friedrich
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: HD LASr


Author:
M. Friedrich

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The new method for smart strand guide aligning - HD LASr [strand] Slab quality is no doubt playing an even greater role for steel producers. The foundation for this is provided by a perfectly aligned continuous casting plant realizing minimized mechanical strain on the strand. The first step is the precise aligning of the components mold and segment in the maintenance with the digital aligning assistants HD LASr [mold] and HD LASr [segment]. After mounting the aligned components in the caster the strand should be perfectly guided. However for checking whether the strand guide is optimally aligned several possibilities as e.g. perpendicular or templates measuring are state of the art. With the aim of making the checking easier, more precise and reliable HD LASr [strand] has been developed basing on the well-proven 3D Lasertracker measuring technology. HD LASr [strand] replaces the long and heavy templates, imprecise perpendicular and micrometer gauge with three simple and light measuring tools: laser tracker, reflector and reflector slide. The laser tracks the reflector being vertically moved on a slide along the strand guide and scans thereby the surface of the mold copper plate and the subsequent rollers. The customized HD LASr [strand] software not only records the measuring information automatically but guides the operator perfectly through the measuring procedure. At any time reliable measuring reports are available. Within short time the operator holds the scan result in his hands and can initiate the necessary measures for aligning the strand guide with the optimum strand contact line and the correct roller gap. The quick and easy measuring with the digital assistant HD LASr [strand] takes place in casting pauses with little preparation time without demounting caster parts - enabling maximum production of best quality slabs.

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27 June / 12:20 - Room 17:

Wireless measurement devices enable automatic setting of a continuous caster

O. Lang
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Wireless measurement devices enable automatic setting of a continuous caster


Author:
O. Lang

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
T. Stummer, N. Oberschmidleitner, D. Ott, C. Stummer, K. Winkler, A. Wurm

Abstract:
Primetals Technologies has developed a new generation of measurement devices that guarantee the highest product quality, fully automated processes and efficient maintenance. These attributes are focus areas for digitization in steel plants. The aim is to eliminate human error and make the operation repetitious and as simple as possible. With this generation of measuring devices and connected systems handwritten records and manual entries become a thing of the past. Connectivity via WLAN or Bluetooth are standard, data is immediately available and automatically processed. Elaborated reports document the quality status of the monitored equipment and ensure error-free operation. During the mold maintenance process the copper plate is heated in a fully controlled manner by a new device so that full functionality of the complete system of thermocouples installed in the copper plate is checked and ensured. Wireless sensors for measuring oscillation accuracy increase operational usability and safety. Other wireless sensors are used for automatic calibration of the mold narrow face taper. The condition of the strand is monitored with online measurements during each run and the data provides long term trend information regarding the condition of the segments. In addition to gap and alignment measurement it is also possible to monitor the condition of the nozzles. An optical monitoring device for bloom casters provides information about the roll diameters and profile of the rolls and additionally records videos and images from inside the machine. This paper will present current technologies available for digitalization in the steel plant process with a particular focus on casting operations. The challenges and considerations in developing these measurement devices and their integration into existing plants will also be presented.

27 June / 13:20 - Casting: Near net shape casting

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 17:

Semi-continuous casting VERSCON for big bloom sections

S. Feldhaus
(SMS Concast AG, Switzerland)

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Close27 June, Room 17 ( 13:20 )
Title: Semi-continuous casting VERSCON for big bloom sections


Author:
S. Feldhaus

Company:
SMS Concast AG, Switzerland

Co-Authors:
F. Heini, T. Meier, S. Feldhaus

Abstract:
In recent years continuously cast sections have become increasingly larger resulting in blooms which display excellent quality up to sections of 1000mm in diameter, and which now represent a viable alternative to niche ingot casting facilities. This challenge has led to the development of alternative solutions for smaller production units in the range of 50’000 to 200’000 t/y which foresee the utilization of a semi-continuous casting process. This idea is not new, and many interesting concepts have been developed in the recent years. Typical section sizes for semi-continuous casting start at a diameter of 400mm (~1 t/m strand weight) and reach up to ~1400mm (12 t/m strand weight) and above. In most cases round sections are foreseen since these sections do not require a long containment. The process is already a standard application for casting of non-ferrous metals such as Aluminum and Copper, and the adaption of such a plant concept to the casting of steel adds increased complexity due steels slower solidification rate. The driving idea behind this concept is the requirement to cast one or two ladles on one or more strands into long blooms. The long bloom length ensures a higher yield, whilst the semi-continuous casting process using a conventional mold and oscillation table guarantees a bloom surface comparable to that achieved by continuous casting. Once the strand has reached its final length, casting is stopped and the strand held in position until final solidification is achieved. This solidification time can extend over many hours and is dependent upon the section size. The VERSCON semi-continuous casting process combines the following advantages: utilization of small scale production units (low CAPEX), improved yield compared to ingot casting, better surface quality than ingots, and an internal homogeneity and quality comparable with that of continuous casting.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 17:

A new numerical simulation tool to resolve 3D effects in continuous casting in real-time

F. Wietbüscher
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Close27 June, Room 17 ( 13:40 )
Title: A new numerical simulation tool to resolve 3D effects in continuous casting in real-time


