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26 June / 09:00 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Fundamentals in blast furnace ironmaking II

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 1:

Chemistry of alkalis under blast furnace conditions

G. Harp
(Harp Process Chemistry Consulting, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 1 ( 09:00 )
Title: Chemistry of alkalis under blast furnace conditions


Author:
G. Harp

Company:
Harp Process Chemistry Consulting, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Alkalis (esp. potassium and sodium) are transferred into the blast furnace as minor compounds of the burden, the coke as well as the injection coal. They leave the blast furnace mainly via slag at the bottom and dust at the top. As alkalis have negative effects on the blast furnace operation due to catalyzing the Boudouard reaction of the coke as well as the weir of carbon refractory materials related to its chemistry it is necessary to get a detailed view on alkalis chemistry under blast furnace conditions. The alkalis are circulating in the blast furnace due to the different process conditions between top and tap hole and the countercurrent operation. The solid alkali compounds are transported downwards with burden and coke. In the lower shaft the alkali compounds are converted to alkali cyanide, volatilized and transported upwards with the gas. There it is converted to carbonate almost entirely via hydrolysis. Although sodium and potassium are similar chemical elements, they behave different within the blast furnace process due to thermochemistry. Analysis of dead man’s coke samples has shown an enrichment of potassium and a stoichiometry to kalsilite KAlSiO4. Its melting point is above 1600°C and its K2O vapor pressure is much lower than above the simple silicate indicating a positive effect of the Al2O3 and SiO2 ash compounds in coke as long as the alkali saturation is not reached. Potassium is known also for its damaging effect on especially carbon refractory materials under strong reducing conditions. That is related to the formation of so called intercalation of potassium between the graphene planes of graphitic molecular structures leading to a significant volume expansion. Information about mechanism and critical conditions are given.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 1:

In-burden measurements for investigation of alkali compounds in the blast furnace

A. Spatzker
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: In-burden measurements for investigation of alkali compounds in the blast furnace


Author:
A. Spatzker

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Mittelstädt, A. Hirsch, J. Schenk, U. Jahnsen, R. Deike, V. van Outvorst, M. Peters

Abstract:
Potassium and sodium compounds are known as harmful elements for the blast furnace process. To assure a stable reduction and melting process it is necessary to understand the behavior of alkali compounds in different zones of the blast furnace. In this work the concentration and the composition of alkali compounds above and 4.5 m below the burden surface was measured. The samples were taken with-burden dust extraction via horizontal mess lance. The results are discussed with stability diagrams made by FACTSAGE® considering the local temperature and gas atmosphere. Several primary compounds and compounds are created by secondary reactions. Their origin and formation are discussed. It can be shown that cyanides are present in the high temperature zone of a blast furnace with central flow. First attempts to correlate the results of in-burden measurements with blast furnace state parameters are done.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 1:

Blast furnace operation: on melting of the ferrous burden and prevention of upsets

M. Geerdes
(Geerdes Advies, Nederland)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 1 ( 09:40 )
Title: Blast furnace operation: on melting of the ferrous burden and prevention of upsets


Author:
M. Geerdes

Company:
Geerdes Advies, Nederland

Co-Authors:
P. Warren, R. van Opbergen, O. Lingiardi, R. Chaigneau

Abstract:
Comparing the blast furnace (BF) processwith direct reduction (DR) processes shows, that the permeability in the BF is much poorer than in the DR process and that upsets are much more frequent in BF’s. The reason of the differences is the fact, that in the BF-process the burden is melting. In the present paper it is shown, 1. That major part of the heat (80-90%), generated at the BF tuyeres, is required for direct reduction of ironoxide. This is based on a heat and mass balance of the lower furnace. 2. That the amount of the direct reduction depends on the type of injectants used. This is demonstrated on the basis of BF operation with different levels of natural gas injection. 3. That there exists a radial variation in direct reduction. This is based on the radial gas composition in three different blast furnaces. Variation in direct reduction is ± 15-20%. 4. That the contact between the bosh gas and the cohesive material depends on the coke voidage available in between the ferrous layers. Coke from tuyere raking was analysed. 5. That the primary slag fills the available voidage when melting. Slag volume is an important factor determining the minimum (metallurgical) coke rate and the highest productivity. In the discussion a working hypothesis is presented, indicating, that upsets in blast furnaces can be caused by local heat shortage, generating relatively large areas with poor permeability for gas. Operational conclusions of the paper will involve: - Optimization of coke screening and nut coke rate. - Measures with respect to production level and tuyere conditions in case of deteriorating process. - Optimization of primary slag chemistry with respect to liquidus temperatures and viscosity.

26 June / 10:40 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Overview on blast furnace operation

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 1:

Iron making in Russia

D. Tikhonov
(DDG Technologies, LLC, Russia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Iron making in Russia


Author:
D. Tikhonov

Company:
DDG Technologies, LLC, Russia

Co-Authors:
A. Tretyak, Y. Gordon

Abstract:
This paper is focused on the evolution of iron making practice in Russia and highlights some technological aspects of blast furnace operation. The development of hot metal production, changes in structure of reductants and iron ore burden materials, evaluation of design features of the blast furnaces proper and accompanied equipment, presentation of the largest Russian hot metal producing companies and further outlook for the Russia steel industry progress are characterized and discussed. Key words: Blast furnace, hot metal production, ore burden materials, coke rate, BF technologies

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 1:

Development of strategy for sustaining, enhancement and cost reduction at Severstal's primary end

E. Vinogradov
(CherMK, Russia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Development of strategy for sustaining, enhancement and cost reduction at Severstal's primary end


Author:
E. Vinogradov

Company:
CherMK, Russia

Co-Authors:
A. Kalko, S. Chikinov, A. Ivashov, D. Balahonov, M. Gurkin, E. Karunova, Y. Gordon

Abstract:
CherMK – Severstal is one of the largest Iron & Steel Works in Russian Federation, producing 12 million ton of steel products and 9,3 million ton of hot metal. To sustain this operation Severstal also produces 4,6 million of coke in 8 coke batteries and 9,5 million ton of sinter in 2 sinter plants. Blast furnaces also consume 4,6 million tone of Kostamuksha pellets. Severstal developed a strategy of I & SX Wrks development, which includes delay of reline of largest in Europe blast furnace #5, reconstruction of new blast furnace #3 with increased volume and construction of new coke oven #11 with pressure regulated ovens. Non-destructive testing of blast furnaces lining conditions are performed on the regular semi-annual basis to apply necessary measures to extend furnace life. Coal blend stamp charging is in implementation stage to improve coke quality and testing of waste extrusion briquetting is an ongoing project to improve sinter quality and increase sinter production maintaining healthy environmental at the plant and city of Cherepovets. All of these allow Severstal to increase hot metal production and reduce production cost

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 1:

Blast furnace fuels & oxygen consumption mapping

M. Grant
(Air Liquide Global Management Services GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Blast furnace fuels & oxygen consumption mapping


Author:
M. Grant

Company:
Air Liquide Global Management Services GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
P. Blostein

Abstract:
The Blast Furnace/BOF steelmaking route produced ~72% of the steel worldwide in 2017. The largest oxygen consuming facilities are integrated steelmaking plants consisting of Basic Oxygen Furnaces (BOF) and Blast Furnaces (BF). The BOF takes liquid hot metal from the blast furnace and refines it to steel, normally consuming between 50 and 60 Nm3 O2/ton of steel. The blast furnace on the other hand can consume between 0 and 140 Nm3 O2/ton of hot metal and often consumes more oxygen than the BOF. Much of the variable oxygen consumption observed in various blast furnaces depends on the type and quantity of fuels injected at the tuyeres as well as the individual technical limitations of each blast furnace. The productivity of each blast furnace, the philosophy of its operation and its raw material qualities further contribute to the variability amongst different blast furnaces. The blast furnace is currently the most cost effective process for producing hot metal (iron) in the large quantities. However its large CO2 footprint is threatening its future. Blast furnace operators are studying alternative tuyere injectants to replace PCI in order to reduce this CO2 footprint. This paper uses a mapping technique to explain graphically the variability between different blast furnaces and their relationship between oxygen consumption and tuyere injection rates of various fuels. The inclusion of blast furnace technical limitations provide each blast furnace operator a convenient means to quickly assess its operating possibilities for injecting specific fuels. The scenarios presented were calculated using the Air Liquide Blast Furnace model that has been validated at numerous blast furnaces worldwide.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 1:

Blast furnace modernisation technologies

R. Harvey
(Primetals Technologies Ltd., United Kingdom)

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Title: Blast furnace modernisation technologies


Author:
R. Harvey

Company:
Primetals Technologies Ltd., United Kingdom

Co-Authors:
D. Osborne

Abstract:
Blast Furnace operators must address the external pressures to meet the quality, productivity and environmental challenges in the modern world. Within the Primetals portfolio are a range of mechanical and digital technology solutions available for the modernization of a blast furnace – these are targeted at economic campaign life extension, production and furnace stability, and eco-economic solutions. In the current climate of lower-cost furnace repairs these solutions provide steelmakers with the confidence of reliable blast furnace operation with optimised capital and production costs. Considering economic campaign life extension, the paper will update on the latest technology for copper staves, where Primetals are leading in novel anti-wear solutions and already have the only anti-bending solution. Hearth repair options recently implemented by Primetals will also be discussed. Considering eco-economic solutions, the Primetals Cyclone and DustClone technologies will be described, included the modelling capability through CFD/DEM which can accurately assess existing and proposed designs for efficiency and possible wear issues. Considering production and furnace stability, the Primetals solutions for instrumentation and automation of the blast furnace, in conjunction with robust mechanical solutions, will be described. With data evaluation and self-learning, these systems support both process stability and longevity of the staves and hearth, maximising the value of the modernisation investment.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 1:

Large blast furnace technologies by NIPPON STEEL ENGINEERING

S. Tashima
(Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 1 ( 12:00 )
Title: Large blast furnace technologies by NIPPON STEEL ENGINEERING


Author:
S. Tashima

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The large blast furnace enlarging of blast furnace can lead to reduce initial cost and higher labor productivity. Therefore blast furnaces in Japan have been enlarged. And blast furnaces in world are also enlarged. In general, stable operation is difficult for large blast furnace, productivity and gas utilization falls as inner volume becomes larger. The large blast furnace has following issue. 1) Circumferential distribution in the furnace is easy to become non-uniform. 2) When the profiles in the furnace changed by some factors, it has a profound effect on operation. 3) Easy to become inertness because deadman is large. 4) Equipment trouble have a profound effect on production and difficult to recover operation. NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING (NSENGI) has newly installing and relining 80 or more blast furnaces. Since delivering a large blast furnace exceeding 5,000 m 3 for the first time in the world in 1976, we have continued to provide solutions to the aforementioned issue. Our large blast furnace keeps the stable operation and high production, low reduction agent ratio due to our technology. This paper introduces equipment technology for stable operation of large blast furnace which NSENGI has accumulated in many years of experience.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 1:

Comparison of blast furnace operation modes

H. Lüngen
(Steel Institute VDEh , Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 1 ( 12:20 )
Title: Comparison of blast furnace operation modes


Author:
H. Lüngen

Company:
Steel Institute VDEh , Germany

Co-Authors:
P. Prof. Dr. Schmöle

Abstract:
The blast furnace is worldwide the dominant metallic product supplier for crude steel production. It has reached an extreme high technological standard with large efficiency and low reductant rates. Independently from the fact that the blast furnace has nearly reached its theoretical minimum in energy consumption it enables the operators a wide range of operation modes with a high flexibility. This varies depending on regional and other circumstances in manifold possibilities regarding ferrous burden structure, reductant rates like use and amount of auxiliary reductants and coke rates, productivity levels and oxygen injection rates and the durability in blast furnace campaigns. One aspect are the requirements on the quality of ferrous burden materials and blast furnace coke.

26 June / 13:40 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace process optimization and automation

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 1:

Reduction in heat loss through modified design tuyeres at blast furnace # 4, Rourkela Steel Plant, India

A. Mallick
(Research & Development Centre for Iron & Steel, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 1 ( 13:40 )
Title: Reduction in heat loss through modified design tuyeres at blast furnace # 4, Rourkela Steel Plant, India


Author:
A. Mallick

Company:
Research & Development Centre for Iron & Steel, India

Co-Authors:
T. Mohanty, A. Arora, S. Sudhir, R. Kumar, R. Singh

Abstract:
Blast Furnace uses highly pure copper, water-cooled tuyeres as the injection point for high velocity, pre-heated air mixture to the blast furnace for iron oxide reduction. The tuyere is the device that allows heated air to be blown into the combustion raceway of the blast furnace. Tuyere region is dynamic and complex, containing combustion gases, slags, molten iron, coke, pulverized coal and temperatures frequently exceeding 2,200°C. These tuyeres periodically fails and failure introduces furnace instability, increased costs and fuel rate, lost productivity, and increased safety & environmental exposure. Hard facing from outside and refractory lining from inside of tuyere, will help to protect erosion from coal and falling scab. It also helps to reduce heat flux through tuyere. The improved process efficiency in Blast Furnace combined with Blast Furnace enlargement has increased the heat flux with consequent requirement for greater levels of cooling to ensure the long life of the shell. Heat flux has greater influence on blast furnace operation. Optimum heat flux is required for smooth Blast Furnace operation. In general total heat Loss in Blast Furnace through Cooling is around 7-10%. This paper depicts introduction of an innovative design of blast furnace tuyere in Blast Furnace # 4, Rourkela Steel Plant to ensure reduction in heat loss through tuyeres. Blast Furnace # 4 of Rourkela Steel Plant has a useful volume of 1658 m3 and is equipped with 21 tuyers with open loop cooling arrangement. These newly introduced unique coated tuyeres having 3 mm Ni-Cr hard facing outside the surface and having 10 mm refractory coating from inside. Benefits of the innovation in real terms can be summarised as follows: 1. Reduction in heat loss through tuyeres by 10% 2. Reduction in coke rate by 1 Kg/THM Keywords: Blast Furnace, Coated Tuyere, Heat Flux, Hard Facing, Cooling System

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 1:

Operational assistance and process support: How to secure know-how and experience regarding special situations in blast furnace ironmaking?

R. van Opbergen
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 1 ( 14:00 )
Title: Operational assistance and process support: How to secure know-how and experience regarding special situations in blast furnace ironmaking?


Author:
R. van Opbergen

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Engel

Abstract:
The highly dynamic economic climate of recent years has tightened the operating envelope for steel producers world-wide. Steel producers continue to experience immense pressure to respond quickly to changing circumstances and focus has shifted towards efficiency improvement and maximizing flexibility in operations. The ability to safely stop, restart and ramp-up production facilities has become essential. Establishing this level of flexibility without sacrificing efficiency requires sufficient process control, fit-for-purpose process management practices and solid know-how and experience regarding special situations in blast furnace ironmaking operations. That same business environment that demands this increased flexibility has made it increasingly difficult for steel producers to sustain sufficient knowledge about these situations. While much of the experienced, senior operational staff has retired, a new generation of ironmaking specialists has accrued their experiences over decades, during which these process situations have been much more infrequent than before. Over the past 10-15 years, the requirement in the industry for external operational support during e.g. blast furnace blow–downs, salamander tapping and restarts after planned and especially unplanned stops, has become increasingly frequent. This article presents a number of these cases from a process management perspective as well as with regard to project organization and optimized cooperation between internal and external teams of experts.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 1:

Benefits of big data evaluation from casthouse machines and BF-probes

M. Moser
(TMT Tapping Measuring Technology GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 1 ( 14:20 )
Title: Benefits of big data evaluation from casthouse machines and BF-probes


Author:
M. Moser

Company:
TMT Tapping Measuring Technology GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Benefits of big data evaluation from casthouse machines and BF-probes The latest generation of probes and casthouse machines provide a wealth of data that has not been available a few years ago. The evaluation of this data provides direct feedback to improve the blast furnace efficiency, the equipment maintenance and design, and it allows the early detection of critical or deviating process situations. A stable operation with lower operation and maintenance costs are the final customer benefits. Keywords: • charging • casthouse • tapping • blast furnace probes • big data • Industry 4.0

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 1:

Optimization and production cost estimation for upstream of I & S Works

Y. Gordon
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Optimization and production cost estimation for upstream of I & S Works


Author:
Y. Gordon

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
O. Vyshinskaya, N. Izumskiy, G. Matvienko, O. Chaika, V. Lebid

Abstract:
Hierarchy of mathematical models and sub-systems to control blast furnace operation are described and results of their application for blast furnaces of NLMK, CherMK, Tulachermet, Azovstal, Alchevsk I & S works, Zaporozhstal in Russia and Ukraine are presented and discussed. The algorithm for estimation of the production cost of coke – sinter -hot metal through process is developed and applied. The rules of thumb from technological instructions of various Iron & Steel Works are generalized and utilized in the developed value-in-use model and dynamic control system. Techno-economic benefits of the developed models, algorithms and systems utilization for optimization, planning and control modes are presented.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 1:

Major challenges and improvement in process, hot metal production and fuel rate reduction in JSW- blast furnace 2

M. Nagarajan
(JSW Steel Ltd, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 1 ( 15:00 )
Title: Major challenges and improvement in process, hot metal production and fuel rate reduction in JSW- blast furnace 2


Author:
M. Nagarajan

Company:
JSW Steel Ltd, India

Co-Authors:
M. Nagarajan , L. Singh

Abstract:
At JSW Vijayanagar-Bellary, Blast Furnace 2 is in operation since Aug-2006 (Working Volume: 1462 m3) and contributed 13.5 MMT of Hot Metal Production so far with the slag rate of about 400 Kg/THM. After commissioning of rebuild Blast Furnace 1 (Working Volume enhanced from 1147 m3 to 2000 m3) in Feb-2016, BF2 has led to operate with purchased coke (CSR < 63, CRI > 27 & Moisture >8.0 %), low agglomerates (< 78 %) and large variance of Lump Ore quality (TI: 68-90 %, DI: 21-38 %). Operation of furnace with such adverse raw material has become a major challenge. Frequent process upsets, hanging and slipping due to disturbances in Gas Utilization and Heat flux were letting down the Hot Metal Production by 400 TPD and increase of Coke Rate by 40 Kg/THM. One of Taphole cold face temperature found increased upto 500 deg C along with subsequent raise in hearth wall temperature at same elevation. The Team has explored various change management processes and new technology improvement to normalize HM Production and to improve techno-economics. This paper explains following Improvements to normalize HM Production and Techno-economics: (1) Installation of Coke Drying Unit for drying moist coke in Stock house bunker through utilization of waste gas from Sinter Plant lead to reduction of coke moisture by 4.0 %. (2) Casting Practice improvement to increase taphole length from 2.2 m to 2.6 m. (3) Ilmenite injection through tuyeres to reduce hearth and taphole refractory temperature < 300 deg C. (4) Process parameter improvements to reduce Coke rate by 30 Kg/thm by optimizing Burden Distribution, Heat Flux and Centre chimney. (5) Shotcreting of upper and upper middle stack to improve burden distribution. Key Word: Coke Moisture, Coke Drying Unit, Hearth Temperature, Taphole, Process Parameter

Room 26

26 June / 09:00 - Forging and Forging Steels

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 26:

Forming induced anisotropy of product properties in cold extrusion

F. Kolpak
(Technische Universität Dortmund, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 26 ( 09:00 )
Title: Forming induced anisotropy of product properties in cold extrusion


Author:
F. Kolpak

Company:
Technische Universität Dortmund, Germany

Co-Authors:
C. Dahnke, A. Tekkaya

Abstract:
The forming induced direction-dependence of the local yield strength, caused by the Bauschinger effect, is rarely considered in the field of cold forging, neither during the product design stage, nor in the numerical simulation of the processes. The process of forward rod extrusion allows for a direct analytical calculation of the resulting strains along the central axis of the extruded rods. By a variation of the extrusion ratio, the material can be subjected to a known pre-strain, which exceeds any other strain achieved by means of conventional material testing methods. This allows for a detailed investigation of the influence of the Bauschinger effect on the resulting local strength of cold forged parts. The direction-dependence was proven experimentally by example of the typical case-hardening steel 16MnCr5 by means of tensile and upsetting tests on specimens pre-strained by forward extrusion. It is shown, that the difference between the tensile and compressive strengths, indicated by the Bauschinger coefficient, increases with the pre-strain, which is in accordance with the behavior that is observed in smaller strain ranges. The difference amounts up to 30%, which is significant, considering the fact that it is never accounted for in conventional forming simulations. To improve the numerical prediction of local product properties various isotropic-kinematic hardening models were evaluated, which are capable to model the Bauschinger effect. The results indicate that for single-step forming processes, even the use of simple isotropic-kinematic hardening models that are available in most commercial FE-programs lead to a remarkable improvement of the prediction of the local product strength. In addition to this, an experimental method is proposed to fit the model parameters of the enhanced hardening models.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 26:

A new high performance hot top insulation to improve quality of forging ingots

F. Hippenstiel
(BGH Edelstahl Siegen GmbH, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 26 ( 09:20 )
Title: A new high performance hot top insulation to improve quality of forging ingots


Author:
F. Hippenstiel

Company:
BGH Edelstahl Siegen GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
High quality forged products are characterized by a high requirement for homogeneity and uniformity of mechanical and technological properties. To ensure this, not only the melting technology but also the solidification of the ingots plays a decisive role. In ingot casting, a controlled solidification from the bottom of the ingot to the well-insulated top of the ingot is essential objective. It should be the hot top volume, which is performed after the forging as internal crop-loss in circulation, as small as possible. As part of the presentation, a newly developed system for insulating the hot top of forging ingots will be presented. Basis of the development is a new insulating material, which was specially adapted to the requirements of hot tops of ingots. This results in the advantages of increasing the insulating effect to improve the solidification behavior of the forging ingots and a simplified handling in the casting shop including health and safety of the employees in the steel plant. Comparative conventional hot tops solutions of forging ingots are to be considered in order to show the improvement on the basis of the mechanical-technological properties and the segregation behavior.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 26:

Effect of the sulphur content on the fatigue strength of the forged steel 38MnVS6

M. Scurria
(Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 26 ( 09:40 )
Title: Effect of the sulphur content on the fatigue strength of the forged steel 38MnVS6


Author:
M. Scurria

Company:
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Microalloyed forging steels are used as structural materials for automotive components to meet needs such as lightweight design and high performance at lower costs. The machinability of these steels is improved by alloying additions of sulphur, which produce manganese sulphides (MnS). These non-metallic, ductile inclusions with high melting temperature (1610 °C) retard the grain growth and contribute to avoid cracking during hot working. Nevertheless, their presence reduces the fatigue strength of the steel, which has to be taken into account during the design phase of cyclically loaded components. In this paper, the fatigue behaviour of forged steel 38MnVS6 with respect to the content of MnS, and subjected to different forging levels and mean stresses is analysed. Two types of rolled steel 38MnVS6 with different sulphur contents (0.0728% and 0.0372%) are examined. Small scale specimens are extracted from both the lateral position and the centre of the wrought material, where different contents of MnS have been observed by microsections and metallographic analysis. Furthermore, cylinders orthogonal to the rolling direction are extracted from the wrought materials and forged in the axial direction at three different stages by an upset (logarithmic) strain of -0.7, -1.35 and -1.50. Additional specimens have been manufactured from these forged billets. Load-controlled fatigue tests with a stress ratio of R=-1 and R=0 at a frequency up to 150 Hz have been performed using a piezo actuator. The fracture regions have been evaluated with respect to shape and content of MnS. Finally, through this analysis, a correlation between the local logarithmic strain, determined by FEA forging simulation, and the fatigue strength of the material is evaluated.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 26:

Application of fast models for equivalent strain, temperature and microstructure in open-die forging

M. Wolfgarten
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 26 ( 10:00 )
Title: Application of fast models for equivalent strain, temperature and microstructure in open-die forging


Author:
M. Wolfgarten

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
G. Hirt, F. Rudolph

Abstract:
Open-die forging is an incremental forming process, which is mainly used for the production of large parts with high requirements regarding the mechanical properties and reliability of the forged parts. Besides achieving an intended final shape, one main aim of open-die forging is the adjustment of the mechanical properties towards a fine-grained microstructure. Nowadays, new open-die forging processes are mainly designed using a geometry-based pass-schedule calculation, which only gives a statement on the geometrical evolution. Furthermore, during forging, no in-process control of the workpieces properties can be realized. An alternative approach is the development and application of fast models for equivalent strain, temperature and microstructure, which are capable of calculating these decisive process values within few seconds. This paper presents introduces the application of fast models for property-based pass-schedule design and process monitoring in open-die forging. For pass-schedule calculation, the models were successfully coupled to pass-schedule algorithms. By coupling these models and realizing a graphical user interface, it is possible to calculate pass-schedules within seconds and based upon that, analyze and optimize forging processes regarding the most decisive parameters. Regarding the online monitoring of open-die forging process, by coupling the models to appropriate measurement technology, the models can be applied to visualize equivalent strain, temperature and microstructure during forging. This allows an in-process control of the workpieces properties for the operator allowing to react if e.g. deviation in the chosen forging schedule occurs. Here, the realization of a demonstrator system at the industrially scaled forging press at IBF is presented. Furthermore, a concept for an in-process optimization of forging process is introduced. Altogether the hereby presented approach indicate that fast models offer a large potential both for process design as well as process monitoring in open-die forging allowing for a process optimization in open-die forging.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 26:

Effect of forging processes on mircrostructure and properties of TC25 titanium alloy

M. Xinhua
(Baosteel Co. Ltd., China)

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Close26 June, Room 26 ( 10:20 )
Title: Effect of forging processes on mircrostructure and properties of TC25 titanium alloy


Author:
M. Xinhua

Company:
Baosteel Co. Ltd., China

Co-Authors:
J. Cheng

Abstract:
Abstract :This paper introduced the mircrostructure and the properties of TC25 titanium bar after different amounts of deformation(X,X+15%)in the α+β two-phase ragion. From the experimental results ,the mircrostructure and the properties of these two kinds of process bars all met the technical requirements.If the deformation was increased 15% on the basis of X,the mircrostructure was brokened more uniform and smaller,and the primary α equiaxed was better.The room temperature properties and 550℃ high temperature properties met the corresponding requirements too.The plasticity at the room temperature was also improved significantly. Keywords:TC25 titanium; forging; mircrostructure; properties

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 26:

Optimisation of blank weights and reduction of cost per cut at large diameter forging lines

P. Pirolt
(Linsinger Maschinenbau GmbH, Austria)

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Close26 June, Room 26 ( 10:40 )
Title: Optimisation of blank weights and reduction of cost per cut at large diameter forging lines


Author:
P. Pirolt

Company:
Linsinger Maschinenbau GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
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26 June / 11:20 - Rolling: New Developments

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 26:

The successful start-up of the first Danieli universal endless plant

A. Pigani
(Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy)

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Close26 June, Room 26 ( 11:20 )
Title: The successful start-up of the first Danieli universal endless plant


Author:
A. Pigani

Company:
Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
M. Knigge, M. Bulfone, C. Bilgen

Abstract:
Danieli Universal Endless (DUE®) the new flag ship within the QSP family combines the advantages and the abilities of “universal” rolling modes, endless and coil to coil within one single plant configuration by making this plant a major technology innovation compared to the previous generation. This new approach can be seen as the natural evolution of the original, successful Danieli concepts of the thin slab route, namely the application of the vertical curved design thin slab caster and the separation of the rolling stands into high reduction units and finishing units, which is now successfully proven in SGJT, China.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 26:

Intelligent roll-gap lubrication improves strip surface cleanliness in Thyssenkrupp Steel's tandem cold rolling mill

M. Bergmann
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 26 ( 11:40 )
Title: Intelligent roll-gap lubrication improves strip surface cleanliness in Thyssenkrupp Steel's tandem cold rolling mill


Author:
M. Bergmann

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
K. Krimpelstätter, B. Nilsson, S. Karakavaf, R. Leffers

Abstract:
In cold rolling, tribological effects prevailing at the interface of the work roll and strip surface greatly influence the rolling process and the quality of the final cold rolled product. In particular, the amount of iron fines generated in the roll gap significantly influences strip surface cleanliness. Research work done on this topic has shown that improving the lubrication efficiency especially in the early mill stands helps to avoid excessive wear generation and thus allows to improve the surface quality of the final product. This paper explains the wear mechanism and the influence of strip, process and lubricant parameters on the generation of strip wear in cold rolling. Innovative lubrication systems such as Minimum Quantity Lubrication MQL® allow mill operators to take advantage of unused optimization potential. Minimum Quantity Lubrication MQL® was installed in thyssenkrupp Steel Europe’s batch tandem cold mill in Bruckhausen, Germany. MQL® applies small amounts of rolling oil atomized with air directly onto the surface of the work roll and allows to control the oil film thickness independent of the mill speed in a flexible way ensuring a product-specific lubrication. The system is currently operated based on a lubrication table depending on the steel grade and process parameters. Operational results are presented that demonstrate a reduction of the required rolling forces and power consumptions by improved roll-gap friction. Measurements of the strip surface cleanliness after cold rolling have shown a significant improvement compared to the previously installed conventional emulsion lubrication system. Currently, intelligent model-based lubrication control concepts are being investigated that allow to influence crucial process parameters such as the coefficient of friction or the forward slip.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 26:

New developments for heat treatment of AHSS strips

M. Pressler
(Ebner Industrieofenbau Ges.m.b.H., Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 26 ( 12:00 )
Title: New developments for heat treatment of AHSS strips


Author:
M. Pressler

Company:
Ebner Industrieofenbau Ges.m.b.H., Austria

Co-Authors:
M. Pressler, P. Seemann

Abstract:
New Developments for heat treatment of AHSS strips Author: Peter Seemann, EVP product Development Co-author: Michael Pressler Technical advance generates permanent pressure to improve the mechanical and technological properties of materials. Improved passenger safety together with reduced car emissions lead to new steel grades such as AHSS to address the light-weighting car initiative. These materials put new demands on the thermal processing equipment to obtain the desired mechanical properties. Higher annealing temperatures, faster cooling rates, better strip shape and more uniform tempering are required. But most of all a precise control of the heating and cooling curve is demanded. In the last few years Ebner developed many features addressed to achieve these goals not only for small scale hardening and tempering lines but also for automotive manufactures and their tier 1 suppliers. To obtain precise control of the quenching temperature Ebner developed the Hicon/H2 Quench. This new Quenching technology creates new possibilities to adjust the mechanical properties of AHSS strips. Now it is not only possible to precisely control the cooling gradient but also adjust the "end of quenching temperature" in a very small window. EBNER Industrieofenbau GmbH Ebner Platz 1 4060 Leonding see@ebner.cc

Room 27

26 June / 09:00 - Rolling of tubes, sections and rails

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 27:

3D inspection of profiled material

C. Mittag
(IMS Messsysteme GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 09:00 )
Title: 3D inspection of profiled material


Author:
C. Mittag

Company:
IMS Messsysteme GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract ESTAD 2019 3D inspection of profiled material Dipl. Eng. Christian Mittag IMS Messsyteme GmbH Product Manager Heiligenhaus, Germany In section mills, surface defects are caused by different production steps and have a wide range of serverity, critical for the quality of the final product. A 100% surface inspection will warant the quality of the later parts of e.g. building structures. 3D inspection based on laser sectioning, well known from flat products now enters the more complex shapes. The rolling process is one of the critical parts of production. 3D Surface inspection systems nowadays provide full control of the rolling process based on new developed and fast 3D sensors. Worth environmental conditions need to be considered during the design of systems. Extremly varying shapes and dimensions are the biggest challenge for this kind of inspection systems. The presentation will show the requests and parameters of optical systems which need to be taken into account.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 27:

ShapeControl - assistance in pipe production

M. Thome
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 09:20 )
Title: ShapeControl - assistance in pipe production


Author:
M. Thome

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Zeller

Abstract:
In the production of longitudinally submerged-arc welded (LSAW) large-diameter steel pipes – covering diameters in the range of 18 to 56 inch – a complex sequence of manufacturing processes has to be planned and optimized to match strict market requirements. Thus, two approaches are essential. On the one hand process optimizations have to be done with regard to the process interrelations along the whole process chain. On the other hand process deviations based on material variations have to be managed with reference to each individual steel plate. In this context, a new concept for process chain control is presented comprising an up-to-date calculation model for offline and real-time optimization of the LSAW pipe production process chain – including measuring and feedback-control systems. Core processes are controlled in consideration of real-time information coming from upstream and downstream processes. Due to intelligent algorithms, interrelations between subsequent forming processes (e.g. plate edge crimping, pipe forming, pipe closing, tack welding, pipe expanding) are processed by a superior process chain model. As a practical example, the efficiency of the real-time feedback control algorithm is shown with focus on the pipe forming press. Influencing factors (e.g. variations in yield stress and wall thickness, bend positioning accuracy) are discussed on the basis of extensive simulations. Corresponding model algorithms are presented and compared with FEA and practical results. The presented concept aims at a reduced start-up time for producing new pipe dimensions and at tighter tolerances for finished pipe dimensions. Furthermore, it allows for traceable real-time optimization of current production in existing LSAW pipe mills.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 27:

Research on shape deformation of H-Beam in universal rolling with finite element method

S. Wang
(Dragon Steel Corporation, Taiwan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 09:40 )
Title: Research on shape deformation of H-Beam in universal rolling with finite element method


Author:
S. Wang

Company:
Dragon Steel Corporation, Taiwan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Precise dimension control is the critical technology in H-Beam rolling, as the shape of H-beam is more complicated than plate, it requires to consider more dimensions and interactions during the rolling process, which leads to more difficulties and challenges. Flange width is the most difficult part to be accurately controlled among sizes of H-Beam, poor control of flange width had caused most of the rejection and scrap in some mills, therefore, the techniques of flange control is one of the top priority to be established. The major problem in flange width can be classified into two parts, one is the specification of overall bar being undersized or oversized, another is extreme size deviation occurred at bar ends. To solve these problems, we did some investigations on the causes, and hence, found several factors that may be key points toward these size defects, factors such as rolling speed, elongation ratio between web and flange, rolling parameters and temperature distribution of the rolling bar. This study validates these factors by using finite element method, and applies the efficient methods to improve the product quality. Keywords: Finite Element, Flange width, H-Beam, Universal Rolling

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 27:

Pert Bs stand application in a upgrade of section mill - case history -

M. Tomba
(PERT SRL, Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 10:00 )
Title: Pert Bs stand application in a upgrade of section mill - case history -


Author:
M. Tomba

Company:
PERT SRL, Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Today’s long steel products market with ever smaller profit margins and stronger competition requires the use of rolling mills with minimized operational cost and the capability of assuring a final product of very high quality. Starting from these considerations, a PERT customer in Turkey decide to use the PERT BS (bi-Support Stands) in order to upgrade the existing section mill.The new stands was installed starting from the roughing area up to the finishing area. In the finishing area a particular tailor made solution was developed for the production of flat bars in order to perform the edging passes without the use of traditional convertible stands in order to reuse as much was possible the existing equipment and avoid new civil works and long stops in production for the upgrade of the line.The described case history, will show at the audience all the project developments starting from the preliminary customer request (increase in production quality, reuse existing electrical motors, short installation time, fast installation for the new stands, reduced investment cost...etc) up to the production restart.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 27:

Economical cutting-edge technologies for rolling of beams, sections and rails

E. Krieg
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 10:20 )
Title: Economical cutting-edge technologies for rolling of beams, sections and rails


Author:
E. Krieg

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
A number of new technologies and innovative equipment have been developed and implemented on the market for the production of beams, sections and rails. Universal rolling of rails, inline rail head hardening, thermomechanical rolling and quenching from rolling heat of beams and sections for better material properties of finished products and lower conversion costs, mill stands and straightening machines with hydraulically under-load adjustment and automated quick program changing for higher product quality and better time utilisation for rolling of all kind of sections and rails are well known and successfully in operation in many plants worldwide. HCS®-stands for continuous finishing and sizing of light and medium sections as well as for large bars and billets represent a new generation of ultra-rigid stand design with new features for achieving closest tolerances of the finished product. Inline profile gauges are meanwhile State-of-the Art in section rolling mills; simultaneous inline surface defect detection after finish rolling in hot condition is a fast-emerging technology. The main focus of this paper lies on the introduction of innovative concepts for the cost effective production of sections and rails in order to meet the market demands. The benefits for the user’s competitiveness of the remarkable innovations developed in the past are illustrated. The concepts described in this paper enable an excellent product quality to be achieved, whilst at the same time allowing the products to be produced at lower conversion costs and higher availability.

26 June / 11:00 - Rolling: Processing of new steel grades I

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 27:

HYPER UC-MILL The advanced 6Hi UC-Mill for High Grade Non-Gain Oriented Electrical Sheet Production

T. Nakayama
(Primetals Technologies Japan Ltd., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 11:00 )
Title: HYPER UC-MILL The advanced 6Hi UC-Mill for High Grade Non-Gain Oriented Electrical Sheet Production


Author:
T. Nakayama

Company:
Primetals Technologies Japan Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:
H. Ke, Y. XingLiang, Y. Mingcheng, S. Yasunari, T. Tomino

Abstract:
The worldwide trend to electro-mobility requires higher amounts of electrical steels to reduce emissions as well as high strength steels to reduce the weight of the vehicles. The electrical drive system for these vehicles require high grade non-grain oriented electrical steel sheets (HNGO) for high performance and advanced high strength steel (AHSS) for a light weight body which contributes to the extension of the driving distance. The “HYPER UC-MILL” is the advanced 6Hi UC-Mill (Universal Crown Control Mill) equipped with significantly smaller work rolls. This allows to roll the harder and thinner materials with the 6-high technology with a higher productivity compared to the conventional cold rolling process using a 20-high cluster type mill. The small work rolls of the HYPER UC-MILL are driven by newly developed gear type spindles called “MH Spindle” to transmit the higher rolling torque compared to conventional universal joint type and/or gear type spindles. At the same time the new spindles allow to minimize the work roll horizontal deflection for the high product flatness quality with the optimized combination of intermediate and back-up roll diameter. The first conversion of an existing reversing cold mill to a HYPER UC-Mill has been successfully completed in Maanshan Steel in China during a short downtime period August 2018. After completion and fast start-up, Maanshan Steel expanded the product mix from middle grade NGO to high grade NGO (HGNO) and could improve both the product quality and productivity. This paper introduces the effects of the conversion of the existing mill to a HYPER UC-MILL for the expansion to HNGO comparing the production data before and after the upgrade.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 27:

Wet Flash Cooling®: a flexible and high performance quenching technology for Gen3 AHSS

S. Mehrain
(Fives Stein, France)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 11:20 )
Title: Wet Flash Cooling®: a flexible and high performance quenching technology for Gen3 AHSS


Author:
S. Mehrain

Company:
Fives Stein, France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Water Quench technology has been implemented in some continuous annealing lines since more than 30 years for the production of HSS grades. The automotive steel market tendency for higher strength steel grades is accelerating today, and a large variety of Gen3 AHSS grades are developed in which, besides yield strength, other properties are also considered, particularly to improve formability. The production of AHSS grades in a continuous processing line requires a proper cooling control to follow the required thermal cycles for each grade and to secure a stable production of first choice products with improved flatness and mechanical properties. The Wet Flash Cooling® technology has been developed to reach these goals, offering a full flexible control of the strip cooling cycle, including control of final strip temperatures, accurate modulation of cooling rates and strip crosswise temperature homogeneity control. This technology is successfully operating in a large capacity industrial annealing line since 10 years, and is under implementation in another new automotive strip processing line. This paper summarizes the new challenges of quenching technologies to respond to the Gen3 AHSS production needs, and describes the main features of the Wet Flash Cooling® technology.

26 June / 13:00 - Rolling: Processing of new steel grades II

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26 June / 13:00 - Room 27:

Pioneering across continents and cultures for the next welding technology breakthrough

T. Vallee
(Primetals Technologies France S.A.S., France)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 13:00 )
Title: Pioneering across continents and cultures for the next welding technology breakthrough


Author:
T. Vallee

Company:
Primetals Technologies France S.A.S., France

Co-Authors:
T. Yagi, S. Kaga, S. Mauuary, S. Maillard

Abstract:
By combining different cultures, Primetals Technologies is a particularly favorable environment for the emergence of new technologies. This principle has been applied to strip welding, where the respective significant experience and technological setups have been assessed and mutualized : European and Japanese expertise’s, from laser optical to metallurgical and mechanical skills, from laboratory & robot based test facility to scale 1:1 pilot machine. Driven by the ever growing demand for new grades Primetals Technologies breaks through strip welding by expanding the welder LW21M “Asolid” technology used on low gauges for high-end market such as automotive CAL/CGL. Addressing the usual drawbacks in maintenance, operation and safety of current welding system based on mechanical cutting and CO2 laser welding, the newly developed LW21H “Solid state” technology now benefits from a smarter approach by processing thicker strips up to 7 mm with solid-state laser cutting and welding. This new welder generation will set new state-of-the- art and is brought to reality through a scale 1:1 pilot developed, manufactured and tested in Primetals Technologies workshop. The latest results will be shared by a multicultural team.

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26 June / 13:20 - Room 27:

X-Pro® laser welder for of high strength steel grades

J. Szonn
(SMS Group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 13:20 )
Title: X-Pro® laser welder for of high strength steel grades


Author:
J. Szonn

Company:
SMS Group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
C. Dornscheidt, J. Artel, C. Sasse

Abstract:
In the entry section of strip processing lines, strips of different and partially difficult-to-weld steel grades have to be connected to form an endless strip in a short time. The X-Pro® laser welder by SMS group is perfect for the production of hard-to-weld strip materials mainly due to the patented inductive heat treatment. Further advantages are the automatic welding parameter calculation, the quality assurance system, and the low cycle time. Thanks to the modular design of the welding machine and the consequent separation between weld seam preparation and the welding process itself, the welding source can be easily replaced. This gives the opportunity to use a conventional carbon dioxide laser source or a state of the art solid state laser source. The most recent machines have been equipped with solid state laser sources, which features certain process and cost advantages. The machine can be integrated in existing lines but it is also perfectly suitable for revamps. For example, to replace old flash butt welding machines or conventional laser welding machines which are not able to weld modern grades in a reliable manner, since the high alloying contents have an influence on the weld ability of the materials. The compact design with simple foundations and the flexible layout arrangement ensure, that it can also be integrated in existing lines with small or complicated space conditions. The paper will describe machine, requirements and process with emphasis on the production of high strength steel grades. It will include information about solid state lasers, weld-seam heat treatment, revamps, maintenance and digitization. Furthermore, it will show some results of reference implementations.