Author:
F. Wietbüscher

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
F. Wietbüscher, T. Bui, M. Hönig, M. Meinke, W. Klos, W. Schröder

Abstract:
A three-dimensional heat transfer model for the simulation of the transient continuous casting process is presented. The core solver is characterized by an efficient parallel implementation to run on multiple computational nodes. It therefore allows for a real-time prediction of the three-dimensional temperature field in a continuously cast slab. By resolving all three spatial directions, heat conduction effects in casting direction can be taken into account and analyzed in detail. The results, presented in this paper, show the difference between simulations with and without considering the heat conduction in casting direction at strand standstill conditions. The effective thermal conductivity method is furthermore studied in the three-dimensional simulation environment. These generic case studies show that an increased modeling complexity while maintaining real-time capabilities, requires efficient numerical methods, which have been successfully implemented in the presented simulation tool.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 17:

Greatest flexibility in production - width adjust with DeltaSpeed technology at JSW, Dolvi, India

L. Schaps
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Greatest flexibility in production - width adjust with DeltaSpeed technology at JSW, Dolvi, India


Author:
L. Schaps

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Babu, P. Sappa, A. Ratnaprashad, G. Rathore, K. Stieglitz, H. Beyer-Steinhauer

Abstract:
Greatest flexibility in production - Width Adjust with DeltaSpeed technology at JSW, Dolvi, India Ever smaller batch sizes, especially with regard to different dimensions, force the producers to carry out a large number of width adjustments with different width adjustments within one casting sequence. Conventional adjustment methods require many intermediate slabs for large format differences, resulting in unnecessary output losses. The SMS group has developed a new adjustment method to significantly shorten the produced transition lengths with larger width adjustments. The additional load of the strand shell is signifi-cantly reduced in comparison to conventional adjustment strategies and is thus particularly suit-able for larger adjustments in crack-sensitive steels. The Delta Speed technology can easily be retrofitted on both conventional slab plants and CSP® continuous casting plants. Another advantage is the ability to implement this technology during the production process. The first operating test was carried out after just 36 hours at the CSP® continuous casting plant at JSW in Dolvi, The upgrade took place during ongoing operation and without plant shutdown. The lecture describes an example of an automation modernization with the replacement of the existing automation system including frequency converter and the implementation of Delta Speed technology on the CSP® continuous casting plant at JSW in Dolvi/India. Likewise, the operating experience after this modernization will be presented.

Room 20

27 June / 09:00 - Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking IV

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 20:

Vision of an automated steel plant - use case: Ladle tracking and handling

J. Thomasberger
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Vision of an automated steel plant - use case: Ladle tracking and handling


Author:
J. Thomasberger

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Vision of an automated steel plant – use case: Ladle tracking and handling The central logistics in a steel plant revolves around the subject “material transport”. This includes the hot metal ladle and the steel ladle transport. The present paper deals with the increase in the automation level around ladle transport from automatic scheduling, automatic maintenance planning up to automatic crane transport and its legal requirements. A first approach is outlined that pursues the goal of a “fully automated steel mill” focused on steel ladles.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 20:

Maximizing profitability of an ISP through upstream operations optimization through data analytics

T. Mandal
(M. N. Dastur & Co. Pvt. Ltd., India)

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Title: Maximizing profitability of an ISP through upstream operations optimization through data analytics


Author:
T. Mandal

Company:
M. N. Dastur & Co. Pvt. Ltd., India

Co-Authors:
A. Maity, S. Ghosh, S. Chatterjee, A. Sarkar, A. Mukherjee

Abstract:
Optimization of front end operations results in higher productivity and reduced operating cost. End point control is an effective way for reducing the consumables, improving metallic yield, increasing the final product quality and thus help maximizing prime production. While effective hot metal logistics ensures smooth flow of operations in steel melting units, highest possible operational efficiency achieved by a plant directly depends on the capability of melt shop to produce prime quality of slabs at a cost structure comparable to other global players of similar capacity and process routes. Consistent tapping temp, end point chemistry control and reduced operational variance promote longer sequences and superior yield. Our current approach addresses the system-wide bottleneck removal such that temperature control, yield improvement, consumable reduction are achieved to reduce the conversion cost of liquid steel and minimize delays and idle times coupled with cycle time variations to gain more production volume. This paper presents how we have improved the productivity of an integrated flat steel mill by benchmarking with comparable metrics, using data analysis and performing operational simulations to help identify the bottlenecks causing capacity loss. Various options to improve operations were analyzed, followed by recommendation of improvement mechanisms for cost reduction and profitability. The schemes, if implemented, have a potential of 7.5% increase in melt-shop throughput, ensuring significant savings in terms of opportunity cost of around 30 million USD/yr and an effective 15 USD/ton decrease in conversion cost by yield improvement and gainfully utilizing the heat loss avoided during the entire production chain.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 20:

Simulation-based solution for a dynamic two-crane scheduling problem in a steelmaking shop: A case study

J. Li
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Close27 June, Room 20 ( 09:40 )
Title: Simulation-based solution for a dynamic two-crane scheduling problem in a steelmaking shop: A case study


Author:
J. Li

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
This paper investigated a twin crane scheduling problem in a steelmaking shop that is featured by the dynamic arrivals of crane jobs and the crane interference. The problem is solved in a simulation way and based on the predictive-reactive rescheduling strategy. An innovative twin-crane trajectory solution was designed to regulate the crane moving behaviors. We modeled the crane scheduling problem considering the temporal cost and crane workload, and the constraints imposed by different initial conditions emerged in each rescheduling process. The model was solved with a heuristic. The simulation results showed the capability of the crane scheduling solution in maintaining the stability of the production schedule and in balancing and reducing the workloads. Meanwhile, the trajectory solution designed was verified to be appropriate. Finally, the computation time of this solution is fast enough to guarantee its practicability.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 20:

HD scan - the digital link between cast quality and process data

T. Gusarova
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: HD scan - the digital link between cast quality and process data


Author:
T. Gusarova

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
HD scan – the digital link between cast quality and process data Producers of cast products such as ingots, long and flat products are required to document the internal quality. On the one hand, internal slab quality allows for conclusions on the basis of which the condition of the continuous casting plant can be evaluated. On the other hand, solutions for quality deviations in case of customer complaints need to be found. Today, this demands for well-established data processing systems to ensure fast reactions. Which quality was produced when, and which part of the production was used for which customer order? This chain of questions can hardly be answered solely on the basis of prints of the internal quality such as Baumann or macro etching prints when the information is not available in a digital format. Wouldn’t it be advantageous being able to determine the quality of cast products in an automatic and factual way, and to store these results in such a manner that they are linked to customer orders and process data? HD scan for the first time ever is able to fulfil all these different demands in the most simple and easy way. This approach of industry 4.0 enables fast reflection of casting conditions to improve future production quality, and documents the as-cast quality in a digital way. This creates the basis for big data analysis and predictive models. Additionally, the ultrasound method used is a safe technology which provides three-dimensional insight into the sample and more representative information which cannot be influenced by etching parameters and subjective impressions of the quality inspector. Keywords: Internal Quality, Casting Condition, Process Data, Industry 4.0, Ultrasound, Prediction, Subjective Autoren: Stephan Schulze, Andreas Runge, Dr. Mark Moors, Martin Klein

27 June / 10:40 - Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking V

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 20:

Development status of intelligent manufacturing system for steelmaking in Hsc

H. Choi
(Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Development status of intelligent manufacturing system for steelmaking in Hsc


Author:
H. Choi

Company:
Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea

Co-Authors:
C. Eom, J. Hong

Abstract:
Prediction of the temperature and composition of molten steel at the end-point using relevant control variables is a longstanding task in the steelmaking process. Steel industry have been applied the various models and simulators to predict the end-point conditions for that reason. The steel industry in recent years is under increasing pressure to face challenges and competition. Since the steel market is changing dynamically, and therefore more flexibility is required. In order to continuously respond to the changing environment and improve efficiency, quality and competitiveness, it is necessary to improve the process in the new operation range as well as the existing operation range. The development of reliable operation prediction models in each process is an important tool to accelerate the development of the steel industry. Most conventional models of steelmaking process are based on empirical formulas through data analysis (linear regression) and experiment-based reaction mechanisms. However, the nature of relationship between the input (process data) and output (end-point prediction of molten steel) parameters in the process is complex and highly non-linear and also the process data for these parameters collected form the steelmaking process are quite noisy because of the complexity of the heat and mass transfer along with a large number of chemical reactions involved in the steelmaking process. For improvement of predicting and modeling a process, many researchers have recently used new methodologies in steelmaking such as machine learning technique. Hyundai Steel is also working on the application of machine learning technique.

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 20:

Application of convolutional neural networks in steelmaking and research

T. Haas
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Application of convolutional neural networks in steelmaking and research


Author:
T. Haas

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Since AlexNet won the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge in 2012, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have increased the abilities of computer vision to astonishing levels. In contrast to conventional computer vision techniques, CNNs learn to identify features on its own that makes it more robust to external changes in the images. In this work it is demonstrated how images are processed through the network. The function and purpose of the different layers are explained and it is shown how the network learns to extract features and classify images. Finally, two examples are described how image classification and object detection by CNNs can be applied to steelmaking or research.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 20:

Plant wide control of melt temperature in liquid steelmaking

H. Dickert
(Georgsmarienhütte GmbH, Germany , Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Plant wide control of melt temperature in liquid steelmaking


Author:
H. Dickert

Company:
Georgsmarienhütte GmbH, Germany , Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Kordel, M. Schlautmann, B. Kleimt, T. Rekersdrees, K. Neubauer, H. Haverkamp

Abstract:
A new through-process monitoring and control system of the liquid steel temperature was developed, implemented and validated at the electric steelmaking plant of GMH group in Georgsmarienhütte, in order to improve the accuracy in meeting the target casting temperature with minimisation of energy and material consumption. The through-process control system covers the complete process chain of electric steelmaking from the superheating phase in the EAF up to the end of the casting process in the tundish. To determine the conditions for reliable and representative thermocouple measurements, trial campaigns with continuous melt temperature measurement were analysed, using the fibre optical DynTemp system to follow the melt temperature evolution during the melt homogenization procedures at different aggregates of ladle treatment. An autonomous ladle identification system based on imaging of perforated plates mounted at the ladles has been installed at the different treatment stations in the steel plant, in order to track more reliably the process routes of ladles and heats. Additionally, a dynamic through-process model was developed and implemented online, to monitor and predict the melt temperature evolution during the different treatment steps along the liquid steelmaking process chain. An operator advisory system, which integrates, evaluates and visualizes all these plant wide information regarding melt temperature evolution, provides support regarding appropriate measurement procedures and optimised operating practices for temperature control. For that purpose the developed measurement guidelines as well as the model and sensor based monitoring systems are applied in combination with predictive control strategies, to derive optimized set-points and control actions. Thus, the advisory system allows the operator to detect unexpected variations in the temperature evolution and to react in an optimal way in terms of energy and resource efficiency. The presented research work received valuable funding by the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS).