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 27:

State-of-the-art PL-TCM (pickling lines and tandem cold strip mills)

T. Kikkawa
(JP Steel Plantech Co., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 13:40 )
Title: State-of-the-art PL-TCM (pickling lines and tandem cold strip mills)


Author:
T. Kikkawa

Company:
JP Steel Plantech Co., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
CMI Industry Metals and JP Steel Plantech Co. have decided to extend their respective business models and to combine both companies’ marketing efforts focusing, in a first step, on complete, high quality Pickling Lines and Tandem Cold Mills for the steel industry and particularly the Advanced/Ultra High Strength Steel (A/UHSS) market segment. Introducing features include the newest technologies for improving operational reliability, compactness and ensuring efficiency as well as achieving quality standards for automotive market and advanced high strength steel products. One major focus is the result of the highly efficient Spray Pickling Technology as well as an effluent-free technology as Fluidized Bed Acid Regeneration Plant. Another major feature for TCM is SPEOS Mill Technology that gives the best solution for crown control and edge drop control simultaneously with better strip flatness, even when used for 4-high rolling mills. In this paper the latest reference in terms of technological highlights and implementation results for a very broad range of size and grades (IF to AHSS and electric steel) will be presented.

26 June / 14:20 - Rolling: Annealing, galvanizing and finishing

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 27:

Preoxidation technology dedicated to AHSS

M. Dubois
(CMI Industry, Belgium)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 14:20 )
Title: Preoxidation technology dedicated to AHSS


Author:
M. Dubois

Company:
CMI Industry, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Full oxidation of the surface of Advanced high strength steel is a technology that is today used in conjunction of high dew point to promote the wettability and coating adhesion of zinc coating. Results of laboratory experient will be presented first. This includes trials on Si TRIP steels as well as DP980 but also classical DX51 grade. It is observed that the surface after pre-oxidation contains mostly Fe203 and Fe3O4 but without FeO for AHSS, whereas on a classical low carbon steel FeO is clearly identified. The coatability is characterized not only by bare spots identification but also with bending adhesion tests. It turns out that the pre-oxidation step significantly improves zinc wetting and coating adhesion but should not be conducted at too high temperature. The reduction process that follows is an important step to ensure a full iron oxide reduction before dipping. Similar cycles done on classical low carbon steel show that they oxidize much faster than AHSS, with O2 levels as low as 0.5%. FeO is now the oxide formed. This means that the managemnt of the transition between AHSS and classical steel requires some skils Then the technological concept of the oxidation chamber is presented as well as the basics of its instrumentation.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 27:

Danieli cold processing technology: Innovative approaches for new lines and upgrades

R. Holz
(Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 14:40 )
Title: Danieli cold processing technology: Innovative approaches for new lines and upgrades


Author:
R. Holz

Company:
Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
L. Vignolo, T. Settimo

Abstract:
Optimized CAPEX, OPEX, new products, yield and product quality in new process equipment as well as by upgrading of existing facilities are the key factors for success and profitable operation. For this, innovation in processes and design is crucial. Danieli can support their clients by offering innovative and well-thought-out process equipment and upgrade solutions. In 2018, Danieli has put into operation a complete cold processing complex in Turkey, which includes a new continuous pickling tandem mill featuring latest generation of market oriented technologies. In this line, dedicated to run a broad range of size and grades (IF to AHSS as DP1000), the highly efficient Turboflow® pickling process was selected. This technology already proved its efficiency and ability in former applications handling ultra-thin gauges at speeds even exceeding 400 m/min in the pickling tanks. The 5-stand 6-high OSRT tandem mill features important developments, like actuators to improve significantly strip flatness and a special air knife arrangement on the tandem mill exit side to generate perfect strip surface cleanliness. In galvanizing lines, the zinc pot is the most effective area to reduce costs in operation and consumables and increase the product quality. Danieli has spent significant efforts in developing most advanced technology for the wiping process. A fully integrated system solution has been designed to perform a wiping process with high quality, economy, accuracy and productivity. Center part is the newly developed X-Jet / Compact X-Jet air knife, added by new generation electromagnetic stabilizer as well as robotic systems to reduce human intervention and health risks in this area. This technological package is ideal also for upgrade of existing lines, typically generating a return of investment less than 1 year. On top, Danieli has developed advanced automation systems including L2 and L1 controls to achieve outstanding product performances.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 27:

Hot dip galvanizing at 240mpm, dream or reality

M. Dubois
(CMI Industry, Belgium)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 15:00 )
Title: Hot dip galvanizing at 240mpm, dream or reality


Author:
M. Dubois

Company:
CMI Industry, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Since an increase of line productivity is a major source of profitability, the feasibility of Zn coating at speed as high as 240mpm is addressed whereas the standard industrial practice is in the range of 180 to 200 mpmn . The challenges related to the coating process to reach such a high speed are addressed. It turns out first that the physical minimal coating thickness that can be reached is 6µ whereas the expected industrial value is estimated 2 µm thicker due to the limitation in the wiping gas flow. Secondly, the model describing the full splashing phenomena that exists at high speed predicts a physical limit around 200-210 mpm for Gi and around 220-230 for Zn5%Al. Those high values requires however optimized nozzles shapes. Thirdly, the analysis of the risk of pot roll stoppage due to the development of Zinc film leads to the conclusion that a careful design of the equipment is required and for specific strip size the addition of a drive. Finally, the issue of skimming production and melting rate is addressed. Both are expected to require technical solution due to the significant increase of both

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 27:

Closed looped control of the AHSS annealing process via X-ray phase fraction measurement

U. Sommers
(SMS Group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 15:20 )
Title: Closed looped control of the AHSS annealing process via X-ray phase fraction measurement


Author:
U. Sommers

Company:
SMS Group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
F. Brühl, T. Daube , C. Klinkenberg, C. Sasse, S. Melzer, D. Fintelman, F. van den Berg, C. Ionescu, J. Crutzen, O. Pensis, A. Lhoest, T. Terlau, H. Krauthäuser, E. Montagna

Abstract:
The production of modern advanced high strength steel grades (AHSS) places high demands on the thermal process in annealing and hot-dip galvanizing lines. In particular, the automotive industry requires homogeneous properties of the steel strips from coil to coil and over the entire length of the coils. In order to achieve this, information on the microstructure is necessary to control the process and compensate possible deviations because of upstream processes. A closed loop control with a measurement system in the line exit section is not possible because at that position the material already has its final mechanical properties. Processed AHSS grades consist of a combination of two or more phases to reach the required material properties. During the heat treatment, the fraction of austenite in front of the rapid cooling determines the amount of secondary, hard phases formed during subsequent cooling stages. For AHSS the secondary phase fraction is the main influence for the strength of the final product. SMS group, Drever International and IMS Messsysteme jointly developed a system for the real time quantification of the austenite content during the annealing process. The new online measuring system uses X-ray diffraction to derive the crystalline phase fraction, thus the austenite content, in front of the rapid cooling section of the furnace. The continuous measurement of the austenite content in the furnace allows to compensate process and material changes directly, which otherwise would lead to product quality deviations. A first system was installed – inside a protective housing – on a hot-dip galvanizing line at Tata Steel in the SEGAL plant in summer 2017. The measurement results were compared to the final product strength. The paper will present the possibility of the closed loop furnace control and show first test results.

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26 June / 15:40 - Room 27:

Galvanneal Furnace analysis and control methods discussion

L. Wang
(Baosteel-NSC Automotive Steel Sheets Co., Ltd., China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 15:40 )
Title: Galvanneal Furnace analysis and control methods discussion


Author:
L. Wang

Company:
Baosteel-NSC Automotive Steel Sheets Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The recent rapid developments in the automobile industry have demanded the extensive use of galvannealed (GA) steel sheets. In particular, the development of lightweight automobiles is putting increasingly higher requirements on the strength of GA steel sheets. Galvannealed or GA steel is a form of zinc-coated sheet steel, obtained by dipping steel in molten zinc in a temperature range of 450–550°C, followed by subsequent annealing treatment in a furnace, to produce a complex surface layer of zinc-iron alloy. The iron content in the zinc-iron alloy layer is typically in the range of 7%–15%, and the zinc-iron alloy layer may contain Γ, δ1 and ζ phases. Early alloying treatment of galvanized sheets is typically handled in the production line using a hood-type furnace. In the modern hot-dip galvanizing line, the strip from the zinc pot is immediately moved to an alloying furnace, where it is heated to a certain temperature, incubated at this temperature for a predetermined period of time to complete the alloying process. Subsequently, the alloyed strip is moved to a cooler to quench the alloying reaction.  The galvanneal furnace, which is used for processing galvannealed steel sheets, can be divided into three parts, namely the induction heating section, the holding section, and the fog cooling section. typically composed of the induction heating section, holding section and fog cooling section. This paper described the structural characteristics of each component of the galvanneal furnace, and analyzed temperature control methods of the galvanneal furnace that are important for the successful production of high-strength GA steel sheets for automotive applications.

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26 June / 16:00 - Room 27:

Twisting towers in finishing lines

M. Dubois
(CMI Industry, Belgium)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 27 ( 16:00 )
Title: Twisting towers in finishing lines


Author:
M. Dubois

Company:
CMI Industry, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
If Twisting towers have been used many times to couple the pickling line to cold rolled mills, there use in finished product is not the practice. The situation is indeed very different due to the fact that the product is thin (between 0.2 to 2mm) and may be soft in case of DDQ and EDDQ. Therefore the potential problems in case of incorrect design are buckles and impact in the final flatness due to elongation of edges. Some Finite elements approach has been done to understand the root causes of potential buckling. Finally, a practical model has developed a including the various aspects from stress distribution on, the rolls, sensitivity to buckles and impact on the flatness. The key design parameters including roll diameter, tower dimensions and twisting angles are clearly identified. This model has been used to optimize the definition of the twisting tower on 2 industrial lines.

Room 28

26 June / 09:00 - Rolling: Improved efficiency and product quality I

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 28:

Cold rolling mill technology for improved yield and enhanced operation stability

J. Sieghart
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 09:00 )
Title: Cold rolling mill technology for improved yield and enhanced operation stability


Author:
J. Sieghart

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
D. Böttner, W. Spies

Abstract:
Cold Rolling Mill Technology for improved yield and enhanced operation stability Ongoing development of advanced control technology for flat steel cold rolling mills improves the production yield and rolling stability. Several new control functions will be explained and recent results of commissioning presented.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 28:

Influence of water quality on formation of scab in hot rolled strip

S. Roy
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 09:20 )
Title: Influence of water quality on formation of scab in hot rolled strip


Author:
S. Roy

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Surface quality is very critical for hot rolled material intended for cold rolling and cold forming operations. Scab formation is very detrimental for surface in hot rolled strips, it creates a depth on surface associated with foreign entrapment. During rolling specifically in later strands, foreign material falls from mill house due to vibration and gets embedded on surfaces in final stand which led to scab. Fallen material is always amorphous in nature albeit some sporadic cases. In this study, we have characterized the nature and composition of amorphous material. Chemical and structural properties of deposit material in mill has been studied and verified with plant trial. Hard water deposits have been observed as potential source of such amorphous material. An optimum condition for operation also have been suggested to avoid formation of scab defect.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 28:

State-of-the-art solutions for cutting, grinding and deburring of large-scale steel and special alloy products

G. Richter
(BRAUN Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 09:40 )
Title: State-of-the-art solutions for cutting, grinding and deburring of large-scale steel and special alloy products


Author:
G. Richter

Company:
BRAUN Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
At various stages during their manufacturing processes – from casting to finishing before delivery – semi-finished steel and special alloy products must be cut and surface-treated as well. The requirements for the individual conditioning steps, however, can be quite different. For example, the workpiece can be hot, warm or cold. At any rate, the product must always be perfectly prepared for the next manufacturing step – reliably, in the shortest-possible time and at the lowest-possible cost. For cutting, grinding and deburring, BRAUN has developed innovative technologies and highly flexible, tailor-made solutions which meet these requirements in the most optimal way. In particular, BRAUN’s cutting, grinding and deburring technologies can also be used for large-scale products.

26 June / 10:20 - Rolling: Improved efficiency and product quality II

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 28:

SMS group solutions of thin slab casting and rolling concepts for flexible and profitable hot strip production

K. Hoen
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 10:20 )
Title: SMS group solutions of thin slab casting and rolling concepts for flexible and profitable hot strip production


Author:
K. Hoen

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
B. Kintscher, C. Klein, S. Krämer, C. Cecere

Abstract:
The situation of the steel industry is challenging. Worldwide overcapacities, increasing tariffs and political instability all have their impact on profitability. At the same time alternative materials like carbon composites or aluminum are pushing into classic steel application areas. More than ever, SMS group is focused on providing the steel industry with flexible and profitable technologies and systems over the whole process chain in order to secure and enhance the competitiveness of steel in close cooperation with the steel producers. Regarding thin slab casting and rolling technology, during the last decade a new generation of plant concepts with the ability of endless rolling was established. These concepts based on continuous casting machines with increased throughput by operating at casting speeds of 6 m/min and more with a slab thickness of up to 130 mm. As pioneer of thin slab casting and rolling by introducing the CSP® technology, SMS group offers the full variety of concepts. This paper presents today’s two distinguished generations of thin slab casting and rolling concepts. It explains the plant concepts offered by SMS group and the possibilities of adapting them to the special requirements of steel producers. To round out the picture concerning flexibility and profitability, new technologies implemented to further improve operation and plant efficiency will be presented as well as Industry 4.0 products.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 28:

The relation between microstructure of pure titanium and edge crack in cold rolling

K. Kimijima
(Kobe Steel, LTD, Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 10:40 )
Title: The relation between microstructure of pure titanium and edge crack in cold rolling


Author:
K. Kimijima

Company:
Kobe Steel, LTD, Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Commercial pure titanium sheets are usually manufactured by hot rolling process, annealing-pickling process, and cold rolling process. To reduce sheet gauge largely in cold rolling, the second annealing-pickling is performed after the first cold rolling and then, the second cold rolling is performed. From the viewpoint of cost and productivity, it is to be desired to omit second annealing-pickling. However, high rolling reduction increases the risk of edge cracking and sheet rupture of rolled material. We investigated the tendency of edge cracking in cold rolling of pure titanium and find appropriate annealing conditions before cold rolling to prevent edge cracking. This report describes the relation between microstructure of pure titanium and edge crack in cold rolling.

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 28:

Experiences with press hardening furnaces and tailored tempering systems

P. Seemann
(Ebner Industrieofenbau GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 11:00 )
Title: Experiences with press hardening furnaces and tailored tempering systems


Author:
P. Seemann

Company:
Ebner Industrieofenbau GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
P. Seemann

Abstract:
Experiences with Press Hardening Furnaces and Tailored Tempering Systems The press hardening process allows the automotive industry to produce structural components that combine very high strength and minimal springback, thus offering major advantages in terms of lightweight construction and crash safety. Steel blanks for the production of body-in-white parts are heat treated in furnaces of the HotPHASE product line developed by EBNER. The design features essential for optimum heat treatment will be shown in the presentation. It also concentrates on newest developments of centering systems, automatic process control and optimized atmosphere compositions. Tailored tempering is used to produce functional optimized hot formed parts for the automotive industry with regions of increased ductility and higher energy absorption in the event of a crash. There are different methods to accomplish tailored properties, each of them with advantages and disadvantages. A brief comparison of existing production processes for tailored tempering will be given.

26 June / 11:40 - Rolls for Rolling (Wear and lubrication, grinding, new materials, roll surface, roll inspection) I

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 28:

The digital roll shop for improved quality, performance and process monitoring

R. McWhirter
(Tenova S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 11:40 )
Title: The digital roll shop for improved quality, performance and process monitoring


Author:
R. McWhirter

Company:
Tenova S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The challenges of a modern roll shop are becoming more demanding as the requirements for quality, productivity and automation are continually increased. Not only must the automated equipment be extremely accurate and reliable but it must also incorporate high levels of process control, process monitoring and product inspection. An integrated suite of software based functions has been developed by Pomini Tenova SpA, to achieve these required high levels of performance, monitoring and reporting in roll shop equipment. Such functions as Digital Texturing, on-line machine parameter monitoring, vibration monitoring, In-Process surface inspection and roll inspection combined in one device, continuous profile measurement and correction plus additional packages are available to operate as an integrated system. These functions provide an enhanced level of machine intelligence that delivers improved process monitoring and control.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 28:

Work roll roughness topography and strip cleanliness during cold rolling automotive sheet

C. Gaspard
(Union Electric Steel Corporation, Belgium)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 12:00 )
Title: Work roll roughness topography and strip cleanliness during cold rolling automotive sheet


Author:
C. Gaspard

Company:
Union Electric Steel Corporation, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
A point of great importance of cold rolling process for automotive sheet is the cleanliness of the strip. This is particularly critical in case of batch annealing with inefficient cleaning lines. In these specific cases, pollution of the strip surface could be prohibitive when rolling in the early stands of tandem mill with conventional forged rolls as ground. The strip cleanliness strongly deteriorates during rolling mainly with high roughness rolls and iron fines coming from the strip surface are progressively sticking on the sheet. It is well known that chrome plating the conventional forged rolls in the early stands delays the onset of strip cleanliness degradation during rolling. This paper summarizes the results of 3D surface roughness topography study on forged work rolls, with and without chrome plating, combined with sheet cleanliness measurement during rolling. It shows that a well determined topography has to be obtained on the work rolls used in early stands in order to roll in the mixed lubrication regime, as described by the Stribeck curve, minimizing the friction coefficient and therefore optimizing the cleanliness of the rolled sheet. The main roll roughness parameters to take into account for that purpose are the roughness level Sa, and even more, the Kurtosis parameters Sk, Spk, Svk, Ssk and Sku. The ideal surface morphology promotes deep valleys to the detriment of peaks, leading to a roll surface capable of retaining/trapping oil in the valleys, while peaks are minimized, thus reducing the abrasive effect in the roll bite and the amount of iron fines produced. To achieve this objective, new grinding wheel technologies are currently developed, in partnership with wheel manufacturers, to create such ideal morphology of roughness well adapted to forged HSS rolls.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 28:

Optimization of Work Roll Cooling in Rolling

P. Kotrbacek
(Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 12:20 )
Title: Optimization of Work Roll Cooling in Rolling


Author:
P. Kotrbacek

Company:
Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic

Co-Authors:
M. Pohanka, K. Schörkhuber, M. Zachar

Abstract:
The optimal cooling of rolls should be designed with respect to two aspects. The first is the wearing of a roll where high temperature decreases the durability of the surface layer. The second aspect is thermal deformation of a roll. There are many factors which can influence the efficiency of the nozzle cooling system: type of nozzle, geometrical configuration (nozzle pitch, distance from the roll, orientation, number of manifolds), coolant pressure and temperature. Cooling intensity is mostly specified through the heat transfer coefficient or heat flux distribution. Coolant flow on the rotating roll surface makes the problem complex. Surface temperature of the cylinder plays an important role in the heat transfer mechanism, especially for higher temperatures where boiling must be considered. No analytical or numerical solution of heat transfer and fluid flow for this case is known. The task can be successfully solved experimentally. An experimental bench and methodology of realistic boundary conditions determination was developed in the Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Laboratory.

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26 June / 12:40 - Room 28:

On the performance and surface quality of graphitic HSS roll grades at voestalpine hot strip mill

A. Paar
(Eisenwerk Sulzau-Werfen, R. & E. Weinberger AG, Austria)

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Close26 June, Room 28 ( 12:40 )
Title: On the performance and surface quality of graphitic HSS roll grades at voestalpine hot strip mill


Author:
A. Paar

Company:
Eisenwerk Sulzau-Werfen, R. & E. Weinberger AG, Austria

Co-Authors:
L. Elizondo, M. Brandner, H. Hölzl, M. Aigner, T. Trickl, K. Böldl

Abstract:
Graphitic HSS roll grades such as ESW’s brand VANIMO can be considered as the latest developments for the last finishing stands in hot strip mills. These roll grades are developed on the basis of the alloying concept of (Carbide Enhanced) Indefinite Chill work roll materials. During the development of VANIMO, the amounts and types of carbide forming elements were increased and adjusted into the direction of cast HSS roll grades. The microstructure of graphitic HSS roll grades therefore consists of tempered martensite, cementite and several different carbide types as well as a well-defined amount of free graphite. The main purpose of graphitic HSS roll grades is the combination of the high surface quality of Indefinite Chill alloys as well as the high wear resistance of HSS roll grades. The development and introduction of this very advanced roll grade at voestalpine Hot Strip Mill in Linz/Austria was done in a close cooperation between the customer and the roll supplier. Several systematic steps were taken to increase the wear performance from Carbide-Enhanced Indefinite Chill grades to the more advanced VANIC grade to reach the highest alloyed roll grade VANIMO. In every development step, the surface quality of the roll grades was carefully monitored. This paper describes the improvement of the wear performance for roll grades in the last finishing stands in voestalpine’s HSM by introducing higher alloyed roll grades, up to VANIMO. Different appearances of the strip surfaces with relation to the work roll material are presented and the root causes for these phenomena are explained. Finally some possible strategies to improve the surface quality of graphitic HSS roll grades are presented.

26 June / 14:00 - Rolls for Rolling (Wear and lubrication, grinding, new materials, roll surface, roll inspection) II

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 28:

Prevention of premature contact fatigue damages to roughing mill rolls

S. Flament
(CRM Group, Belgium)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 14:00 )
Title: Prevention of premature contact fatigue damages to roughing mill rolls


Author:
S. Flament

Company:
CRM Group, Belgium

Co-Authors:
M. Sinnaeve, O. Lemaire, G. Walmag

Abstract:
More and more hot rolling mills worldwide face premature failures of their roughing mill rolls. These failures, often due to contact fatigue damages in the bonding zone occur before reaching the scrap diameter of the roll. Several causes including longer rolling campaigns, harder rolled steel grades, reduced passes to increase mill throughput or inadequate backup or work roll maintenance. These premature fatigue failures are often followed by requests to roll makers to increase the shell thickness. In some cases this could be avoided by an optimisation of the roll use. Marichal Ketin and CRM developed a numerical tool to optimize both work and back-up rolls geometries. This tool enables to evaluate the influence of various parameters such as rolls geometries (crowning and chamfering procedure, shell thickness and material design) or rolling parameters (campaign length, rolling forces) on stresses generated in the rolls and how to optimize the situation to decrease roll fatigue risks. This paper will review the history of rolls in roughing mills as well as how an optimization of the roll use can decrease its contact fatigue damages occurrence.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 28:

Influence of Carbide Morphology of HSS Roll on Wear Resistance and Thermal Crack Resistance

S. Ito
(Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Co., Ltd., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 14:20 )
Title: Influence of Carbide Morphology of HSS Roll on Wear Resistance and Thermal Crack Resistance


Author:
S. Ito

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:
S. Uchida, T. Inoue

Abstract:
The influence of the different carbide morphologies on the wear resistance and thermal crack resistance of HSS roll (high-speed steel roll) materials were investigated through experiments, by experimentally producing three types of HSS roll materials, changing the amount of each carbide and grain size, under the condition in which the total amounts of MC type carbide and eutectic carbide are equally maintained. As a result, it was confirmed that i) the greater the amount of MC type carbide, the more the wear resistance is enhanced; ii) the less eutectic carbide, the more the thermal crack resistance is enhanced; and iii) the finer granular size in carbide becomes, the thermal crack resistance is enhanced.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 28:

Institutionalizing the sucess of new grade of work rolls in flat hot mills of Tata Steel INDIA

U. Goel
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Close26 June, Room 28 ( 14:40 )
Title: Institutionalizing the sucess of new grade of work rolls in flat hot mills of Tata Steel INDIA


Author:
U. Goel

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
R. Kumar, V. Mahashabde

Abstract:
Increasing campaign length and reducing change over time without affecting strip surface quality are the key drivers for introduction of newer grades of work rolls in various hot mills of Tata Steel India. Centrifugally Cast High Speed Steel Work Rolls were used for the first time in Tata Steel India. Along with the expectations came also a lot of doubts w.r.t. precautions to be used while using the new generation costlier rolls which had higher residual stresses than the previous ones. Up gradation of the grinding equipment and roll testing equipment was also done. The redesign of mill water systems, use of rolling oils and implementation of rolling strategies for temperature control and draft were sufficiently improvised for smooth incorporation of these new grades in our hot rolling mills. Tremendous cost benefits like double campaigns without grinding and reduced roll wear scales was obtained. Smooth incorporation of these new roll grades in schedules where surface critical automotive exposed steel grades was also done with success. Changes in the roll grades were also done to the rear stands of the Finishing Mill train. The paper encapsulates the journey undertaken by Flat Hot rolling mills of Tata Steel at Jamshedpur and the new facilities to absorb this new generation rolls and make them the backbone of a successful finishing mill roll fleet.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 28:

Development and implementation of VICTURATM rolls in the late finishing stands of hot strip mills

Z. Zhang
(Union Electric Åkers, Sweden)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 28 ( 15:00 )
Title: Development and implementation of VICTURATM rolls in the late finishing stands of hot strip mills


Author:
Z. Zhang

Company:
Union Electric Åkers, Sweden

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
By applying high-end rolls with utmost performance and superior surface quality, hot strip mills can be further optimized. Operations in the mill have been also waiting for improved roll solutions that can minimize required roll changes which impact production efficiency. Limitations are usually due to the low performance and surface degradation of the rolls in the late finishing stands (F5 – F7). VICTURA is the most recent developed grade for rolls utilized in the late finishing stand at Union Electric Åkers (UEÅ). These rolls have been tested and applied in mills all over the world. A significant improvement over the enhanced ICDP rolls has been observed. Hot strip mills are realizing improved operating efficiency and Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) through the transition of their entire roll inventories to these break through products.

Room 01

26 June / 09:00 - Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: By-product management in iron and steel production

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 01:

RECYRON®: Idea to Innovation to Technology in Zero-Waste Ironmaking

A. Bhattacharyya
(RECYRON Engineering & Consulting e.U., Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 01 ( 09:00 )
Title: RECYRON®: Idea to Innovation to Technology in Zero-Waste Ironmaking


Author:
A. Bhattacharyya

Company:
RECYRON Engineering & Consulting e.U., Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Waste products are actually raw materials in disguise, waiting for a smart person to identify them and put them back into use by an appropriate process. RECYRON® is the ultimate smart choice for a zero-waste ironmaking process. This groundbreaking process is designed to recycle all possible raw material wastes (RMWs) from an integrated steel plant to produce direct reduced iron (DRI). RECYRON® takes care all RMWs of steel plants and iron ore mines, starting from superfine ores, coke breeze, sinter dust and BF dust and sludge, mill scale, just to name a few. RECYRON® uses a simple technology like briquetting to its utmost potential to agglomerate all the wastes, and thereafter reduces it using a rotary kiln. The reduced briquettes with high metallic iron are excellent high-value intermediate products to sell to mini-mills having electric arc furnaces (EAF), or to charge in the blast furnace to lower the coke rate as much as possible. The process is also able to generate power as the by-product. RECYRON® offers several advantages in parallel, such as reduction of landfill, complete utilization of raw materials, low CO2 footprint and last but not the least – a highly profitable process. This work presents the development and the technical background of this novel process, which has been developed partially in India and partially in Austria (patent application in Austria). The financial aspects such as estimated CAPEX and OPEX along with the NPV (Net Project Value) and IRR (Internal Rate of Return) for plants of different capacities are also discussed. This work also explores the possibility of installing this new technology in Europe as well as in global context.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 01:

Synergistic use of by-products in the production of FeMn alloys

F. Blaffart
(CRM Group, Belgium)

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Close26 June, Room 01 ( 09:20 )
Title: Synergistic use of by-products in the production of FeMn alloys


Author:
F. Blaffart

Company:
CRM Group, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The metal industry is facing ever stringent environmental regulations leading to more and more efficient off-gas systems. These new off-gas systems generate additional by-products in the form of dusts and sludges. At the same time, the quality and scarcity of raw materials is becoming a real issue and metal producers have to maximize their resource efficiency in order to maintain their competitiveness. Therefore, a cross-sectorial consortium has been built in the frame of an EIT Raw Materials project “Go-4-0”. Its objective is to synergistically combine by-products from different sectors in view of their recycling in the production of FeMn alloys. This paper presents the different cold and hot stage pre-processing steps required before recycling. Indeed, to be recyclable the by-products mix has to comply with process requirements such as mechanical strength. Several binders have been tested and optimised in order to minimize the cost of cold pre-processing while providing the required mechanical properties. Three high temperature purification technologies (Rotary Kiln, Multiple Hearth Furnace & Rotary Hearth Furnace) have been compared at pilot scale in order to determine the best recycling route in terms of zinc and lead removal performance and economics. The final feasibility assessment will be done in 2019 during a semi-industrial campaign using a 600 kW Smelting Arc Furnace.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 01:

Comprehensive innovation of green production in Baosteel Zhanjiang Ironmaking Plant

Q. Zhou
(Baosteel Co. Ltd., China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 01 ( 09:40 )
Title: Comprehensive innovation of green production in Baosteel Zhanjiang Ironmaking Plant


Author:
Q. Zhou

Company:
Baosteel Co. Ltd., China

Co-Authors:
L. Liang

Abstract:
Baosteel Zhanjiang Iron&Steel Co.,Ltd., which is a new iron&steel making Works located in southern China, sticks to Baowu Group’s “green vision” and driving the development of green steel industry. Target of Zhanjiang Works is going to be a green iron&steel making base. This paper briefly introduced the performance of advanced flue gas purification technologies&facilities, water recycling path, and comprehensive ultilization of dust&waste form ironmaking&refining&rolling processes in ironmaking plant. So far, outstanding performaces have been achieved.

26 June / 10:20 - Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Alternative fuels and reductants in iron and steelmaking

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 01:

Biocoal as a carburizing agents in foundry processes in respect to improving the environmental balance

S. Freitas Seabra da Rocha
(Hochschule Ruhr West - University of Applied Science, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 01 ( 10:20 )
Title: Biocoal as a carburizing agents in foundry processes in respect to improving the environmental balance


Author:
S. Freitas Seabra da Rocha

Company:
Hochschule Ruhr West - University of Applied Science, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Borowycz, S. Freitas Seabra da Rocha

Abstract:
In order to protect the environment and to slow down climate change a transition to a “low carbon economy” must be performed by a substitution of fossil resources. Society focuses primarily on fossil resources as an energy carrier. These can be substituted by renewable energy technologies such as wind power plants and photovoltaic. However, fossil resources are also needed as carbon carriers. Especially, in foundries fossil coal is needed to carbonize and to produce cast iron, which is used in almost all industrial sectors, such as the automobile or construction sector. Therefore, an entire CO2-neutral product of any kind is currently almost not existing. A CO2-neutral substitute of coal is biocoal to improve the carbon footprint of foundries. Additionally, the production of biocoal by pyrolyzing biomass residues instead of primary biomass improves the bioeconomy. To analyze the behavior of carburization a series of tests in technical department scale followed by industrial scale were performed. Biocoal made from woody biomass, straw and sugarcane bagasse were investigated. An efficiency rate up to 80% was detected. An advantage of using biocal instead of fossil coal is the low sulfur-content, which has positive effects on the produced cast iron. Analysis of the “biocoal cast iron” showed similar quality as conventional cast iron. Best results were obtained with woody biocoal, therefore, this material was successful used in a foundry. Implementation of this substitute in the production process of foundries can improve the CO2-balance significantly. This has positive effects of the CO2-footprint and the life cycle assessment of products consisting of cast iron.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 01:

Incorporation of biocarbon in blast furnace ironmaking

K. Ng
(Natural Resources Canada, Canada)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 01 ( 10:40 )
Title: Incorporation of biocarbon in blast furnace ironmaking


Author:
K. Ng

Company:
Natural Resources Canada, Canada

Co-Authors:
K. NG, L. Jia, L. Giroux, T. Todoschuk

Abstract:
Substitution of fossil fuel by biofuel in cokemaking and ironmaking process has the potential to substantially reduce the GHG footprint of the blast furnace ironmaking process. It was the targeted of Canadian steel industry to reduce GHG emission by 25% via replacing pulverized coal injection by solid biocarbon and incorporation of biocarbon materials in cokemaking coal blend. Despite of significant amount of efforts has been made. There are still many technical barriers need to be overcame prior to industry scale implementation. This paper summarizes the recent R&D efforts on addressing the technical challenges of solid biocarbon utilization in ironmaking. Previous efforts has demonstrated that incorporation of loose biocarbon in coking coal blend significantly reduces resultant coke quality. Hence, it limits the amount of biocarbon can be incorporated in cokemaking at less than 3% in order to maintain acceptable coke quality. To overcome this challenge, a new approach was developed. The reactive biocarbon was briquetted with coal. Then, the bio-briquette produced was mixed into the coal blend. Small-scale sole-heated oven and 350 kg capacity pilot-scale carbonizations of these coal blends with incorporated bio-briquette were conducted. It was clearly demonstrated that the quality of bio-coke produced by the incorporation of bio-briquette could be improved relative to that using loose biocarbon. Using bio-briquette, the amount of biocarbon could be increased to a higher level and produce biocoke with acceptable properties. The bio-carbon was also mixed with typical PCI coals of high and low volatile matter at different portions. The combustion behavior of the bio-carbon/coal blends was investigated in the experimental bench-scale PCI simulation rig at CanmetENERGY-Ottawa. Effect of tuyere condition, biochar properties and particle size on the gasification kinetic behavior of injected biocarbon and characteristics of combustion residues were determined. Based on the experimental results for replacing fossil coal in cokemaking and PCI by biocarbon, the corresponding reduction in GHG emission for blast furnace ironmaking was estimated.

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 01:

Effects of simultaneous carbonization and pulverization process of biomass via heat storage materials at high temperatures

D. Maruoka
(Tohoku University, Japan)

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Close26 June, Room 01 ( 11:00 )
Title: Effects of simultaneous carbonization and pulverization process of biomass via heat storage materials at high temperatures


Author:
D. Maruoka

Company:
Tohoku University, Japan

Co-Authors:
H. Sumikawa, T. Murakami, E. Kasai

Abstract:
Biomass has potential to reduce the CO2 emissions because of their carbon neutral feature. Carbonization is necessary to efficiently utilize biomass, however, heat source should be prepared. Un-utilized exhausted heat generated in high temperature processes such as iron industry can be an alternative energy source however, dust-containing, corrosive and intermittent gasses are candidates since they have been difficult to be directly utilized. Our groups proposed the concept of the rapid carbonization process considered in this study. Waste heat is stored in heat storage materials (HSM) then HSM are charged into a rotary kiln-type furnace with biomass. The heated balls are charged with woody biomass into a rotary kiln-type furnace. Carbonization proceeds by the heat transferred from balls and pulverization through collision with balls simultaneously occurs. Biomass are pulverized and simultaneously carbonized at high temperature, however, promotion effect of pulverization on the carbonization process was not clear. In this study, the effect of the simultaneous carbonization and pulverization processes was examined. Japanese cypress with cubic shape and Stainless steel, SUS304, balls were used. laboratory-scale rotary-kiln furnace was used to demonstrate proposed process. Different experimental conditions were applied to examine not only a simultaneous process of carbonization and pulverization, but also individually separated processes. Obtained char was recovered and pulverization behavior was evaluated to calculate pulverizing ratio. Carbon Crystallinity of carbon was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. As a results, simultaneous carbonization and pulverization process gives the deformation of biomass char from early stage. It results in that the pulverization is promoted in simultaneous process than separated one as well as crystallinity of carbon. Thus, the simultaneous process will be an important technological principle of a rapid and efficient carbonization process of biomass.

26 June / 13:00 - Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Use of secondary raw materials and wastes in iron and steelmaking

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26 June / 13:00 - Room 01:

Trace element modelling and optimisation of byproduct use in an integrated steelworks

C. McMahon
(University of Queensland, Australia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 01 ( 13:00 )
Title: Trace element modelling and optimisation of byproduct use in an integrated steelworks


Author:
C. McMahon

Company:
University of Queensland, Australia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In iron and steel making significant quantities of by-products can accumulate onsite due to the presence of trace elements that limit their reuse, either by impacting on process operations, affecting product quality, or reporting to regulated emission streams. By-product materials that cannot be reintroduced into the process represents not only a lost opportunity for reuse, but also an increasing potential liability. By-product reuse within an integrated steelworks has been confirmed as a way of reducing the financial and environmental liabilities associated with stockpiled materials. It is therefore important that strategies are developed, supported by appropriate numerical models, which will allow the impact of by-product reuse to be assessed and optimised, leading to mitigation or even reversal of by-product accumulation. BlueScope’s (BSL) Port Kembla Steelworks (PKSW) generates numerous by-product streams. Some of these by-products are reused within the process, offsetting the use of raw materials, or sold offsite. Some by-product streams are restricted in their reuse due to the presence of key trace elements such as lead and zinc. This paper describes the development of reuse strategies based on a modelling and optimisation approach. A process integration based model known as The Integrated Steelworks Energy and Emissions Model (ISEEM) is a comprehensive material and energy balance model of the PKSW site. ISEEM is used as a platform to study the effect of by-product processing through the sinter plant, with a focus on ten key trace elements of concern that potentially impact operations, product quality, and/or emissions. The simulation and optimisation approaches are described, and a number of theoretical scenarios are evaluated using the validated model to demonstrate the effect of trace elements partitioning across process units.

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26 June / 13:20 - Room 01:

Quantification & clarification of chlorine cycle in iron making operation

S. Chattaraj
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Close26 June, Room 01 ( 13:20 )
Title: Quantification & clarification of chlorine cycle in iron making operation


Author:
S. Chattaraj

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Chlorine in iron making operation is a very critical issue because it is one of the reason water is discharged from processes and goes to the drain. Chloride is corrosive in nature and it damages the equipment and pipeline. To maintain a desired level of chloride water is discharged from BF process. Water going to drain is not only a wastage of natural resource but also a cost and sustainability issue especially in a water scarce area like Jamshedpur. Also there is a pressure from Centre pollution control board to go towards zero discharge .So to reduce the water discharge from the site, there is a necessity to understand the chlorine cycle in the process .Chlorine is coming from our raw materials in various forms and through different process finally resulting in gases, products and water. This paper talks about the chlorine balance of iron making operations in overall as well as individual plants. Total chloride load in iron making operation is 0.1-0.2 kg/thm based on raw materials input. Major contributor in chloride input is PCI coals which is almost 25-30% of the input. Others significant contributors is solid waste (LD slag, sludge, mill scale, mill sludge) used in sinter making and coking coals (through coke). Maximum chloride out happens through BF gas cleaning water (in scrubber) .Other significant outputs are through waste gas in sinter making and coke ovens by product plant effluent. From the chloride balance we could able to know which area to optimise the water discharge

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 01:

Best practices in refractories waste management

A. Soto
(Sidenor I+D, Spain)

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Close26 June, Room 01 ( 13:40 )
Title: Best practices in refractories waste management


Author:
A. Soto

Company:
Sidenor I+D, Spain

Co-Authors:
D. Maza

Abstract:
Current lines of research are mainly focused on Circular Economy, Energy Efficiency and Industry 4.0. While many sectors are influenced by this trend, it acquires special importance in the steel industry, specifically in terms of waste management. The reinforcement of the environmental policies has pushed steelworks to implement Circular Economy criteria, which allows the reduction of the negative impact of linear economy. Despite waste management has been thoroughly researched by steelworks during last decades, it has always been focused on slags, melting shop powders or scales, but hardly any work has been developed in the management of refractory waste, at least in a systematic and integral way. Moreover, some of the spent refractories are considered as critical materials and probably in the short term as hazardous. Under this scenario, five years ago, Sidenor started a continuous improvement initiative with the aim of minimizing the refractory waste disposal in landfills. The first results highlighted the interest for the company, and they surprisingly revealed a little explored and exploited market. The outcome of this project led to the allocation of more research resources into this matter. In this way, the management of Magnesia-Carbon and Alumina reclaimed refractories has been consolidated. Later, a remarkable and innovative achievement was reached by valorising Isostatic scraps. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to disseminate the knowledge and best practices developed by Sidenor in this field during last years. In fact, Sidenor is now recognised as a consolidated player recently awarded with the “European Business Award for the Environment” for all this work. Thanks to these best practices, the 90% of recoverable refractories are valorised at the moment. Although a lot of work has been done, Sidenor continues pursuing the excellence obtaining important environmental and economic benefits, which could be of interest for other steelmakers.