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 20:

Intelligent automation solutions on the road to digitalization

T. Kühas
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Intelligent automation solutions on the road to digitalization


Author:
T. Kühas

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
R. Stadlmayr, R. Leitner, R. Aspetsberger, W. Oberaigner

Abstract:
Today’s steel production is driven by process optimization and efficient productivity. For a reliable and sustainable solution the answer is digitalization, but where to start, how to integrate and where to buy digitalization? The paper shows intelligent automation solutions from Primetals Technologies including its overall view on plant and process know-how from bottom to top and all along the value chain by modular modernization design. Structural connectivity linking vertical from basic automation to process optimization systems and horizontal from ironmaking to the final product. There is an ongoing development for process optimization and simulation tools, which are known as “digital twins” and both are intensively used for steady improvements in the presented benchmark example for continuous casting. Data-based approaches, through-process optimizations and business intelligence will contribute to the overall goal. New dimensions in condition monitoring and automatic diagnostic will gain more production-time and ensure high productivity and less maintenance costs. The vision will be a fully automated steel plant.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 20:

Differential GPS - use case: Full automatic torpedo car tracking

J. Thomasberger
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 20 ( 12:00 )
Title: Differential GPS - use case: Full automatic torpedo car tracking


Author:
J. Thomasberger

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Braam

Abstract:
Differential GPS – use case: Full automatic torpedo car tracking For economically operation of steelworks, it is important to efficiently plan routes of torpedo cars. Today's stationary detection methods (e.g. RFID) have the disadvantage that torpedo cars are detected only at this stationary location and there is no live movement tracking of the torpedo cars. Furthermore, for the all in all tracking the entire track network must be equipped with stationary sensors. SMS group has chosen a new approach to equip the individual torpedo cars with battery-powered differential GPS modules. First test measurements showed location accuracies of 2.5m CEP and the modules are capable to transmit the live location information via radio transceivers over distances up to kilometers to a common base station. There the data is evaluated and provided to connected software modules.

27 June / 13:20 - Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking VI

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 20:

Digital twin - slab casting in two worlds

L. Schaps
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Digital twin - slab casting in two worlds


Author:
L. Schaps

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
G. Nowak, E. Metzdorf

Abstract:
Digital Twin – Slab Casting in Two Worlds The latest evolution of the casting process: A Digital Twin for Caster – it represents the slab continuous casting plant with all its metallurgical, mechanical, electrical and auto-mation based properties like its twin in the real world to evaluate the setup of the caster. As exemplified for secondary cooling, Softreduction, Powder feeding, to improve the design of plant components like Tundish, Mold, SEN, to simulate and review changes of the automation system and at least to train operators and maintenance staff of the customers. The SMS group is in the progress to fully create a Digital Twin for a caster – from the arrival of a ladle up to the final product leaves the continuous casting plant. Several already available SMS models like flow models and solidification control model will be merged with the Automation Simulation to calculate the necessary impact to the product (e.g. dimensions, quality) and the mechanical design. As a first step the SMS group merged the X-Pact® Solid Control model and the Automa-tion Simulation to improve the integration test of the Automation Systems concerning control of segments, spray water and calculation of heat flux values. Therefore the X-Pact® Solid Control has been adapted and extended to provide process values like mold plates surface temperatures, ferrostatic load to each role of a segment and the sur-face temperatures of the whole strand.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 20:

Highest Capacity Stein Digit@l Furnace® in India for slab reheating furnace (450 tons per hour)

D. Hounliasso
(Fives Stein, France)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 20 ( 13:40 )
Title: Highest Capacity Stein Digit@l Furnace® in India for slab reheating furnace (450 tons per hour)


Author:
D. Hounliasso

Company:
Fives Stein, France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The performance of a flat product rolling mill is directly related to the design concept and performance of the upstream reheating furnace(s), both in terms of productivity and efficiency but ever more importantly for final rolled quality and yield increase purposes. This paper describes the challenges faced, the adopted design solutions and new technologies introduced by Fives in Stein Digit@l Furnace® Advanced Technology, the highest capacity and lowest energy of the two 400 tph reheating furnaces installed in India on JSW Indian major steel producer.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 20:

The Badische Training Model - a globally unique, but successful approach in the steel industry

S. Baumgartner
(Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 20 ( 14:00 )
Title: The Badische Training Model - a globally unique, but successful approach in the steel industry


Author:
S. Baumgartner

Company:
Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Meier, A. Volkert , C. Zerfaß