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 01:

Binder-free compaction: a new technology to enable EAF by-products recycling

J. Banchet
(Eurotab SA, France)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 01 ( 14:00 )
Title: Binder-free compaction: a new technology to enable EAF by-products recycling


Author:
J. Banchet

Company:
Eurotab SA, France

Co-Authors:
B. Bramaud Grattau, J. Steiler, C. Coenraets

Abstract:
Steel production generates vast amounts of by-products e.g. dust, sludge, slag, used refractories. The ever-stronger regulation regarding disposal and the potential benefit from recovering valuable elements (iron, lime, magnesia, zinc, …) contained in the by-products, some of them being considered as Critical Raw Materials in Europe, have driven steelmakers to develop processes to turn waste into source of raw materials and approach the goal of a zero-waste practice. Due to their powdery nature, some by-products can hardly be introduced in a furnace as secondary raw materials without pre-agglomeration. Traditional agglomeration technologies (briquetting, pelletizing) require a binder to provide the agglomerates the adequate mechanical resistance and enable their handling without generating large amounts of fines. Aside from their costs, binders reduce by-products recycling efficiency rate, can require curing time hence handling and storage costs. They also require supplemental energy for their burn-up and generate environmental problems. Binder-free compaction technology relies on subjecting a powder without any additive to uniaxial punching efforts up to 700MPa, leading to agglomerates called tablets. The latter are obtained via a rotary press with a throughput of tons/hour. In this paper, EAF by-products (slags, dust and refractory fines) behavior under compression is studied using binder-free compaction technology. Based on the provided by-products compositions, several mixes are elaborated to aim at reducing the amount of primary raw materials (lime, magnesia), at proceeding to iterative zinc enrichment and at extending the refractory walls lifetime by achieving MgO saturation of the slag. Results demonstrate that any of the three studied by-products can be combined in optimized and valuable mixes yielding binder-free compaction tablets whose mechanical resistance, assessed by crushing and drop tests, is in accordance with the requirements of the metal making industry.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 01:

Ciroval ®-Hydrometallurgical treatment process for recycling blast furnace sludge

L. Piezanowski
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 01 ( 14:20 )
Title: Ciroval ®-Hydrometallurgical treatment process for recycling blast furnace sludge


Author:
L. Piezanowski

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
J. Hugentobler, A. Iosif, D. Dubois, J. Baudson

Abstract:
In an economic system where environmental legislation tightened and the supply of raw materials becomes more and more critical, the application of new metal recovery processes becomes a priority. Today the steel industry produces by-products which are not fully valued. One of them is the sludge produced by the wet gas cleaning system of the blast furnace. Blast furnace sludge is not internally recycled due to its high content of zinc and lead, which are detrimental to the blast furnace operation. Presently only few solutions are available for treating this sludge. In this context, ArcelorMittal, in a co-development with Paul Wurth, decided to build the first industrial plant able to recycle the entire quantity of sludge produced at the Dunkirk site. In a circular economy approach, this innovative and environmentally friendly process based on hydrometallurgy, called Ciroval®, values the blast furnace sludge by transforming it into three products: an iron/carbon fraction, which can be recycled at the sinter plant; a zinc/lead concentrate, which is of interest for the non-ferrous industry; and finally salty water that can be recycled internally or in the salt industry. This approach of circular economy will allow ArcelorMittal to reduce disposal of by-products, to save raw materials and to reduce CO2 emissions. The project for this first industrial Ciroval® plant, designed to treat 15’000t of blast furnace sludge per year, is supported by the “Région Hauts-de-France” and the ERDF European Regional Development Fund. Engineering started in September 2018. Commissioning is scheduled for beginning of 2020.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 01:

Development of cost effective process for recovering iron ore slimes from tailings pond - case study

R. Bonda
(JSW Steel Ltd, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 01 ( 14:40 )
Title: Development of cost effective process for recovering iron ore slimes from tailings pond - case study


Author:
R. Bonda

Company:
JSW Steel Ltd, India

Co-Authors:
U. Attel, V. M , H. Maddu

Abstract:
In India, iron ores processing industries play a vital role in the Indian economy. Closing down of iron ore mines due to environmental constraints spurred the captive iron ore washing plants to work on a custom plant mode and also to recover the values from slimy tails. During the wet processing of iron ores, substantial amount of fine particles/slimes is generated in downstream which need to be recovered effectively for their usage and beneficiation. These slimes are currently being dumped into tailing ponds owing to their high alumina and silica content. Typical constituent minerals present in iron ore slimes are hematite, goethite, gibbsite and kaolinite. Considering the fine particle size distribution (<45 microns) in the slimes, tailing dams are considered as a threat due to hazardous elements present in and acute shortage of land for storing. More over these slimes also pose threat to the environment. Recovery of iron values from slimes results in economic benefit by utilisation of waste as a resource and minimizes burden in tailing pond. These slimes after beneficiation are agglomerated through (Pelletisation) and can be used as burden for the blast furnace and COREX. JSW Steel Limited having 13 MMTPA operating capacity, during processing it will produces waste like beneficiation plant tailings, COREX Sludge, blast furnace cyclone dust, fly ash, LD Slag etc. which have been dumping at tailings pond. The paper enumerates the developments in eco-friendly processing of iron ore slimes by dredging first of its kind in India, classification and state of art vertical pulsating wet high intensity high gradient magnetic separation and gravity separation for recovering iron ore slimes from tailing pond with a view to produce pellet grade fines. Initial physical characteristics will be -10 µm about 85 % and feed assays Fe-44-47 %, SiO2 and Al2O3 together 13-15. Plant

Room 02

26 June / 09:00 - Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Improvment, treatment and usage of Iron and steelmaking slags

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 02:

Last untapped potential in waste heat recovery - dry slag granulation

A. Fleischanderl
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 09:00 )
Title: Last untapped potential in waste heat recovery - dry slag granulation


Author:
A. Fleischanderl

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
T. Fenzl, R. Neuhold

Abstract:
Over decades the majority of the blast furnace slags have been utilized as cement clinker additive applying the traditional wet granulation process. Even well proven, the wet process faces some disadvantages as inability to recover the enthalpy of 1.8 GJ per ton of slag, process water consumption and odor problems around the plant. Over the last couple of years Primetals has developed the DSG, Dry Slag Granulation process, which allows the recovery of heat out of the liquid blast furnace slag. After an intensive pilot plant operation phase it was decided to install a first of its kind industrial prototype at voestalpine’s BF #A with a design capacity of up to 2 ton per minute liquid slag. The plant was commissioned in May 2017. In the time range of June 2017 till April 2018 many trial campaigns were performed and hundreds tons of slag was granulated with the dry process. A relining of the connected blast furnace in summer 2018 was giving the chance to install plant upgrades for the upcoming trial campaign starting in winter 2018/19. The new installations should bring the development of the dry slag granulation technology a huge step closer to its industrial mature. The paper will discuss trial results, product analysis, achieved process parameters and reports the actual technology development status with an economic outlook for the DSG process.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 02:

Activation of hydraulic properties in BOF slags by carbo-thermal reduction with simultaneous phosphorus removal

S. Windisch
(Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 09:20 )
Title: Activation of hydraulic properties in BOF slags by carbo-thermal reduction with simultaneous phosphorus removal


Author:
S. Windisch

Company:
Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The Chair of Thermal Processing Technology at the Montanuniversitaet Leoben operates a pilot plant for the reducing treatment of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slags. In a novel reactor concept, a bed of graphite pieces is inductively heated, offering a large surface and short mass transport distances for the reduced phosphorus as well as the possibility of a direct heat input. Phosphorus can therefore be transported in the gas phase quickly and is continuously removed from the reactor. The formation of iron phosphides, which inhibits the complete reduction of BOF slags in other aggregates like electric arc furnaces, is thereby limited. The gaseous, elementary phosphorus as well as CO are removed from the reactor, post-combusted and led through a gas scrubber, so that phosphoric acid is produced. In preliminary experiments in a lab-scale plant (0.5 kg, batch operation), an optimum point of operation for the reduction of chromium, manganese and iron oxides as well as phosphorus compounds was found. By the addition of silica sand and reactive coke powder the slag was completely reduced at 1650°C. Applying this technology, 80% of the phosphorus contained in the slags were removed via the gas phase. This was also done in continuous operation in a pilot plant called InduRed (3 kg/h). The results from the preliminary experiments were reproduced. In current experiments, alumina oxide is added and the slag composition is altered so that after the reduction process the slag can be quickly cooled and hydraulic properties can be activated.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 02:

Steel slag processing in MSC

S. Feghhi
(Mobarakeh Steel Company, Iran)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 09:40 )
Title: Steel slag processing in MSC


Author:
S. Feghhi

Company:
Mobarakeh Steel Company, Iran

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Mobarakeh Steel Company hereinafter as (MSC) is one of the largest steel producers in Iran and in the Middle East with a production of about 7.2 million tons steel per year.(about 1,800,000 tons steel slag per year) In MSC, molten steel is produced using 8 electric arc furnaces (EAFs) in which input materials including DRI (Direct Reduction Iron) and scrap is charged into EAFs and melted. Depending on the charging materials ratio, the slag chemical analysis may be varied. Steel slag is a valuable waste in a steel plant and normally has considerable Fe content which it could be recovered and charged into EAFs again.(circular economy) In our power point presentation, we are going to have an overview on existing slag processing in MSC and try to describe why we need slag recycling or recovery in MSC.(cold and hot slag processing) we would like to express our technical and environmental requirements to get best solutions for slag processing in MSC.

26 June / 10:20 - Efficiency increase and CO2 mitigation in iron and steelmaking: Energy management systems, energy and waste heat recovery I

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 02:

Waste heat recovery potential in integrated steel plants in the steel industry in germany

M. Sprecher
(German Steel Federation, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 10:20 )
Title: Waste heat recovery potential in integrated steel plants in the steel industry in germany


Author:
M. Sprecher

Company:
German Steel Federation, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Within the scope of this study, the potential for waste heat use in sinter plants, blast furnace plants, continuous casting plants and hot rolling mills, i.e. the main plant areas of integrated iron and steel works, was investigated. The investigation included the description of the typical design of sinter plants, blast furnace plants and their ancillary facilities, BOF steelmaking plants with LD converters, and hot rolling mills, as existing in integrated iron and steelworks in Germany, was described. Energy and heat balances were calculated and represented in tabular form and in Sankey diagrams. Possibilities of internal and external as well as direct and indirect waste heat uses were described. On this basis 13 waste heat flows were examined in greater detail. Impediments to possible waste gas uses were identified in interviews with the iron and steelplant operators. Potentials for waste gas use were derived from the waste gas flows in the energy balance against the background of the available technology and general circumstances.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 02:

All-in-one energy saving solution in steel plant

Z. Lu
(Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 10:40 )
Title: All-in-one energy saving solution in steel plant


Author:
Z. Lu

Company:
Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:
S. Shinohara, Y. Osaka, H. Imanari

Abstract:
In recent years, we have developed the intelligent energy saving solution for fans and pumps in steel plants to achieve more energy saving effect than the conventional energy saving method using feedback control. The intelligent solution utilizes predictive information such as the pre-set calculation results from process model, predicts the optimal flow amount required at the optimal timing and outputs speed reference to fans and pumps via sequence controllers. When applying the solution to an existing plant, it is important to make the revamping works less. We propose to apply a new controller named nV-pack, which is designed as an integration of PLC and computer, with all the functions of sequential control, drive control, mathematical calculation and human machine interface (HMI). Furthermore, as the operating system of the controller is based on Windows system, other convenient application tools for energy visualization and management can also be installed together as an all-in-one energy saving solution. Therefore applying the new controller for intelligent energy saving will bring easier revamping works, easier daily maintenance and more energy saving effects. For example, the solution helps users to do P-D-C-A (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle easily. First, the user audits inefficient energy consumption and aims the energy savings with the energy management tool. Then he works on saving energy using intelligent energy saving control, checks actual effect with energy visualization tools and improves energy saving effects by the same controller. As a result from our actual experience, the return on investment for the energy saving project is usually under 1~3 years. We have applied the all-in-one solution and achieve significant energy saving effects in several steel plants. In this paper, we introduce the solution of descaling pumps, unit cooling fans of main motors and water treatment pumps and show energy saving results with actual data.

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 02:

The applicattion of waste heat recover system and discussion of saving energy in strip continuous annealing furnace

L. Wang
(Baosteel-NSC Automotive Steel Sheets Co., Ltd., China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 11:00 )
Title: The applicattion of waste heat recover system and discussion of saving energy in strip continuous annealing furnace


Author:
L. Wang

Company:
Baosteel-NSC Automotive Steel Sheets Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
With the rapid development of Home appliance and automobile industry,Cold rolled strip steel market prospect is very broad,All major domestic steel plant construction in successive continuous annealing furnace (including hot-dip galvanizing) production line.Currently only Baosteel cold rolled continuous annealing furnace unit (including hot dip galvanizing line) have 14 lines. As the core equipment "furnace" of cold strip Continuous annealing line ,Radiant tube heating method commonly used.Major energy consuming media is mixed gas and natural gas which is composed of Blast furnace gas and coke oven gas,Process energy consumption accounts for 35% to 45%。 Annealing furnace energy saving is the way of company reduce costs, save energy, increase economic efficiency. The common question of cold strip continuous annealing furnace are exhaust gas temperature very high and energy consumption great . As examples for cold strip continuous annealing furnaces of BAOSTEEL No.4 cold mill plant,several waste heat recover system in annealing furnace are compared ,and explaining their advantage and defects ,discussing kinds of saving energy technology.it is: 1.Low Pressure Heat Exchanger Type Heat Recovery System 2. Steam Boiler Heat Recover System 3. Hot Water Heat Recovery System Comparison of three waste heat recovery from , the steam boiler was the best, but large investment,High maintenance costs.Therefore, hot water system is low investment, high efficiency ,it is the best choice for heat recovery.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 02:

Operational results of new generation sinter shaft cooler

M. Böberl
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 11:20 )
Title: Operational results of new generation sinter shaft cooler


Author:
M. Böberl

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
J. Reidetschläger, M. Kastner, K. Zellinger

Abstract:
Primetals Technologies has developed a new vertical sinter shaft cooler that is not only highly energy-efficient but is also much more environmentally friendly than conventional circular sinter coolers. It is based on a counter-flow cooling process, so heat transfer efficiency is significantly higher than in a conventional sinter cooler. The shaft cooler design allows the optimized utilization of sensible heat contained in the hot sinter. With this approach the temperature of the cooling air exiting the shaft can be maximized and more efficiently applied for the generation of steam. The total cooler off air of the process is finally cleaned in a dedusting unit which gives the environmental benefit of zero diffuse dust emissions. Primetals Technologies and Ansteel Engineering Technology implemented the first industrial scale shaft cooler on a 265m2 sinter plant at Anshan Iron & Steel, China. The system consists of a pan conveyor for charging the shaft cooler, the shaft cooler, a heat recovery system and a bag filter unit. Operational results and achievements of the first installed shaft cooler will be presented.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 02:

How to recover energy from a steel reheating furnace

L. Cioriciu
(Cockerill Maintenance et Ingénerie (CMI), Belgium)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 11:40 )
Title: How to recover energy from a steel reheating furnace


Author:
L. Cioriciu

Company:
Cockerill Maintenance et Ingénerie (CMI), Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Well known as high energy consumers, reheating furnaces can become energy sources in several ways. The energy recovery coming from a reheating furnace can be considered for both green fields as well as for brownfields. One way is to recover the heat coming with the waste gases from the main heat exchanger for the combustion air by installing a WHRB in line towards the stack. If the length of an existing waste gas tunnel to the stack do not allow the installation of the WHRB in line, a bypass can be considered as well as it will be shown later in the presentation. The second is to install an evaporative cooling system for the skids and posts of the walking beam section. In this case, instead of cooling the skids and posts with cooling water, a hot water/steam mixture can be used. This mixture will be heated and saturated in steam during skids and posts cooling process. The saturated steam can be then extracted and sent to the plant steam network. It is preferably to install such an ECS to new furnaces but solution can be found for large upgrade works in existing plants. The steam that is generated by these two means can be used as it is or can be transformed in electric power through a turbine. At atmospheric pressure the saturation temperature is 100° C. However, if the pressure is increased, this allows the addition of more heat and an increase in temperature without a change of phase. Therefore, increasing the pressure effectively increases both the enthalpy of water, and the saturation temperature. Despite the general reservation against steam generation through the reheating furnace due to apparent non reliability, the concept has been already installed at our customers and in all cases the feedback was positive.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 02:

Recovery of high temperature waste gas heat by thermoelectric generators

F. Mintus
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 12:00 )
Title: Recovery of high temperature waste gas heat by thermoelectric generators


Author:
F. Mintus

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Steel production involves a huge amount of energy consumption. Despite the usage of waste heat from high temperature steel making processes, e.g. for heating purposes, a considerable amount of this energy is lost to the ambient. Energy recovery from these waste-heat streams is getting more and more important in the future due to commercial and strategic reasons, like international competition as well as geopolitical issues such as security of energy supply and greenhouse gas emission. In recent years, numerous ideas have been suggested e.g. reuse in other processes, or for power generation. One opportunity for power production from waste heat are thermoelectric generators (TEG). Thermoelectric materials are semiconductors which exhibit a strong relationship between the passage of heat through the material and a current flow. TEG are already used in special applications, e.g. for power supply of sensors in remote areas, or in air and space industry. However, the use of this technology in a large-scale industrial application has not been sufficiently investigated until now. The paper will describe results achieved in the research project PowGETEG (RFSR – CT – 2015 – 00028, funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel). The project investigates possibilities of thermoelectric power generation using industrial gaseous waste heat at temperatures above 550°C. In order to be able to apply this technology in industrial waste gases new solutions for control, power conversion and heat exchange were developed. Based on results from bench-scale tests with a 200 Wel unit and simulations a demonstrator with an electrical output of 700 - 1,000 W was designed and constructed. Final results of the lab-scale tests and first results of the long-term test of the demonstrator at a steel production site will be presented.

26 June / 13:30 - Efficiency increase and CO2 mitigation in iron and steelmaking: Energy management systems, energy and waste heat recovery II

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26 June / 13:30 - Room 02:

Potential solutions to withstand highly corrosive conditions in heat recovery systems

A. Spaghetti
(Sandvik AB, Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 13:30 )
Title: Potential solutions to withstand highly corrosive conditions in heat recovery systems


Author:
A. Spaghetti

Company:
Sandvik AB, Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
With the upcoming and increasing interest for environment and consequently for more efficient processes, heat recovery systems have become of great importance, as well as their durability. The equipment meant to recover such heat found usually itself in very corrosive conditions. The temperature of the tubes of the recuoerators is usually higher than 500°C and this open the door to several damaging mechanisms, like hot corrosion as well as dew point corrosion, where a standard carbon steel would fail very quickly. Based on this detrimental conditions it becomes really relevant to select good materials for such tubes in order to increase the lifetime of the whole equipment and consequently increasing the process efficiency.

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26 June / 13:50 - Room 02:

Residual heat valorization at Arvedi steel plant in Cremona

C. Milo
(Acciaieria Arvedi S.p.A, Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 13:50 )
Title: Residual heat valorization at Arvedi steel plant in Cremona


Author:
C. Milo

Company:
Acciaieria Arvedi S.p.A, Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Thanks to the original Arvedi ESP cast-rolling technology, the scrap-based plant in Cremona is among the world most efficient operations for the production of high quality thin gauge steel coils. Arvedi most recent investments, concentrated in the electric steelmaking area, allowed to reduce further the energy consumption and CO2 emissions, making the plant in Cremona one the most energy efficient in the steel world. In 2018 Arvedi successfully commissioned and started-up an iRecovery® system and a 7 MW ORC turbogenerator unit to recover the off-gas residual thermal energy coming from the 250-t Consteel® EAF feeding the ESP line and to convert it into electrical energy. The new installation is the largest EAF heat recovery system in Europe.

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26 June / 14:10 - Room 02:

Waste heat recovery for EAF steelmaking via calcium based energy storage

G. Hartfuß
(University of Stuttgart, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 14:10 )
Title: Waste heat recovery for EAF steelmaking via calcium based energy storage


Author:
G. Hartfuß

Company:
University of Stuttgart, Germany

Co-Authors:
G. Scheffknecht, M. Schmid

Abstract:
To meet rising energy prices and targets for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Europe, waste heat recovery has become a major interest for EAF steelmaking. Currently up to 30% of the EAF energy input is lost via the off-gas waste heat, by an average off-gas temperature of serval hundred degrees Celsius. This shows the huge potential for implementation of waste heat recovery technologies for power generation. However, challenges for waste heat recovery included fluctuating heat flow, varying temperatures, high dust loads of the EAF off-gas and the need of an energy storage unit to compensate for power-off times during tapping and charging. The few existing waste heat recovery facilities in EAF steel plants typically use waste heat boilers and Ruth’s steam accumulators to produce statured steam (lower than 50 bar). Therefore, the efficiency of the power generation is low, while complex waste heat boilers must be used. To improve the power generation efficiency a new approach for the production of super-heated steam will be discussed in this paper. The major differences are the application of thermochemical energy storage material and the avoidance of off-gas heat exchangers. By using this concept a reduction in design complexity and easier implementation in existing off-gas systems is expected. Calcium based materials offer a great potential for use in EAF steel plants, because they have a high energy storage density, are cheap and degraded material could be reused as slag formers. By using data from a carbon steel producing steel plant the waste heat recovery potentials will be discussed and the best suited storage material selected. Following a process design for waste heat storage and utilization will be given.

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26 June / 14:30 - Room 02:

Modelling thermal processes in the steel and iron industry

C. Rein
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 02 ( 14:30 )
Title: Modelling thermal processes in the steel and iron industry


Author:
C. Rein

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
B. Stranzinger, E. Thienpont

Abstract:
Within the steelmaking industry thermal processes are key processes to produce high grade steels. Numerical modelling has become an indispensable tool for analysing and optimizing these processes. The department of energy, gas and industrial furnace technology of the VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut gives an overview of examples along the steelmaking process. The capability of their burner testing facility at the area of the Hüttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann makes it possible to verify and validate thermal and combustion models. In the last years BFI developed CFD-models for: • Reheating furnaces • Strip galvanizing lines • Hearth furnaces • Heat treatment furnaces • Recuperative burners • Regenerative burners • Ignition hoods for sinter plants • Converter waste heat Boilers Since 3 years BFI also uses the Fluid-Structure-Interaction method to combine the numerical simulation of fluids (CFD) and structures (FEM) for the calculation of furnace components such as furnace rollers or radiation tubes. These simulations help to find the best design in an early stage of development or to investigate flow, temperatures or species in furnace zones where it’s impossible to measure. The article/presentation gives an overview of 5 modelling examples within the steelmaking process.

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26 June / 14:50 - Room 02:

Roadmap towards carbon neutral steelmaking

R. Hekkens
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

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Close26 June, Room 02 ( 14:50 )
Title: Roadmap towards carbon neutral steelmaking


Author:
R. Hekkens

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
A. Steeghs, C. Pietersen, B. van der Meulen, J. van der Stel

Abstract:
Tata Steel Europe has renewed its vision, mission and strategy to set the way forward in a changing world. The renewed strategy is to build the leading European steel business that is sustainable in every sense. This fits with our customers and stakeholders moving towards a more sustainable future and circular economy. Governments worldwide joined the global Paris agreement and national legislation is being updated to implement this agreement. Meanwhile existing agreements to increase energy efficiency gradually are being implemented. What does this mean for the activities of Tata Steel IJmuiden concerning energy use and CO2 emission? Next to the execution of our Energy Efficiency Plan in the period 2017 – 2020, a clear roadmap towards carbon neutral steelmaking needed to be set up. The Paris agreement focusses on decreasing the absolute CO2 emission levels in a drastic way. Analysis of the source of CO2 emission was done, concluding that only a change in hot metal and steel production route can have such a large effect. Roadmaps were set up for Low CO2 iron and steelmaking, in fact these are routes to feed the casting of steel slabs for our customers. Main routing options were set up based on ULCOS core technologies for iron and steel making. Analyses were made for the scrap and iron supply chains. The state of the current asset base and it’s expectation for the future was taken into account, as this can influence what is the best choice. Next to this the feasibility will be influenced by and have consequences for the regional energy infrastructure. And these are changing strongly as transitions are being prepared mutually in energy systems for the urban environment, the transportation sector, the electricity generation sector, all industry and agriculture.