Abstract:
Almost the entire steel industry is currently driven by initiatives and CAPEX projects for improving operational competitiveness, safety levels and environmental footprint. Industry 4.0, Robotics, Digitization of Industry are just some of the trends observed. Of course, all those initiatives may have their merits, but we must not forget that ‘steel is made by people’: It was in the past; it is today and it will still be tomorrow. In fact, skilled people will become even more important in the future, in order to understand, maintain and improve the new technologies and complex systems. By experience, BSW is convinced that the road to success is a well-qualified and motivated workforce. This paper describes the history and the outlook of a unique system for qualifying steelmakers: The Badische Training Model. Established in 1968 in a rural area, the mini-mill had a design capacity of 350,000 tpy. An unskilled and inexperienced workforce initially operated it. Today, BSW is one of the most productive and efficient mini-mills in the world with a current crude steel capacity of 2.5 Mt p.a. and being an environmental benchmark for low emissions. The foundation of this ‘continuous improvement’ journey has already been laid beginning of the eighties, and a dedicated training company was founded in 1989. Today, BSW has established a sophisticated and nationwide-awarded training concept for newcomers, while it also strongly focuses on the continuous multi-skilling of its workforce. To cope with future workforce requirements and to overcome the issue of decreasing birth rates, BSW applies several innovative concepts. Besides the internal ‘success story’, BSW’s mini-mill operations have also been utilized as a showcase and training platform to third-party steelmakers. Since 1983, more than 8,000 steelmakers from different countries were trained in the Badische mini-mill philosophy in order to learn and create their own success story.

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 20:

Rotating equipment performance can help you impact profit!

D. do Vale
(AB SKF, Belgium)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 20 ( 14:20 )
Title: Rotating equipment performance can help you impact profit!


Author:
D. do Vale

Company:
AB SKF, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Rotating Equipment! That’s what it’s all about. Some are more critical than others. Some are recognized as very critical impacting profit, some are not. Rotating equipment can be more complex or less complex, very well maintained and well known or not. Let’s set up an overview about your assets and figure out how we can use available information in the best way. Did you know that working in a proactive and reliable maintenance environment you can increase plant’s safety, efficiency and productivity? And result in reduced downtime up to 40%, major revision time by 5-10% and operational cost reduced by 2-10% impacting EBITDA by 2-3% bottom line? Most importantly, the lost time injury frequency rate (LTIF) can be also significantly reduced by increased plant reliability? We see that the steel industry players are often relying on external engineering companies working on complete projects where SKF is specialized upgrading the rotating performance of the equipment. Internal engineering is often overloaded with projects where specialists are needed. Before acting and start the journey, we need to understand the actual situation and benchmark to identify bad actors and set up the improvement road map with a correspondent business case to justify the economical investment towards the change. It is in the benefit of both the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) and End Users having trusted, reliable information on how to act and when to act to avoid unforeseen standstill and unnecessary costs. One of the most critical points to success is close collaboration and good local combined with centralized support. New technologies and digitalization facilitate the communication and the decision-making process to an almost automated process to success. This paper showcases a reliable and sustainable maintenance program for the next generation.

Room 21

27 June / 09:00 - Direct reduction and smelting reduction I

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 21:

MATMOR - development of an innovative DRI technology

A. Tarafadar
(M. N. Dastur & Co. Pvt. Ltd., India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 21 ( 09:00 )
Title: MATMOR - development of an innovative DRI technology


Author:
A. Tarafadar

Company:
M. N. Dastur & Co. Pvt. Ltd., India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Environmental Clean Technologies (ECT), in consortium with NLC India and NMDC is developing a demonstration scale plant showcasing their innovative Coldry and Matmor technologies in Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. ECT is currently completing FEED engineering for this project with MN Dastur in Kolkata. This project will be a world first integration of ECT’s proprietary Coldry and Matmor technologies. The Coldry technology is a patented brown coal densification and pelletisation process that changes the naturally porous form of brown coal to produce a dry, dense, energy rich pellet. ECT’s Coldry technology will be utilized in the integrated demonstration plant as an efficient pelletisation process to supply composite Iron ore and lignite pellet feed for the Matmor process. Matmor is a technology for the production of High Quality DRI. The process operates at relatively low temperatures and is highly energy efficient. Utilizing novel reduction chemistry, the Matmor process has a favorable carbon intensity generating significantly lower CO2 emissions and a substantially lower water consumption while still producing high quality DRI compared with conventional Iron making technologies. Given the utilization of low rank coal and iron ore fines and reduction of CO2 emissions, feasibility studies indicate promising project economics with both CAPEX and OPEX advantages.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 21:

Optimization of the desulfurization of hot metal in Corex Process by adjusting the operation parameters

Y. Lu
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 21 ( 09:20 )
Title: Optimization of the desulfurization of hot metal in Corex Process by adjusting the operation parameters


Author:
Y. Lu

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:
S. Wu

Abstract:
The Corex process, which has obvious advantages in environment protection but still has some disadvantages, for example, the content of sulfur in hot metal is high and fluctuant severely. To overcome the desulfurization problems, the effects of the slag ratio (SR), temperature of hot metal (HM), binary basicity (R2) and the ratio of MgO/Al2O3 of the slag on the sulfur content in hot metal are investigated in the present work. Correlation analysis and regression analysis are used to analyze the qualitative and quantitative relationships between operation parameters and sulfur content of hot metal based on actual plant data. After that, slag-metal reaction experiments are carried out to verify and develop it. Considering interactions between the slag and hot metal, the suggested suitable ranges of R2 and MgO/Al2O3 of the slag for Corex-3000 are 1.20~1.35 and 0.80~0.90, respectively.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 21:

Utilization of cement/bauxite coating for iron ore pellets during DRI production

A. Alharbi
(Hadeed, Saudi Arabia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 21 ( 09:40 )
Title: Utilization of cement/bauxite coating for iron ore pellets during DRI production


Author:
A. Alharbi

Company:
Hadeed, Saudi Arabia

Co-Authors:
M. Alzayer, M. Saddik

Abstract:
Clustering phenomena of pellets is observed frequently in shaft direct reduction processes operating at high temperatures. To prevent sticking, a coating material, inactive under the reducing conditions prevailing in the shaft furnace, should be applied to cover the outer layer of the pellets.In the present work cement/bauxite coating is applied to iron ore samples in various concentrations. Using thermogravimetric technique, the coated samples were reduced with hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture which simulates the composition of the reducing gas in Midrex furnace. The influences of various coating conditions on the reduction behavior and the morphology were investigated. It was found that the various coating conditions had no clear effect on the microstructure of the formed metallic phase. The reduction rate was decreased gradually with increasing the amount of coated material per ton of iron ore pellet. Also decreasing the slurry conacentration of the coating material enhanced the pellet reducibility. The optimaly reduced samples had the following coating conditions; • 15% Bauxite slurry conc. & 0.5 kg/ton iron ore • 15% Bauxite slurry conc. & 1.0 kg/ton iron ore • 20% Bauxite slurry conc. & 0.5 kg/ton iron ore • 20% Bauxite slurry conc. & 1.0 kg/ton iron ore These samples were comparatively subjected to sticking index measurements. The optimized Cement/Bauxite coating conditions were the ones that achieved higher reducibility with lower sticking index values. Recommended primary/secondary coating would enhance the metallization of produced DRI pellets, hence the productivity, while still providing adequate resistance to sticking.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 21:

HBI: The benefits and sourcing of steel's most versatile metallic

V. Chevrier
(Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 21 ( 10:00 )
Title: HBI: The benefits and sourcing of steel's most versatile metallic


Author:
V. Chevrier

Company:
Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States

Co-Authors:
V. Chevrier, J. Kopfle, R. Hunter

Abstract:
Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) is a compacted form of DRI that is manufactured with well-defined, consistent chemical and physical characteristics. Like DRI, it is primarily used in electric arc furnaces and allows the production of high quality steel products that could not be made consistently due to high residual element levels inherent in most obsolete scrap. The enhanced physical characteristics of HBI proved to be a solution to the handling, shipping, and storing issues associated with conventional cold DRI. Merchant HBI allows those who do not own and operate their own plant to purchase material in the open market. The motivation for obtaining HBI from a merchant source can be that local prices for the primary inputs for producing it – iron ore and natural gas – are prohibitive and the steelmaker wants the flexibility to purchase HBI in specific quantities on an as-needed basis. As worldwide merchant demand for high quality metallics continues to grow, HBI production must keep pace. However, much of the HBI capacity either installed or under construction is not available for merchant sale, so the amount of HBI available to the market is limited. Therefore, investing in natural gas-based direct reduction plants, either directly or through long-term supply contracts, is now feasible. To determine the best locations for these plants, this paper will review where iron ore and natural gas are produced and the location of the steelmaking facilities that could use the product.

27 June / 10:40 - Direct reduction and smelting reduction II

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 21:

Various roads to CO2 reduction with the HIsarna technology

K. Meijer
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

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Close27 June, Room 21 ( 10:40 )
Title: Various roads to CO2 reduction with the HIsarna technology


Author:
K. Meijer

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Authors: Christiaan Zeilstra1), Koen Meijer1), Hans Hage1), Johan van Boggelen2) 1) Research and Development, Tata Steel Europe 2) HIsarna pilot plant Operation, Tata Steel Europe Abstract The HIsarna process is a breakthrough innovation in the area of ironmaking. The process produces a liquid hot metal without the need for coking and agglomeration. In a single step fine ores and non-coking coals are used to produce hot metal that is suitable for the BOS process. The elimination of coking and agglomeration reduces the energy consumption and CO2 emission. The HIsarna process has a specific CO2 emission that is 10 – 20 % lower than that of the blast furnace route. Recent trials in the pilot plant at the IJmuiden site of Tata Steel Europe show that further reduction is possible even without capture of the CO2. Between September 2017 and October 2018 an experimental campaign was completed in the HIsarna pilot in which the potential for further CO2 reduction was investigated. Partial replacement of coal by renewable biomass and partial replacement of iron ore by recycled steel scrap in the HIsarna process was part of this research program. The present research program with the HIsarna pilot plant is jointly carried out by Tata Steel Europe, ArcelorMittal, ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe, voest alpine and Paul Wurth and is supported by the EU Horizon2020 SILC-II-2014 program (Grant agreement: 654013).