Room 2

26 June / 09:00 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Injection of auxiliary reductants (coal, oil, gas, plastics) and oxygen II

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 2:

Formation of char by coal injection and its behaviour outside the blast furnace raceway

A. Babich
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 09:00 )
Title: Formation of char by coal injection and its behaviour outside the blast furnace raceway


Author:
A. Babich

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
C. Plancq , O. Ansseau , D. Sert, H. Ho, J. van der Stel , S. Born, V. Pridhivi , D. Senk, R. Geyer

Abstract:
There is meanwhile a consensus that complete conversion of injected via tuyères coals within the raceway zone is hardly possible, particularly at very high injection rates. Therefore, formation, transportation and possible consumption of coal residues or char outside the raceway, as well its interaction with other material is vital for the efficient blast furnace (BF) operation. In this work done in scope of a common European RFCS project, several coals were used to produce char, to characterise its chemical, physical, petrographic and further properties, and to examine its behaviour and effect on coke and iron burden under different BF simulating conditions. Analytical, laboratory and pilot scale facilities were applied. Coals were used in two different grain size types: pulverised and granular ones. Experimental results were used for the mathematical modelling. Thus, char behaviour in BF shaft was implemented into the MOGADOR model. Effect of char on the cohesive zone thickness and permeability could be simulated. Next, industrial trials were performed to evaluate the extent of char transfer within the BF shaft and of the raceway characteristics at high PCI rates. Several techniques for shaft and raceway measurements were applied for these studies at two blast furnaces. The results of gas and temperature measurements gave new insights regarding the impact of high coal injection rates on the BF inner state and showed that fine dust was actually carried out with the gas, but was condensed in the gas sampling pipe. In addition, several measurement techniques were developed and applied for raceway monitoring. Measurements of temperature distribution in the raceway were done under various blast furnace conditions including changing coal injection rate at an industrial BF.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 2:

Pulverized coal flow variability reduction at CSP

R. Nadur Motta
(CSP, Brazil)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 09:20 )
Title: Pulverized coal flow variability reduction at CSP


Author:
R. Nadur Motta

Company:
CSP, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system of the Companhia Siderúrgica do Pecém (CSP) at the state of Ceará, Brazil, began its construction at 2014 and started operation at June, 2016. The CSP’s PCI have two coal milling plants of 36 t/h of capacity each and two injection stations with three injection vases of 36 m³ each. The injection stations feed the even and odd routes of the injection lances, totalizing a 72 t/h capacity with PCR of until 200 kg/t pig iron. The variability is mainly divided in three kinds: instantaneous coal outflow variability, long term variability and variability between injection lances. All of them have influence over the thermal stability of the high oven and consequently over the standard deviation of silicon and over the pig iron quality delivered to the steel mill. This work shows the actions taken in the process control and in the equipment involved in the PCI process to mitigate these three kinds of variabilities. The obtained results were measured through statistic tools and were verified by the achieved thermal stability of the high oven, besides providing constant PCR of the order of 180 kg/t pig iron, with 200 kg/t pig iron peaks, demonstrating that the PCI stability is a preponderant factor to high rates of coal injection.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 2:

Optimizing steel ladle logistics by predicting and understanding refractory wear

W. Tesselaar
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 09:40 )
Title: Optimizing steel ladle logistics by predicting and understanding refractory wear


Author:
W. Tesselaar

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Steelmaking is a dynamic process, which leads to variations in steel ladle life. Optimal planning and use of steel ladles in service becomes a logistical nightmare when ladle life and capacity are unpredictable, resulting in increased costs. To make ladle life predictable, correlations between refractory wear on one side and process conditions and refractory properties on the other need to be known. Better understanding of these correlations also enables optimisation of process conditions and refractory properties to get higher value in use of ladles, e.g. through higher life or higher capacity. Advanced data processing and modelling techniques have been applied to model the interaction between refractory linings and the steelmaking process. Laser scan data is being used to quantify wear of refractories on a per heat basis. A correction algorithm has been developed to deal with measurement errors in the laser scans, leading to high quality input data. Advanced models have been applied to establish correlations between refractory wear, process conditions and refractory properties. The resulting data has been integrated in plant systems, leading to better planning of ladles in service. Furthermore refractory materials and process conditions will be optimised to achieve higher value in use, based on insights gained from this analysis.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 2:

Effect of coal properties on combustion behavior in pulverized coal injection

K. Ng
(Natural Resources Canada, Canada)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 10:00 )
Title: Effect of coal properties on combustion behavior in pulverized coal injection


Author:
K. Ng

Company:
Natural Resources Canada, Canada

Co-Authors:
L. Jia, L. Giroux, K. NG, T. Todoschuk

Abstract:
Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is a common practice in blast furnace ironmaking to reduce coke consumption. An important consideration in selecting coal for direct injection is its combustion behavior as its residence time in oxygen rich environment in the blast furnace is extremely short. Once in the raceway, injected coal is competing for oxygen with surrounding hot coke to progress combustion. Coal with slow combustion kinetics results in incomplete gasification and leads to significant reduction in its coke replacement capability. The uncombusted residues may also block gas passages and reduce efficiency of blast furnace. When pulverized coal is introduced into the hot blast, the coal particle undergoes extremely rapid heating. This condition is difficult to reproduce by conventional bench-scale analytical equipment. A pulverized coal experimental injection simulation rig is set up at CanmetENERGY-Ottawa to reproduce the rapid heating of coal particle. Using this rig, the combustion behavior of pulverized coal has been examined. Besides measuring the total burnout of injected coal in air blast enriched with different levels of O2, the combustion residues collected were analyzed by a novel TGA technique. This technique enables the quantification of different type of carbonaceous materials in the combustion residues. By applying this technique, it becomes possible to relate the carbonaceous materials transformation to origin coal properties. This valuable information assists in the selection of coal for direct injection and optimizes PCI to further enhance energy efficiency of blast furnace ironmaking.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 2:

Reactive pulverized coal injection

R. Schott
(Küttner GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 10:20 )
Title: Reactive pulverized coal injection


Author:
R. Schott

Company:
Küttner GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Reactive Pulverized Coal Injection Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is a very effective way to improve total fuel cost of the blast furnace. Hence the optimization of PCI technology has still a significant impact on the profitability. In this regard Küttner has developed a new technology called Reactive PCI and Reactive Oxycoal which will be presented and discussed within this contribution. The idea behind Reactive PCI/Oxycoal is quite simple but very effective. A small amount of a reactive gas will be added to the transport gas of pulverized coal conveyed and injected under dense phase conditions. After being injected into the tyuere of the blast furnace the reactive gas causes an acceleration of PC-gasification immediately. A possible increase of PCI-rate associated with a decrease of coke rate are the results of this process which gives the blast furnace operator the boost on the profitability. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are most effective reactive gases but practically coke oven gas, converter off gas and blast furnace gas can be used. The first step to verify this new process was to simulate Reactive PCI/ Reactive Oxycoal with our own CFD-raceway-model. These simulations show an early ignition of injected PC already within the tyuere of the blast furnace using Reactive PCI. Thus an increase of PCI-rate of approx. 10 % due to improvement of PC-gasification is possible. The second step of verification was to perform industrial trials testing Reactive PCI/Oxycoal at one tyuere of BF No.1 at ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe. These trials confirm the early ignition of PC already within the tyuere of the blast furnace using Reactive PCI. Additional evaluations of these trials using a thermovision camera show the thermal footprint of accelerated PC-gasification reactions. The next step will be the installation of Reactive PCI/Oxycoal at all tyueres of a blast furnace.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 2:

Improvement in blast furnace operation with co-injection injection of natural gas and PCI

S. Myasoedov
(NLMK, Russia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 10:40 )
Title: Improvement in blast furnace operation with co-injection injection of natural gas and PCI


Author:
S. Myasoedov

Company:
NLMK, Russia

Co-Authors:
S. Filatov, V. Titov, Y. Gordon, S. Zagainov, L. Gileva

Abstract:
Theoretical analysis shows that high intensity of blast furnace operation and minimum coke consumption could be simultaneously achieved. With substitution of coke and natural gas by PCI two contradicting factors are observed: reduction in gas flow and as a consequence reduction in upper and bottom pressure drop and reduction in voidage of slag forming zone. These determines the extreme relationship between PCI and blast furnace productivity. It is shown that increase in ratio between PCI and natural gas (co-injection injection) reduces coke and total carbon rate and furnace productivity. The highest blast furnace intensity is observed with this ratio in the range of 2-2.5. Results are implemented at blast furnaces of NLMK’ blast furnace shop #1, Russia.

26 June / 11:20 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace refractories and cooling I

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 2:

Remarkable innovations for blast furnace lining improvements, based on unformed refractory materials

F. Ferber
(OXYD-Keramik GmbH & Co.KG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 11:20 )
Title: Remarkable innovations for blast furnace lining improvements, based on unformed refractory materials


Author:
F. Ferber

Company:
OXYD-Keramik GmbH & Co.KG, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Woznitza

Abstract:
Remarkable Innovations for Blast Furnace Lining Improvements, Based on unformed Refractory Materials Content: Since more than 30 years the company Oxyd Keramik works on durable solutions for Blast Furnace lining improvements with unformed refractory materials. A number of sustainable refractory solutions were developed for the BF-linings in the past; like high heat thermal conductivity mixes to improve the BF-bottom and BF-spool cooling system one hand and to reduce significantly the necessary water amount in the new copper cooling plate generation on the other. Dense, self-flowing back pouring mixes between the copper cooling staves and the BF-shell avoid degassing and BF-shell “hot spots”. Self-flowing, explosion resistant sol-gel bonded pumpables, especially developed for BF-hearth “reprofilings” or BF-replenishments with an artificial skull design, like a ceramic cup, are ready for BF-installations and / or intermediate BF-relinings. Further on, Oxyd Keramik has developed a number of unformed refractory mixes and mortar improvements for applications, like torpedo cars, converter vessels and cupola melting furnaces on the liquid pig iron route. The paper will highlight the significant and sustainable innovations in the field of unformed refractory materials to improve or extend the running lining lifetime of the liquid pig iron melting vessels and Shaft Furnaces, like Blast Furnaces. Primary author: Frank Ferber Co-author (s): Tobias Woznitza Presenter (s): Frank Ferber, Tobias Woznitza Track Classification: Blast Furnace Ironmaking

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 2:

Thermal cycling effects in blast furnace copper staves

H. Ghorbani
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 11:40 )
Title: Thermal cycling effects in blast furnace copper staves


Author:
H. Ghorbani

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
M. Al-Dojayli

Abstract:
Copper staves are used in blast furnaces to protect the steel shell and refractory system from high process heat loads. These staves undergo significant thermal cycling loads which may lead to premature failures of staves due to cracks, water leakage, bending abrasion and resultant wear. In this paper, an assessment methodology is presented to estimate the thermal cyclic effect in copper staves including bending, fatigue and thermal ratcheting. This approach incorporates temperature-dependent copper properties including creep and plasticity to more accurately capture inelastic deformations, damage and fatigue in staves under transient and cyclic thermal loading conditions. Failure root cause assessment and improvements to copper stave design can be assessed using the presented methodology.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 2:

Fully armoring of row 1 copper staves at BF 5A of ArcelorMittal Eisenhüttenstadt, Germany

C. Dratner
(KME Germany GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 12:00 )
Title: Fully armoring of row 1 copper staves at BF 5A of ArcelorMittal Eisenhüttenstadt, Germany


Author:
C. Dratner

Company:
KME Germany GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Hunger, T. Freude, F. Böert

Abstract:
After 11 years of operation at AM Eisenhüttenstadt BF 5A the inclined copper staves of row 1 opened a new chapter in blast furnace bosh design. During this campaign the inclined staves protected the bosh shell as well as the tuyeres and reduced their consumption by approximate 50%. The harsh furnace environment and the inclination of the staves with an angle of ca. 16° resulted in a uniform wear of the hot face of the copper staves. To protect the copper stave hot face AM Eisenhüttenstadt and KME evaluated several design alternatives in the last years. The outcome resulted in a second generation copper stave with a fully armoring of the grooves. This armoring is expected to take the lifetime of the copper staves to new dimensions. Keywords: Copper Stave protection / Life time extension / Wear protection / armoring / tuyere protection / inclined bosh stave design

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 2:

Reduction of cooling members failure with open recirculating water system at E BF of Tata Steel Ltd.

B. Seal
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 12:20 )
Title: Reduction of cooling members failure with open recirculating water system at E BF of Tata Steel Ltd.


Author:
B. Seal

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
R. Kumar, S. Joshi, M. Tiwari, M. Patra, D. Kumar

Abstract:
Cooling water system plays a crucial role for improvement of blast furnace campaign life. Blast furnace cooling members are cooled mainly by two ways like open recirculating clarified water system and closed loop soft water cooling system. Although there are several disadvantages of open loop recirculating water system over closed loop soft water system but still open loop cooling water system can be found in many blast furnaces in world. Open loop recirculating water system having problem like deposition, corrosion and accumulation of microbiological organism in cooling members & its accessories along with less leak detection capability of cooling members compared to soft water closed loop system. E BF of Tata Steel Ltd(Working Volume 595 m3) started its 20th campaign in Aug’2017 with refurbishment of all old equipment but cooling system remained same because of some basic infrastructure issue. To strengthen reliability of open loop clarified recirculating water system, E BF adopted certain measures like installation of advanced designed magnetic flow meters in inlet & outlet pipe line of cooling members, proper treatment of cooling water, addition of fresh make up water in cold water sump etc. In previous campaign of E BF, frequency of cooling members failure were high and early detection of failure were quite difficult. By adopting these above said measures, failure of cooling members became very less in running campaign compared to last campaign and early leak detection capability of cooling members failure helped to avoid any major unwanted shutdown. This paper will describe measures taken by E BF for improvement of open recirculating clarified cooling water system performance along with early leak detection capability of furnace cooling members.

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26 June / 12:40 - Room 2:

Smart staves - a continuous and precise monitoring of Bf stave wear

C. de Gruiter
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 12:40 )
Title: Smart staves - a continuous and precise monitoring of Bf stave wear


Author:
C. de Gruiter

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
J. Simoes, Y. Heinen, S. Czarnuch, F. Hansen, R. Lin, N. Maggioli, P. Tockert

Abstract:
On many Blast Furnaces, copper staves have provided excellent protection of the shell in areas subject to elevated heat loads. This has resulted in the Blast Furnace operators achieving high performance in terms of productivity as well as campaigns of more than 15 years. However in recent years, some Blast Furnaces have experienced premature wear of copper staves leading to complex replacements or relines. In operation, the status of the hot face is difficult to observe, but an early detection of wear would be the key to an efficient reline planning. Furthermore, a continuous monitoring can establish a correlation between wear and process parameters. The technologies available today are either limited to a time consuming measurement during relines (i.e. transitory) or a continuous measurement with a questionable precision. To solve this issue, Paul Wurth has developed a new sensor to measure and monitor the stave wear in a precise and continuous way. This sensor is based on a simple and reliable measurement principle making it an affordable solution. In order to avoid significant cabling costs, all data are transmitted via wireless network to Paul Wurth cloud and the individual sensors are powered by batteries. The operators then visualises the wear measurements on a dashboard designed by Paul Wurth. The sensors can be installed on new staves or as a retrofit during a BF stoppage. In August 2018, in collaboration with Dillinger Hütte, twenty sensors have been installed on four rows of stave of HO4. This installation has been successfully executed in less than three shifts. Once in operation, these sensors have sent consistent signals allowing an efficient wear monitoring.

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26 June / 13:00 - Room 2:

Blast furnace leak detection

J. Janzen
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 13:00 )
Title: Blast furnace leak detection


Author:
J. Janzen

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Blast furnace staves cooling water leaks impede the iron making process and can result in substantial downtime in locating the failing components. Depending on the operation of the blast furnace and the process conditions, staves would wear at different rates, which then exposes the cooling water pipes, which results in their failures. The water pipe failures generally start as very small cracks. Therefore the leaks start as seepage or drips and are usually undetected until they expand into significant leaks and get noticed by the damage they create. Finding small leaks by maintenance personnel is very unsafe, difficult and expensive due to significant asset downtime. The difficulty and consequences of missing the detection are significantly increased if the leak location is inaccessible for visual inspection, like inside the stave or behind other equipment. Early detection of very small leaks is extremely valuable because it prevents permanent damage and extends the campaign life of the furnace. Traditional instrumented methods of leak detection using flow meters have the advantage of continuous monitoring but are unreliable and ineffective for this kind of asset because they can only sense leaks in the order of 1L per minute or higher. Hatch uses an alternative water leak detection system by automatically testing the change in static pressure on each circuit. This system and method senses leaks starting from drips per minute. Taking advantage of the staves redundant cooling circuits configuration, intermittent and very short duration test sequences are used safely and accurately to detect mL per minute magnitude leaks. The detection method identifies the leaking circuit and stave level when multiple vertical staves are connected together. The components used are robust and of high quality, requiring only minimum maintenance over a long life span. The system and method are mature and cost effective.

26 June / 14:20 - Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace refractories and cooling II

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 2:

Technological parameters and blast furnace practice to achieve long blast furnace campaign

V. Listopadov
(NLMK, Russia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 14:20 )
Title: Technological parameters and blast furnace practice to achieve long blast furnace campaign


Author:
V. Listopadov

Company:
NLMK, Russia

Co-Authors:
N. Izumskiy, R. McNally, S. Shalimov, Y. Gordon, O. Chaika, G. Matveienko

Abstract:
Modern criteria for estimation of influence of blast furnace operating parameters and blast furnace practice on furnace refractory lining life are established and studied. The concept of optimal blast furnace refractory lining and selection of refractories for various blast furnace zones is developed based on the analysis of numerous completed and planned blast furnace relines. Audits of several blast furnace’ modernization projects and refractory lining conditions of operating blast furnaces allowed development of the methodology to estimate reserves of blast furnace with respect to the reduction in fuel rate and production cost of hot metal. The records of ceramic and carbon lining campaigns are confirmed by comparison of experience of operating blast furnaces in Europe and other countries.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 2:

Stave replacement technology in Pohang 4BF

S. Lee
(POSCO, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 14:40 )
Title: Stave replacement technology in Pohang 4BF


Author:
S. Lee

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Pohang #4 BF was blown in Oct. 2010 and has been in operation for 9 years. As we increased productivity up to 15,719t/d in 2011. staves at the belly part began wearing, which happened 3.5 years later after its blow-in. In 2015, we completed replacing 11 sheets of belly staves, and until 2017, we've finished 4 replacements of staves from Belly to lower part of shaft. 11 Sheets of belly staves were replaced only in 68 hrs. And it took 97 hrs for the 61 sheets of lower shaft staves. Currently staves at middle shaft are also being in the process of wearing, and they are scheduled to be replaced next year. For the newly installed staves, our own design has been applied to prevent both mechanical and thermal wear. We've confirmed that the remaining of newly installed staves was 100%, when we lowered burden to the tuyere level in 2017. In advance of replacing staves, we took off scaffolds on the furnace wall by increasing gas flows in the periphery area of the furnace by adding more cokes. We lowered the burden down to 24.6m from stock line. And we achieved a normal production within five days after stave replacement I want to share technologies of Pohang #4 BF stave replacement.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 2:

Long Life Copper Stave for Blast Furnace Developed by Nippon Steel Engineering

M. Goto
(Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 15:00 )
Title: Long Life Copper Stave for Blast Furnace Developed by Nippon Steel Engineering


Author:
M. Goto

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Nippon Steel Engineering (NSE) has constructed 80 or more Blast Furnaces since 1974. This paper introduces technologies of new type copper stave which NSE performed improvement and development continuously. From around 1990, a lot of Blast furnaces have been using copper staves for cooling. Though, quite a few of them have faced with some troubles. They can be roughly divided into two types: wear of working surface and water leakage from the welded portion on the channels. In terms of water leakage, it can be resolved by NSE’s staves enabling weld-less structure. On the other hand, in these days more and more troubles of premature wear have been reported from all over the world. In the worst case, the lifetime was only 3 years after starting. As the failure of staves results in significant damage to stably operating, the measure against wear is a very important issue. Thus, NSE has put effort into the development of new type copper stave with wear resistant. Since the scab which can be piled up and stuck on the surface often fall off due to operation fluctuation, copper stave should be designed to be prevented from wear even without accretion. Generally, abrasion wear speed between two objects depends on “contact force” and “scratching speed”. Therefore, copper stave is assumed to be protected from wear by decreasing above two parameters. NSE achieves it by applying the special shape of stave inner surface by utilizing the unique manufacturing method of embedding steel pipes in a copper casting. As results of applying them to actual BF, the assurance of more than 15 years lifetime has been confirmed. The furnace profile is maintained for long time by applying above wear resistance copper stave, and the reduction of running cost with stably operating will be realized.

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 2:

Extending blast furnace hearth life: novel Sialon-bonded refractory material.

N. Boumahdi
(Saint-Gobain, France)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 15:20 )
Title: Extending blast furnace hearth life: novel Sialon-bonded refractory material.