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 21:

Sustainable decrease of CO2 emissions in the steelmaking industry by means of the ENERGIRON direct reduction technology

D. Pauluzzi
(Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 21 ( 11:00 )
Title: Sustainable decrease of CO2 emissions in the steelmaking industry by means of the ENERGIRON direct reduction technology


Author:
D. Pauluzzi

Company:
Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
A. Martinis

Abstract:
Compared to the traditional Blast Furnace– Basic Oxygen Furnace way of producing steel, more than 50% of CO2 emissions can be saved if steel is produced by means of the Energiron Direct Re-duction – Electric Arc Furnace way. This target is achieved partly thanks to the use of reducing sources cleaner than coal, and partly thanks to the selective capture of up to 60% of the CO2 pro-duced by reduction of iron ores, CO2 that can be possibly commercialized as a valuable by-product for several different industries. The investment cost of DR-EAF minimills is lower than the BF-BOF configuration; therefore, in principle this is a sustainable solution to decrease CO2 emissions in the steel industry. Operating costs are competitive, provided that the reducing agent is available at reasonable price: the Energiron process can use either natural gas, syngas and BF off-gas, whichever is locally available at the cheapest price. Further than this, even Hydrogen can be used as reducing gas, without any modification to the original Energiron process scheme. This allows further reduc-tions in CO2 emissions, as many technologies are being developed to exploit renewable energy sources for production of Hydrogen, which is generally considered to be the fundamental element for the future global energy system.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 21:

Improve operation and productivity of your Midrex® plant

R. Millner
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 21 ( 11:20 )
Title: Improve operation and productivity of your Midrex® plant


Author:
R. Millner

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
H. Ofner, D. Bettinger, J. Rothberger

Abstract:
This paper deals with some new improvements and digitalization efforts for Midrex® direct reduction plants in order to increase product quality and plant efficiency. Such new plant improvements were recently developed by Midrex and Primetals Technologies for implementation at new direct reduction plants but each of the following can also be retrofitted into existing DR plants as well. The technical plant improvements presented therein are: -Product quality conservation system (PQCS) for Midrex plants – Onsite generation of gaseous nitrogen for supply of critical inert gas consumers and integration into the plant inert gas system -Waste Heat Recovery for Top gas and Reformer Flue Gas – Production of steam or electricity based on framework conditions -Bottom Seal Gas Hot Dry Dedusting System – Recovery of hot DRI dust for increase of product yield and conditioning of vent gases The digitalization of data obtained from Midrex plant operation is already well technologically advanced and consists of the following State-of-the-Art configuration: -Level-1 Plant automation with improved data storage & recording -Level-2 DRIPax Carbon and Metallization Prediction – Improvement of plant operation by stable operation -Level-2 Expert System Improvements – Increased support of operation team with latest results from DRIPax Expert system Gowest

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 21:

MIDREX H2TM: Ultra Low CO2 Ironmaking in the transition to the hydrogen economy

V. Chevrier
(Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States)

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Close27 June, Room 21 ( 11:40 )
Title: MIDREX H2TM: Ultra Low CO2 Ironmaking in the transition to the hydrogen economy


Author:
V. Chevrier

Company:
Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Mitigating CO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry is becoming critical in Western Europe, as the cost of CO2 emissions increases. While the natural gas-based MIDREX® Process paired with an electric arc furnace (EAF) has the lowest CO2 emissions of any steelmaking route; there is room to further decrease emissions using hydrogen as a fuel and chemical reactant. The best possibility for significantly reducing CO2 footprint in the future is to use “green” hydrogen as the energy source and reductant to produce DRI/HBI, which can be used as feedstock for steelmaking. This flow sheet concept is known as MIDREX H2™. The supporting process details, calculations and experimental results that lead to this innovative process will be presented. Unfortunately, hydrogen is not currently available at sufficient scale and low cost for rapid adoption. This paper will review the status of the transition from a Carbon Economy to a Hydrogen Economy, its challenges and various on-going activities. As “green” hydrogen becomes available and cost effective, the MIDREX Process can be converted to MIDREX H2 in stages, allowing steelmakers to take advantages of CO2 reduction immediately and further reduce them in the future without major capital expenditure.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 21:

LeafIron – an innovative contribution to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production

S. Potter
(Leaf Iron, )

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Close27 June, Room 21 ( 12:00 )
Title: LeafIron – an innovative contribution to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production


Author:
S. Potter

Company:
Leaf Iron,

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
LeafIron – an innovative contribution to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production Author(s) Name(s) and Affiliations(s) S. Potter, VALE, Brazil; H.Filho, Leafiron, Brazil. Contact data … Summary Leafiron presents itself as an innovative contribution to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production combining Tecnored process and biomasses. Tecnored technology, which has been studied and developed over the last 30 years, reached important indicators in its current industrial demonstration plant in recent years not only related to the performance of the reactor, but also to the use of raw materials barely used by the conventional ironmaking industry. The process is distinguished by the production of ferro-alloys using any type of biomasses source, differently of other processes that demands metallurgical coke or mineral coal. The last results confirm the possibility of the reactor size increasing, reducing OPEX and CAPEX and contributing to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production. Key Words LeafIron; Tecnored; ironmaking technology; Biomasses; eliminate CO2 emission Introduction The iron & steel industry is one of the biggest industrial emitters of CO2 and Leafiron presents itself as an innovative contribution to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production combining Tecnored process and biomasses. Tecnored process is an emerging technology for the production of primary iron and alloys developed in Brazil which stands out for the use of differentiated geometry furnace and lower operational costs than traditional. The process can use typical raw materials of Blast Furnace as iron ore and metallurgical coke but its great differential is the capacity to convert and recycle materials as mining and steelmaking residues using low grade coal (thermal and non-coking coal) and biomasses to produce hot metal, contributing to decrease iron and steelmaking environmental impacts and CO2 emission.

27 June / 13:20 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Use of DRI/ HBI in blast furnace, injection of auxilliary reductions

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 21:

Effect of H2-rich carbonaceous materials' ash on physicochemical properties of raceway slag and coke reactivity

H. Ahmed
(Lulea University of Technology, Sweden)

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Close27 June, Room 21 ( 13:20 )
Title: Effect of H2-rich carbonaceous materials' ash on physicochemical properties of raceway slag and coke reactivity


Author:
H. Ahmed

Company:
Lulea University of Technology, Sweden

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Iron and steel industry is one of the most important sectors which have a great impact on the global growth and economy, however, this sector is still highly dependent on fossil carbon. To decrease such dependency, attempts to partially replace the injected pulverized coal by secondary, highly reactive, renewable (biomass) and H2-rich materials have been tested. Injection of such materials is expected to significantly lower the emitted CO2 from blast furnace. However, due to their different ash composition (especially alkali and alkaline earth metals) compared to ordinary injected coal, it is also expected to alter the raceway slag properties and affect the coke reactivity. In the present article, effect of ashes from different hydrogen-rich carbonaceous materials on raceway slag physicochemical properties as well as coke reactivity is reported. Melting characteristics of ash briquettes in contact with coke and wettability of melted ash on coke surface are determined visually using optical heating microscope. The effect of ash on coke reactivity is studied by means of thermogravimetry under a continuous flow of CO2.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 21:

Effect of reductive gas co-injection on combustion of pulverized coal in blast furnaces

K. Moriya
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 21 ( 13:40 )
Title: Effect of reductive gas co-injection on combustion of pulverized coal in blast furnaces


Author:
K. Moriya

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:
K. Fukada, T. Sato, A. Murao, K. Takahashi

Abstract:
COURSE50 is the national project to reduce an amount of CO2 emission from ironmaking processes in Japan. In COURSE50, we aim to use H2 for reductive agent for iron oxide instead of CO, so that we can reduce an amount of CO2 emission of blast furnaces. In the case of COURSE50, a large amount of reductive gas containing H2 will be injected from tuyeres with pulverized coal (PC) into blast furnace. However, the effect of that on the combustion behavior of PC still remains unclear. In this work, we conducted two experiments with experimental furnaces to evaluate that. Firstly, we evaluated the effect of reductive gas co-injection on PC combustion behavior from the aspect of PC motion. We used particle image velocimetry for the measurement of the PC motion in the cylindrical experimental furnace. PC was accelerated with reductive gas co-injection. It is because earlier combustion of the reductive gas rapidly expands surrounding gas by raising temperature of the gas and the gas expansion accelerates PC. The gas expansion can also enhance PC dispersion, which enables PC to react with O2 more efficiently and can increase PC combustibility. Secondly, we evaluated the effect of the change in an amount of co-injected reductive gas with PC on coke replacement ratio (CRR) as PC combustibility. We used the other experimental furnace to simulate combustion field around a tuyere of a blast furnace. CRR increased with raising an amount of reductive gas, but turned to decrease with further increase of the amount. With reductive gas combustion, PC combustibility can be enhanced by rapid heating and dispersing, whereas be deteriorated by decrease of O2. The CRR change can be affected by this trade-off relationship. The optimal amount of co-injected reductive gas to maximize CRR may be determined in the future work.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 21:

Use of plasma torches to overcome top temperature limits when adding DRI or HBI to blast furnaces

J. Bolen
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close27 June, Room 21 ( 14:00 )
Title: Use of plasma torches to overcome top temperature limits when adding DRI or HBI to blast furnaces


Author:
J. Bolen

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Addition of directed reduced iron (DRI) or hot briquetted iron (HBI) to blast furnaces has been studied for decades and has well known benefits for increasing productivity and decreasing coke rate. In the last few years, it has been of interest as a means to reduce ironmaking carbon dioxide emissions. Despite the technical benefits, DRI or HBI addition to the blast furnace is rarely done due to economic reasons or issues related to low top-gas temperatures. Part 1 of this paper will review the theory and plant experiences for addition of DRI or HBI to blast furnaces. Operational issues related to top gas temperature constraints will be discussed. Part 2 will estimate the maximum amount of DRI or HBI that can be added to a typical blast furnace operation. The practical limits for addition and potential ability to shut down a blast furnace at a multiple blast furnace facility will be explored. Carbon dioxide savings will be estimated. Part 3 of this paper will consider hot gas addition to the mid-stack of the blast furnace in order to increase top gas temperature to allow for higher DRI or HBI addition. The hot gases can be generated via plasma torches to further reduce CO2 emissions from the ironmaking area.