Author:
N. Boumahdi

Company:
Saint-Gobain, France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Blast furnace hearth lifetime extension remains one of the biggest challenges within the whole integrated steelmaking system. Savings associated with a long hearth campaign are difficult to estimate but are huge. The eternal hearth goal may appear impossible today but our current path holds promise. Hearth lifetimes over recent decades have increased incrementally from around 5 years to over 20 years. We are now looking for stepwise improvements. Saint-Gobain Ceramic Cup technology has been one of the key factors in hearth lifetime extension especially following adoption of sialon bonded corundum in 1993. There is already very clear evidence that the first two sialon bonded corundum qualities have lasted 8 to 10 years before the self-protecting layer on carbon needs stabilising. Saint-Gobain announces the launch of a new quality for Ceramic Cup. This last generation of Alumina Sialon Bonded material was especially developed to withstand the severe and extreme conditions existing inside the hearth. This new enhanced quality exhibits outstanding properties, surpassing the good and proven performances of former products. Major optimizations were necessary to reach this result from recipe to reactive sintering process, making this material perfectly designed to protect the hearth carbon lining. The corrosion resistance to iron and slag has been significantly improved to reduce kinetic and chemical erosion of the refractory including the critical interface iron - slag - refractory. The β-Sialon microstructure has been reinforced for an excellent compromise between higher mechanical strength, excellent abrasion and thermal shock resistance. In addition, the excellent refractoriness of Al2O3 Sialon bonded materials is maintained with resistance to CO environment and high thermo-mechanical stability. Finally, the resistance to chemical attacks and oxidation has been improved. In this paper, this new material will be benchmarked against other materials, tested or currently used in the blast furnace to highlight the main technical advantages.

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26 June / 15:40 - Room 2:

Advancements in blast furnace cooling technology: redefining stave life

D. Rudge
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 2 ( 15:40 )
Title: Advancements in blast furnace cooling technology: redefining stave life


Author:
D. Rudge

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
J. Bolen, D. Rudge

Abstract:
Blast furnace campaign life is often limited by the abrasive wear and subsequent failure of traditional copper stave coolers. Hatch blast furnace cooling services and technologies allow operators to extract more life out of their current traditional staves until eventually upgrading to Hatch’s revolutionary wear-resistant staves, which redefine blast furnace stave life. Hatch wear-resistant staves provide 66 times more protection than copper against abrasive wear through the integration of a metallurgically bonded abrasion-resistant hard surface. Unlike castables and refractory bricks, which often crack and overheat, Hatch’s hard surface is metallurgically bonded to the copper for optimal cooling. This maintains low temperature and high-strength of the hard surface, while promoting the formation and retention of protective accretions. For superior internal cooling and leak protection, Hatch staves use cast-in water pipes to eliminate all leak-prone copper-to-steel welds and offer the freedom to optimally design the internal water cooling, unlike common drilled-and-plugged varieties. Hatch’s new stave technology aims to redefine blast furnace life, as staves would no longer determine reline frequency. Recent advancements in Hatch’s blast furnace cooling services and technologies are presented herein, including: methods for wear diagnosis and immediate repair of currently owned traditional staves, and a robust stave technology that redefines blast furnace stave life.

Room 12

26 June / 09:00 - Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking I

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 12:

A smart measuring system for intelligent data acquisition in steel plants

A. Stuhlsatz
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 12 ( 09:00 )
Title: A smart measuring system for intelligent data acquisition in steel plants


Author:
A. Stuhlsatz

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Sensing and acquiring reliable physical values are the fundamentals, not only for a predictive maintenance or quality assessment, but especially for big data analysis and sophisticated Industry 4.0 applications. In steel plants, physical values are distributed over the complete process chain of steel making while the environmental conditions are harsh with respect to high temperature, aggressive fluids, water, shock and dust. These conditions render the use of electronic devices focusing a consumer market impossible. The developed self-contained smart measuring system presented in this paper survives in harsh environments and is composed of small-sized modules providing miscellaneous functionalities. The high degree of modularity in hard- and software facilitates a cost-effective adaptation to many applications, like vibration monitoring, temperature logging or torque measurement. Different onboard measurement components are available yet, namely high sensitive bridge amplifiers for strain measurements, accelerometers, gyroscopes, orientation-, temperature- and humidity sensors as well as an unique system identification. A communication module enables wireless transmission of the acquired data via Bluetooth or NFC online. Moreover, different power supply features are supported by the power module: Ultra-low power modes for long-life battery use, recharging of lithium cells, and an inductive power supply for wireless power transfer for applications with moving or rotating components. The heart of the system is a powerful ARM based microcontroller which enables an intelligent analysis of the data in situ. This is especially important where data size and complexity is the relevant factor for example in area-wide sensor networks.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 12:

Closing the loop of digitalization: From data generation to optimization of maintenance and operations in the metals industry

M. Bergmann
(Bilfinger Digital Next GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 12 ( 09:20 )
Title: Closing the loop of digitalization: From data generation to optimization of maintenance and operations in the metals industry


Author:
M. Bergmann

Company:
Bilfinger Digital Next GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Nowadays, one of the main challenges in industrial operations is given by the urge of driving efficiency in spite of ageing plants and loss of know-how in the workforce. Digitalization is a key, but a holistic approach is required. Bilfinger, being one of the market leaders in industrial services for the process and metals industry, has developed and set-up the BCAP System (“Bilfinger Connected Asset Performance”). Many plant information still reside in paper archives therefore can be hardly retrieved. BCAP utilizes digitization of all such legacy data, classifying them using neural networks and Artificial Intelligence, enabling the import to asset management systems according to ISO 15926. BCAP features digitization of knowledge as well, using cognitive services such as voice-to-text-transcription to extract content from videos created by its field service staff, thus making knowledge searchable and accessible throughout the organization. BCAP interconnects information coming from transactional data like maintenance actions, operators’ reports or engineering data (OBI), with streaming data from control systems or self-sufficient sensors (IIoT). Bilfinger has developed a hybrid architecture to interconnect data from OBI, PLCs and IIoT in terms of time and location: transactional data is stored in a data warehouse, while streaming data flows into a data lake. Then, the so-called “MMO portal” grants access to descriptive, predictive and prescriptive analytics. Descriptive analytics helps to discover potentials visually by combining hitherto isolated data in dashboards. With predictive and prescriptive approaches, Bilfinger adds proactive intelligence to generate insights automatically. BCAP combines existing asset services from Bilfinger with new digital services. Hence, Bilfinger can directly implement and monitor measures based on data-driven discoveries. With BCAP, Bilfinger provides a holistic approach to improve plant performance, offering an end-to-end solution with its unique combination of physical and digital services to finally close the loop of digitalization.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 12:

Challenges in digitalization beyond technical aspects

D. Bettinger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 12 ( 09:40 )
Title: Challenges in digitalization beyond technical aspects


Author:
D. Bettinger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
M. Ringhofer, K. Herzog, E. Tatschl-Unterberger, W. Oberaigner, P. Pennerstorfer, J. Plaul, K. Ankermann

Abstract:
A vast amount of companies in the steel industry started digitalization initiatives in the past years. First implementations of those initiatives had been already commissioned successfully. During the implementation process of such systems it was identified that technology is essential as enabler, however, to make full use of the implemented systems the cultural aspects in a company need to be considered in an equal manner. Especially when software systems are being installed, they also trigger changes in the ways of working in order to untap the full potential of the installed systems. Software systems supporting business processes are already around for decades and the critical success factors had been researched already quite well thus such implementation challenges are not a novelty to the current digitalization initiatives. Nevertheless, the learning from those past installations is not always considered to the extent required. This paper shows in a few case studies the critical success factors in selected digitalization projects. One of the digitalization projects shows how the acceptance of the digital twin in a continuous casting machine increased over the years. First installations of digital twins were commissioned decades ago and had basic functionalities to offer. Over the past years the functionalities of the digital twin developed further providing now plant operators, plant designers and start-up engineers with a package to model, simulate, optimize and control the machine. Another example describes that a Through-Process Optimization system brought transparency along the whole value chain allowing to optimize and control a plant in a holistic manner, making strong cross departmental alignment and top management attention to critical success factors. A further case study shows that the available process know-how became a critical success factor when installing and optimizing a production management systems to be accepted and fully used by the operators.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 12:

Machine learning applications for steel production process optimization

G. Bavestrelli
(Tenova S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Machine learning applications for steel production process optimization


Author:
G. Bavestrelli

Company:
Tenova S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In the past years, Tenova has launched a number of pilot projects to identify opportunities for applications of artificial intelligence techniques to find new ways of bringing value to its customers. This paper discusses Tenova’s experience in applying machine learning algorithms to optimize production processes by predicting quantities that are not easily or accurately computed using traditional deterministic techniques. One project was carried out using the data from a BOF furnace in a customer plant. The goal was to predict the final steel temperature based on the composition and temperature of the input material (hot metal, scrap, additions) in the BOF vessel, in order to make optimal use of the charged material and improve the efficiency of the downstream steel process. Another project aimed at controlling cassette penetration and strip tension in a tension leveler machine for an Aluminum annealing and chemical treatment line, to improve product quality and system availability as well as reduce roll wear. Yet another project for a steel making plant was to classify scrap material automatically from incoming truck images and images of the load on the ground, according to specifications. The goal was to speed up the classification process and improve its accuracy. For these and other projects different machine learning algorithms were used, from convolutional neural networks to support vector regression and random forest regression. This paper discusses the results obtained as well as the insight that came from the experience. The conclusion is that there is definitely scope for applying machine learning models in steel plants with benefits limited only by the quality of the ideas and the availability of data.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 12:

Industry 4.0 applications in continuous casting

S. Feldhaus
(SMS Concast AG, Switzerland)

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Title: Industry 4.0 applications in continuous casting


Author:
S. Feldhaus

Company:
SMS Concast AG, Switzerland

Co-Authors:
S. Feldhaus, B. Kündig, G. Michelon, P. Egge

Abstract:
In the recent years the digitalization (so called “Industry 4.0 applications”) gained growing interest in the world of continuous casting aiming at improved productivity, plant safety and product quality as well as the integration of continuous casting machines into a wider process chain. Three levels of the digitalization can be distinguished: data acquisition, data analysis and digital integration/business models. This article concentrates on the first two levels for digitalization and illustrates solutions and products developed by SMS Concast in order to cope with these targets, especially to gain advanced knowledge about the casting process and to improve the control of the casting process. A tundish thermo-mapping system improves the understanding about the thermal condition of the tundish and allows to safely extend the sequence lengths. The CONGAUGE mold level sensors enables the combined measurement of the powder thickness and the steel level in the mold with one sensor only; hence allowing a better control of the lubrication condition in the mold. Furthermore, a closed control loop for the feeding of the mold power can be easily realized in combination with any automatic mold powder feeder. The optical recognition of the cross section of the cast product monitors fully digitalized the dimensional tolerances of the cast product. The new oscillation drive CONDRIVE brings not only the pure electrical online adjustment of the stroke and frequency but offers also advance possibilities for the tracking of the oscillation conditions. The CONYARD billet tracking system enables the seamless tracking of billets between the caster and the rolling mill. These products are especially designed for installation on existing casters. and will be presented in detail based on results from plant installations.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 12:

High-temperature equipment tracking at voestalpine and Dillinger

A. Rohrhofer
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: High-temperature equipment tracking at voestalpine and Dillinger


Author:
A. Rohrhofer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
S. Thazhath Johnce

Abstract:
The detection of moving vessels and equipment like ladles, slagpots, torpedos, etc. is a common requirement in the steel industry. The harsh environment, dust, contamination etc. within a steelplant are just some reasons which are complicating this task. Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH has a new approach to overcome these problems and track equipment reliably. Basis is the three-dimensional measurement of the vessel surface. The evaluation of characteristics and unique features leads to the identification of the equipment. This method is described in detail using the experience gained at a pilot installation. Achieved results conclude the paper.

26 June / 11:20 - Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking III

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 12:

Industry 4.0 - the evolution of intelligent EAF steelmaking

D. Zuliani
(Tenova Goodfellow Inc., Canada)

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Title: Industry 4.0 - the evolution of intelligent EAF steelmaking


Author:
D. Zuliani

Company:
Tenova Goodfellow Inc., Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The recent development of smart technology and high-speed computer analysis is rapidly reshaping the traditional “seat-of-the-pants” EAF process into one that is closely controlled, more predictable and optimized in real-time. This paper provides concrete steel plant examples of the deployment of an array of innovative technologies that have enabled dynamic process optimization and dramatically reduced total energy consumption, increased yield and decreased power-on-time. Also discussed are innovative sensors coupled with computerized data analysis that is providing breakthrough solutions to chronic problems such as water leak detection and dynamic process control of the each stage of the melting and refining process.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 12:

Advanced service team: a new strategic partner on total asset management

A. Viviani
(Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy)

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Close26 June, Room 12 ( 11:40 )
Title: Advanced service team: a new strategic partner on total asset management


Author:
A. Viviani

Company:
Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
E. Brusini

Abstract:
In the modern challenging scenario, every company has the target of cost reduction, while maintaining high availability and reliability of the plant. The new Advanced Service Team inside Danieli Service making leverage on equipment KNOW-HOW has the purpose to guarantee the reliability and the capability of the installed machines by an integrate and taylor made solution. The Advanced Service Team is widely recognized for the creative approach and ability to study customized solutions suitable to the needs and means of each customer. Thanks to a dedicated and specialized team that has been working intensively and passionately on such projects for more than 15 years and thanks to our worldwide localized service shop, the Advanced Service Team is able to develop and perform tailored programs for high-quality equipment inspection , overhaul and upgrade. The cross-collaboration between Danieli Service departments also leads to a combination of advanced solutions. In particular, the implementation of condition monitoring system is a valuable package of services for monitoring the trend of equipment vibration levels under operation and analyzing them on the basis of frequency spectra, with the support of specialized technicians, giving a full view of the critical parameters affecting the machinery endurance and supporting strategic decisions to extend equipment life and reduce industrial risk. As last step versus customer centricity, we have recently rolled out in the market DAN-EASY package. It is a new and essential package developed by Danieli Service with the intent of supporting our customer in optimizing the maintenance performances by a strong methodological approach in accordance to EFNS, IAM, UNIEN15628 and ISO55000. The architecture of DAN EASY has been designed and developed to guarantee a perfect integration with various ERP systems such as Oracle, SAP, Microsoft, IBM etc. The target is to boost the Maintenance Best Practice in metal sector.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 12:

m.connect - enabling digital services

G. Hohenbichler
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: m.connect - enabling digital services


Author:
G. Hohenbichler

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
D. Erich, M. Sattler, A. Altendorfer, M. Jerez

Abstract:
Primetals Technologies came up with a product that connects to a steel plant, collects the information available and then analyzes and structures it, turning fuzzy data into an asset. From the collection of sensor data in harsh environments or from mobile equipment to displaying the information on mobile devices, from the shop floor to the „manager‘s pocket”: m.connect is showing a real example how a steel producer benefits from state of the art communication technology. Patches of information like gas pressure or temperature measurements, when sewed together, become a big picture which will help you see what could be improved, turning decision making a more proactive task. The talk will cover collection and processing of Tyasa Quantum EAF plant. We will give a real life examples on how collected data is analyzed by a business intelligence tool. Examples range from management dashboards covering basic KPIs like capacity and yield to detailed evaluation of factors influencing energy consumption and product quality. Among others we can compare different KPI’s for fast root cause analysis, identify anomalies by filtering and drilling down/up and visualize causal relationships between KPIs.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 12:

Technologies 4.0 applied to beam blank continuous casting machines

G. Maccani
(BMGroupUSA Corp., United States)

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Title: Technologies 4.0 applied to beam blank continuous casting machines


Author:
G. Maccani

Company:
BMGroupUSA Corp., United States

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Carlo Travaglini1, Gianluca Maccani2, Michele Vezzola2, 1Director Technology, Gerdau AmeriSteel 2CEO “Polytec Robotics” BMGroupUSA CORP. 3 Key Account Manager“Polytec Robotics” brand of BM S.p.A – Borgo Chiese – Trento, Italy How technologies 4.0 can replace human operator from red zone? How smart robots can increase safety and production's efficiency? The combination of technologies such as machine vision, predictive big data analytics, artificial intelligence and robotics developed and supplied by Polytec Robotics, actually applied to the beam blank continuous casting machine of Petersburg, VA.

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26 June / 12:40 - Room 12:

The learning steel plant

H. Jentsch
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 12 ( 12:40 )
Title: The learning steel plant


Author:
H. Jentsch

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The Learning Steel Plant Today industry automation can only cope with scenarios foreseen in the static and central in the control systems implemented operations. Furthermore operational processes are typically experience based and have difficulties assessing all relevant data in real time. SMS group presents a viable and proven approach to provide “The Learning Steel Plant”, which can cope with unforeseen situations. This concept can be implemented in a single use case with a single application and it can be scaled to connect different steps in the steel making value chain. Three digital transformation layers can describe the conceptual framework of “The Learning Steel Plant”. Within the first layer information from the installed equipment or the smart device in the production process is collected or more precisely generated. The wealth of information will be enriched and lifted to a consistent level before it is passed on to the second transformation layer. The second layer ensures data governance by means of a consistent model for all data passed to this layer. The transformation of “just data” to trusted information including its context is achieved. As SMS group has technological knowledge across all relevant process steps, this is done in a consistent manner regardless of former data or information silos. The third transformation layer is providing real time decision support, autonomous decision making and is the new contact point for SMS group and its customers. The third layer will empower the use cases with e.g. prediction, machine learning or automatic root cause analysis. This model already offers digital provisioning of these use cases through the mySMS-platform. For each use case the capabilities of the existing automation and operational processes are extended with "The Learning Steel Plant"-Approach.

26 June / 14:00 - Industry 4.0 in Steelmaking II

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 12:

Assessing the Bottleneck of a Steel Plant by means of Plant Simulation

S. Deng
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Close26 June, Room 12 ( 14:00 )
Title: Assessing the Bottleneck of a Steel Plant by means of Plant Simulation


Author:
S. Deng

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
With the aim of improving production efficiency and reducing production costs, this paper (i) reports on a study of the continuous-casting steelmaking section of a steel plant, (ii) establishes a dynamic logistical simulation model of the continuous-casting steelmaking section and (iii) realizes model process control, parameter setting and simulation data statistics by using the Simtalk language and methods. The model accuracy is validated by comparison with the capacity and equipment utilization rate given in field statistics. The results show that increasing the converter duplex production proportion from 33% to 100% (i) increases the process continuity, (ii) shortens the average conveying waiting time of the continuous-casting converter machines by 5–14min and (iii) lowers the corresponding tapping temperature by 4.9–13.7°C under a certain capacity. This leads to (i) faster process production, (ii) an increase in converter productivity from 50% to 60–70%, (iii) shorter furnace idling times and (iv) lower heat dissipation, thereby reducing the production costs further.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 12:

Optimization of maintenance costs through modular concepts

D. Strömme
(Bilfinger SE, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 12 ( 14:20 )
Title: Optimization of maintenance costs through modular concepts


Author:
D. Strömme

Company:
Bilfinger SE, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Piccoli, Y. Olsen

Abstract:
Nowadays, one of the main focus of steel producers is on improved bottom line through increased efficiency in production. Profitability is affected by high production and HSE performance to optimum cost. In-house maintenance organisation makes maintenance a fixed cost that many operators are looking to offload. Bilfinger has gained experience with workshops and maintenance services throughout decades of working closely with its customers in several industries (steel, aluminium, chemical, pharma, oil&gas). Such cooperation and integrated work, brought to the development of BMC, Bilfinger Maintenance Concept. BMC is based on the experience and knowledge acquired from more than 400 maintenance analyses and it is currently implemented in over 100 maintenance contracts. BMC is a holistic, modular and standardized concept tailored to the individual demands of the customer and creates tangible benefits by optimizing maintenance costs, increasing reliability of plants, improving safety performance and securing high quality standards and positive effects on production volume. BMC use a comprehensive approach by sharing experiences from local maintenance, supported by Bilfinger network of experts and Bilfinger Best Practice documented in 16 modules, each of them focused on a specific area of intervention. The concept is built upon a fact-based maintenance analysis to define current situation, economical potentials and recommended improvements. BMC ensures the proper integration between the customer, who takes care of the production process and Bilfinger, who takes responsibility for planning and execution of all maintenance by taking over employment of maintenance personnel (whenever requested by customers). An optimized organisation is established, with clear roles, responsibilities and interfaces, through standardized work processes for planning and execution. Improvement processes are well established and dedicated tools needed to meet targets on cost and production are implemented as well. High focus on safety is a fundament in all the activity.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 12:

Next level maintenance services in the age of Industry 4.0

K. Frauenhuber
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 12 ( 14:40 )
Title: Next level maintenance services in the age of Industry 4.0


Author:
K. Frauenhuber

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
L. Reiter, F. Hollensteiner, M. Weinzinger, K. Mertens , K. Purkarthofer

Abstract:
Primetals Technologies is a preferred partner for the outsourcing of maintenance work in steelmaking since several decades and on three continents. Demands upon maintenance work are ever increasing, but costs shall be decreasing. This can only be realized by meticulous auditing, quality control, structuring and optimizing work flows, planning and scheduling, streamlining routines and by maximizing feedback and learning curves. Primetals Technologies has been introducing latest methodologies and Technologies of Industry 4.0 in form of a computerized maintenance management system, fully digitalized and operational in the first two phases. This paper will present current technologies available for digitalization of outsourced maintenance with a particular focus on casting operations. The challenges and considerations in development and implementation of computerized maintenance management and its use also for workshop audits, as well as benefit measurement will be presented.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 12:

Using interpretable machine learning to predict the electrical energy consumption of an electric arc furnace

L. Carlsson
(KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden)

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Close26 June, Room 12 ( 15:00 )
Title: Using interpretable machine learning to predict the electrical energy consumption of an electric arc furnace


Author:
L. Carlsson

Company:
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

Co-Authors:
P. Jönsson, P. Samuelsson

Abstract:
The goal of this study is to forecast the electrical energy consumption of an Electric Arc Furnace using historical data from a steel mini-mill producing clean steel. Machine learning models are created, specializing on three of the main types of steel grades produced in the steel plant. The goal is to predict the electrical energy consumption for the next heat. State of the art machine learning interpretability algorithms, such as permutation importance, are used to analyze the models’ predictions from the perspective of steel process metallurgy. The results from the interpretability algorithms are then compared to previous research results on the dynamics of the Electric Arc Furnace energy consumption to achieve a model-to-application-domain transparency.

Room 13

26 June / 09:00 - Rolling: Sensors and control, online measurement technologies I

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 13:

Inline measurement using Camera Cluster Technology

J. Blonski
(IMS Messsysteme GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Inline measurement using Camera Cluster Technology


Author:
J. Blonski

Company:
IMS Messsysteme GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
For optical measuring systems IMS Messsysteme GmbH uses unique, patented Camera Cluster Systems (CCS). They consist of a number of high-speed, intelligent and yet inexpensive cameras that are arranged closely next to each other in groups – the clusters. The distance between two cameras is 20mm, each cluster consists of 16 cameras, 100 cameras are used for two-meter inspection. By lining up multiple cluster modules next to each other, it is possible to measure foil, strip and plate of any width as well as long products. The innovative technology makes the clusters highly interesting for a number of measurement tasks in the steel, aluminium and nonferrous metal industries for cold and hot applications. IMS uses CCS for high accurate width measurement in rolling mills and processing lines. With a software add-on, the system can be extended by an edge crack and/or hole detector. Information on defects is extremely important not only for quality assurance, but also to avoid broken strip. Due to the high resolution and steep angle of sight, the technology can also be used economically for the first time for inline measurement of slit strip width in slitting lines. Especially for tinplate and aluminium packaging material camera cluster systems are applicable for detection of pinholes in the size of several micrometer. Wherever the flatness, levelness, contour is necessary to be measured, the camera cluster technology in combination with laser line projection (laser triangulation principle) is used. In cut-to-length lines this technology is applicable for sheet and plate dimension measurement such length, width, out of squareness, diagonals and camber. IMS also uses the innovative technology for surface inspection as well. For long products camera cluster are used for straightness measurement.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 13:

Dynamic flatness control by interstand looper shape meter for hot strip mill in TATA Steel Kalinganagar

T. Usugi
(Primetals Technologies Japan Ltd., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 13 ( 09:20 )
Title: Dynamic flatness control by interstand looper shape meter for hot strip mill in TATA Steel Kalinganagar


Author:
T. Usugi

Company:
Primetals Technologies Japan Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Hot strip mill line for TATA steel Kalinganagar (TSK ) is the latest and most-leading edge hot strip mill in India. Primetals Technologies have developed a number of advanced technologies in hot strip rolling field and provided them for TSK hot strip mill so that solutions to the customer demands could be offered. Pair cross mill provides the highest strip crown/flatness control combined with Mill stabilizing device to improves capability of high reduction. Looper shape meter was provided in between last three finishing stands and successfully detected flatness distribution of strip under loading tension. Primetals’ Looper shape meter is the only interstand shape meter that is working in commercial production of hot strip mill line due to its robust design. For TSK plant, dynamic strip flatness control was firstly provided by using feedback data from Looper shape meter, though it was impossible to control strip shape dynamically by using a conventional optical shape meter after loading strip tension between a finishing mill and a down coiler. The dynamic flatness control was properly operated and daily improving strip flatness. This paper introduces the unique technologies of Primetals Technologies applied in the hot strip mill for TSK plant, especially focusing on Lopper shape meter.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 13:

Sensors and measurements towards industry 4.0 in CRM Group

L. Gilon
(CRM Group, Belgium)

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Close26 June, Room 13 ( 09:40 )
Title: Sensors and measurements towards industry 4.0 in CRM Group


Author:
L. Gilon

Company:
CRM Group, Belgium

Co-Authors:
G. Moreas

Abstract:
The industry 4.0. domain is very large, so Industrial process control and measurements department of CRM Group has started with a focus on technology bricks which are the basis of I4.0. First focus concerns digital integration and standardisation of data exchange protocols In that aim, several protocols are currently under development by specialists, the currently most used is OPC UA for connection between computers and PLC: both are using basic common language and start conversations. Second focus concerns miniaturisation of our systems implying integration of micro-PC like Raspberry or Arduino to acquire and process the data and to control sensor status and communication. Big control unit, bigger than human height, can so be replaced by a control unit of hand size. Sensor fusion is also implemented more and more. Indeed, for example, the combination of infrared and visible images will give more information than each one alone. Equipping industrial lines with several miniaturised sensors requires developing wireless communications adapted to the large space and metallic environment of industrial plants. This can be combined with energy harvesting to power these small sensors thanks to vibrations, temperature of engines, rolls movements, … Finally, taking into account the more and more increased amount of data to be processed as well as their frequency, it is essential to use Data learning or Machine learning to process the whole collected data and to determine the best running mode. All these points will be illustrated by an industrial example.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 13:

New online inspections system for internal defects in thin steel strip

J. Scharzmann
(IMS Messsysteme GmbH, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 13 ( 10:00 )
Title: New online inspections system for internal defects in thin steel strip


Author:
J. Scharzmann

Company:
IMS Messsysteme GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Schwarzmann, S. Fritsch, H. Krauthäuser

Abstract:
Steel contains different types of non-metallic inclusions (NMI). The size of this inclusions ranges from microscopic to visible by eye. Certain NMI lead to problems in the further processing, for example during deep drawing. Thus, a non-destructive and contactless online measuring system, which could detect these NMI is needed to guarantee the required product quality. The magnetic flux leakage measurement (MFL) is a technology, that is used online or in the laboratory e.g. as magnetic powder testing. IMS developed a new internal defect detection system that also uses the MFL principle. Sensitive GMR sensors allow an increase of lift off compared to conventional hall sensors. The GMR sensors, a magnetization device and a digitalization device are combined in one compact module which acts as a MFL line scan camera. A variable number of these modules can be combined to ensure a continuous testing over the whole strip width. The MFL cameras are connected via standard Gig-E interface to an image processing computer. The signal processing software separates the defect signals from the material background noise and creates a defect map of the strip. Furthermore, the defect images of the MFL cameras are rated by a defect classification system. The knowledge of the different defect types helps the operator to grade the quality of the material. This paper presents the concept of the new measuring system and shows first results.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 13:

Sectional strip tension meter - Shapemeter roll

L. Huláková
(UVB TECHNIK s.r.o., Czech Republic)

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Close26 June, Room 13 ( 10:20 )
Title: Sectional strip tension meter - Shapemeter roll


Author:
L. Huláková

Company:
UVB TECHNIK s.r.o., Czech Republic

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Sectional strip tension meter - Shapemeter roll Sectional strip tension meter is designed for evaluating of metal strip flatness in cold rolling mills. The principle of the flatness evaluation is based on measuring of pressure forces of a metal strip in the individual zones of the measuring roll. A visual unit displays measured tensions across the strip in real time on monitor in the form of a column and flat graphical mapping. Depending on the graph shape on the monitor, the operator can make the adjustment of the rolling mill. Or the equipment can be integrated into the regulating loop AFC (Automatic Flatness Control).

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 13:

A new control scheme of cold rolled thickness using material property of hot coils obtained by sensor fusion approach

K. Woo
(Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea)

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Close26 June, Room 13 ( 10:40 )
Title: A new control scheme of cold rolled thickness using material property of hot coils obtained by sensor fusion approach


Author:
K. Woo

Company:
Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea

Co-Authors:
K. Woo, S. Hur, H. Lee, D. Lee

Abstract:
Tandem cold mill process is a process that finally determines thickness quality of cold coils. With development of ultra-high strength steel, hot coils containing deviation of material property has appeared. Through the Tandem cold mill process, the deviation is transformed into thickness fluctuation of cold coil, which means deterioration. Therefore, a controller considering material property deviation should be developed to overcome the deterioration. In this paper, to improve this problem, we developed estimation method for the material property of hot coils through sensor fusion approach. And we developed the new thickness controller using the estimated information, and the controller was verified by simulation.

26 June / 11:20 - Rolling: Sensors and control, online measurement technologies II

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 13:

Customized solutions for dimension control and surface analysis of hot rolled products ready for Industry 4.0

P. Schalk
(TBK Automatisierung GmbH, Austria)

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Close26 June, Room 13 ( 11:20 )
Title: Customized solutions for dimension control and surface analysis of hot rolled products ready for Industry 4.0


Author:
P. Schalk

Company:
TBK Automatisierung GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In a competitive market, low operation costs and prime quality products are even more important. Therefore devices and tools are to measure the finished or intermediate products in the mill line and to get the feedback about the size and quality of the product immediately. This laser gauge devices are available to measure the complete shape respectively image of the product as well as to detect surface defects. The harsh conditions in rolling mills pose a huge challenge to measuring technology. Measurement systems made by TBK (SMS group) have matured through years of experience and stand out due to high thermal and mechanical stability. Thanks to the laser light section technology and the measurement frequency, this device allows a high consistency of the measured data and also for the quality of the derived parameters. Further, closed-loop controls have been developed in cooperation with SMS group for automatic roll setting to the required adjustment values based on the measurement results. TBK adapts its measurement technology to the customer’s requirements and prepares tailor-made solutions, if so desired. The presentation will focus on tailor-made solutions for dimension control and surface analysis of rolled products for all tube and pipe, wire rod and bar as well as section mills included in the portfolio of SMS group. The core competence to be highlighted is the continuous monitoring of ongoing production processes with focus on the use of tried and tested laser technology. Contactless precision measurements visualize production processes and permit statistical process controls to be made in a number of variants.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 13:

Installation of flaw detector

T. Murayama
(Godo Steel, Ltd., Japan)

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Close26 June, Room 13 ( 11:40 )
Title: Installation of flaw detector


Author:
T. Murayama

Company:
Godo Steel, Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Godo Steel, Ltd. Funabashi Works produces reinforced bar about 300,000 tons per year. The flaw of our reinforced bar includes scabs. Scabs can cause serious complaints in some cases. In April 2016, Funabashi Works installed a hot line sensor camera type flaw detector as a measure to prevent scabs. After the installation, accuracy check was carried out, and it was adjusted to the operation level. The number of complaints due to scabs was reduced from 5 to 1 per year after installing the flaw detector. This paper describes the outline and results of flaw detector.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 13:

Online tensile-structure properties evaluation by means of stress-strain analysis of skin pass process data

A. Ferraiuolo
(Marcegaglia Ravenna SpA, italy)

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Close26 June, Room 13 ( 12:00 )
Title: Online tensile-structure properties evaluation by means of stress-strain analysis of skin pass process data


Author:
A. Ferraiuolo

Company:
Marcegaglia Ravenna SpA, italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
This paper presents the results of the development of an innovative methodology using a mathematical model to skin pass mill process data in order to measure online the tensile-structure properties of flat steel products. The proposed approach could represent a new solution to define the annealing process conditions (CAL, HDG, BA) to achieve the target microstructure, improved mechanical properties as well as enhanced forming-ability properties of high strength steels. The online measurement of flow stress allowed to evaluate important microstructural features such as the ferrite grain size in the final product and the austenite fraction formed at the soaking temperature. Laboratory tensile tests and metallographic investigations confirmed a good agreement with the online structure-properties characteristics calculated with the mathematical model. The proposed method is promising to produce products with exceptional uniform tensile properties and at the same way guarantee the best annealing process efficiency and low global energy consumption. Key words: Online tensile properties, epitaxial ferrite, online austenite fraction measure, online grain size measure, skin pass.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 13:

Optical measurement of flatness changes during laminar cooling in SSAB's hot strip mill

P. Kierkegaard
(Shapeline AB, Sweden)

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Close26 June, Room 13 ( 12:20 )
Title: Optical measurement of flatness changes during laminar cooling in SSAB's hot strip mill


Author:
P. Kierkegaard

Company:
Shapeline AB, Sweden

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Laminar cooling is a critical process that, unless perfectly regulated, can have a detrimental effect on the finished product in terms of flatness and shape while still attain the desired microstructure and metallurgical properties. Historically, a wide variety of flatness measurement technologies has been developed and introduced on the market, with varying level of success. In particular hot strip mill applications has proven to be extraordinarily challenging, and often results in inaccurate and unreliable readings. High strip speed combined with an incredibly harsh and hostile environment featuring the compounding effect of heat shimmer, steam and water, scale and vibrations complicates the measurement process tremendously. In recent years, together with SSAB in Borlänge and Vinnova (Sweden’s innovation agency), Shapeline developed a flatness gauge system to be installed and located immediately after the finishing stand in the hot strip mill where it’s subjected to the most challenging of conditions. Over the past year this system has proven to be reliable with a high degree of availability and performance while also being easy to service, maintain and calibrate without stopping the mill. After this successful project, the stakeholders agreed to move to the next phase which included adding a second flatness gauge, based on the same resilient design as the existing, to be located immediately after the laminar cooling. The objective with this project was to record and compare the flatness-profiles, before and after the laminar cooling process, and use this information to regulate the cooling process to minimize the negative impact on strip flatness. This paper explains the measurement principle and how the systems operate. It will also provide some insight into the specific project after having been in operation for almost one year.

26 June / 14:00 - Industry 4.0 - in forming technology

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 13:

The metals enterprise service bus

S. Martens
(PSI Metals GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: The metals enterprise service bus


Author:
S. Martens

Company:
PSI Metals GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
L. Van Nerom

Abstract:
International automation standards such as ANSI/ISA-95 organize metals production in a layered hierarchical way: from process control (L1), process automation (L2), manufacturing execution(L3) up to business management (L4). This automation pyramid has been broadly accepted and implemented by most metals producers worldwide. These implementations are driven by software applications that focus on one or part of these automation layers and interface with another layer through standard or customized data interfaces. As long as business processes remain in one layer these applications work perfectly and efficiently. This approach is heavily questioned in the past years by the rising demand for cross layer business processes and functionalities, especially since technologies like Big Data Analytics, Machine Learning, IoT, Sensors Everywhere etc., have become mature enough to be used in an industrial environment. Often these cross layer business processes meet artificial layer borders as obstacles. These obstacles are creating problems like lack of needed data due to layering abstraction, inflexibility to adapt changes between layers fast enough, performance issues caused by unneeded transformations crossing several layers and so on. In the I4.0 world, software hierarchies or automation layers become vague or can even be abandoned. Therefore the next evolutionary step towards the internet of things is needed. Booking a flight and reserving your seat is a perfect example of this cross layered functionality world. During this booking process many services are being used, but we expect them to be part of a seamless business process where all involved layers remain invisible. The same cross layer expectations are required for the next generation of production management solutions for the metals industry. This paper describes the challenges of metals production management solutions related to B2B metals e-commerce on the business level and the automation revolution that comes with I4.0 on the shop floor level. We will explain how to adapt and break up the automation layers into smaller services communicating and collaborating together based on one common enterprise service bus. Finally we will introduce the Metals Enterprise Service Bus, as an industry standard for that purpose.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 13:

TPO pioneering: Digitalization of high efficiency high quality production

T. Pfatschbacher
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: TPO pioneering: Digitalization of high efficiency high quality production


Author:
T. Pfatschbacher

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
J. Plaul, L. Pichler, B. Schürz, W. Oberaigner, N. Hübner, M. Kügel

Abstract:
A key cornerstone for being successful in Steel and Metals Business is to achieve a high efficient overall production process enabling the economical successful production of high quality products with high yield at competitive low costs. This – only on the first look easy combination – can be pushed to higher levels by Digitalization and sufficient Know How. Primetals has developed a pioneering digitalization solution for this – TPO, Through Process Optimization. TPO combines the modern, highly functional Primetals Technologies’ Digitalization IT System “TPQC – Through Process Quality Control” with the digitalized Know How and experience of Domain Experts and AI algorithms. TPO enables metals producers to control and optimize the production and product quality across the entire process chain. By collecting the right data with TPQC out of all automation systems, measurement systems, smart sensors and even from operators the data is transformed in valuable information, KPIs, decisions, advices and actions enabling a higher level of production and product quality. This papers explains the cornerstones and main elements of TPO, the background of the development, a view and outlook on the further potential and gives some examples of successful customer implementation.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 13:

Anomaly and causality analysis in process data streams using machine learning with specialised eigenspace topologies

M. Neuer
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 13 ( 14:40 )
Title: Anomaly and causality analysis in process data streams using machine learning with specialised eigenspace topologies


Author:
M. Neuer

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
N. Link, A. Quick, T. George

Abstract:
The broad progress of digitalisation provides an increasing amount of online available data, often large data streams, from all relevant production processes. In many cases, this data is stored and used for posterior data analytics to explore the reasons for malfunctions or product degradation. The talk presents new search and monitoring techniques, mainly originating from the technological Big Data developments and applied mathematical research, to find suspicious patterns in signal streams. Moreover, it shows how these pattern locations can be effectively used to step from pure correlation analysis to context related causality analysis. Moreover, sometimes operators even do not know about the characteristic shape or pattern they must associate with a process anomaly. Then, algorithms are required to allow automatic retrieval of the most common and the most exotic patterns in the data. The talk will present such algorithms and demonstrate their usage. It will show latest machine learning approaches to cluster, detect and identify anomalies in processes and their causal interrelationship with other process situations. Such approaches have already succesfully been deployed in products of large system providers for maintenance and process forensics. In recent research activities, similar concepts are now tested for online application. Here, the same algorithms must be adapted and reduced to run highly efficient within the processing time, to allow a prediction right in time.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 13:

Machine learning based predictive quality

Coppe
(PSI Metals GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 13 ( 15:00 )
Title: Machine learning based predictive quality


Author:
Coppe

Company:
PSI Metals GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
E. Dral, E. Samuylova

Abstract:
In the metals industry up to 4% of the production needs to be scrapped even with the highest standards related to quality control. Most defects are related to the early stages of the production process (casting and milling) but mostly only discovered at the finishing stages of the product. Most defects and scrap could be avoided if discovered early in the process by: - Re-assigning the material to a less demanding order - Selecting different production route - Adapting some parameters of remaining production steps - Adding a rework step to correct the defect But the quantity of data to be analyzed makes it impossible for human operators and quality experts to predict these defects. Machine learning based predictive quality can predict up to 75% of the defects, most of which can then be avoided. This will reduce the scrap production of the plant drastically. The big challenge is how to combine mathematics and production, in other words how to use a machine learning model to fit to the operational world. This includes correct choice of problem statement, prediction target and definition of the business use case. One way to integrate a machine learning-based quality prediction in the existing process is by applying a certain set of actions for all coils considered “suspicious”. For that, we need to define a threshold for the probability of defect above which we will act on the coils to avoid the defect. This threshold can be calculated based on the cost of corrective action and the cost of defect. It should also take into account some business and technical limitations based on the chosen actions. This paper describes how such models can be achieved and maintained and how they can be embedded in the operational quality management of a metals production plant.

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 13:

Innovations & first application of the intelligent new energy pallet-car coil conveying system

F. Wei
(Beijing Shougang Yunxiang Industrial Technology Co. Ltd., China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 13 ( 15:20 )
Title: Innovations & first application of the intelligent new energy pallet-car coil conveying system


Author:
F. Wei

Company:
Beijing Shougang Yunxiang Industrial Technology Co. Ltd., China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
This paper summarized the developments of the steel coil conveying technology of metallurgical enterprises in this century, introduced the super-capacitor and its applications in the public transportation area, described the first intelligent new energy coil pallet-car and its innovations in detail, compared two technical proposals of a real project that using the new pallet-car system and the traditional pallet system. It also described the first practical application in a hot strip mill, and pointed out the advantages and the possible applications of this technology in other fields and industries. The technology meets the requirements of Industry 4.0, and provides a reliable solution for intelligent heavy load logistics.

Room 14

26 June / 09:00 - Steel materials and their application: Advanced High strengths and special steels, characterization and modeling I

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 14:

Numerical prediction of damage in punching process using shear modified Gurson model

H. Janarthanam
(Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 14 ( 09:00 )
Title: Numerical prediction of damage in punching process using shear modified Gurson model


Author:
H. Janarthanam

Company:
Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Sommer, F. Huberth, E. Carl, J. Preußner

Abstract:
Punching process is deformation intensive and alters the material properties on the punch surface and in its vicinity due to damage and plastic flow. Studies on micrographs of various punched samples have shown that in punching process tensile and shear damage mechanisms prevail. In addition, punching process involves high velocity deformation which influences the plastic hardening and damage due to strain rate effect. Also, at high strain rates adiabatic shear bands develop in polycrystalline materials which lead to thermal softening. Here, numerical prediction of deformation, damage and failure during the punching process of S500MC [DIN/EN - QStE 500 TM] structural steel is investigated. The sound material is modelled using a shear modified GTN model as proposed by Nahson and Hutchinson. The evolution of damage is described by void volume fraction in the material model, where the voids nucleate and grow due to plastic deformation. The model is further phenomenologically extended using Johnson-Cook hardening law to account for the strain rate and temperature effect. To describe the final coalescence/failure of voids, a combination of coalescence criteria as proposed by Thomason, and Embury are used. To calibrate the material model, a series of tension, torsion and torsion-tension experiments on smooth round bars and notched round bars at quasi-static loading are conducted. The tensile experiments are also performed at nominal strain rates of 8.33s^(-1) and 83.33s^(-1). A shear tensile specimen is used to quantify adiabatic heating and failure under shear dominated loading, where the temperature in the shear zone is monitored using IR camera. The numerical results show that the phenomenological extension for hardening and coalescence are in good agreement with the experimental results. The punching process is later simulated using the calibrated model and the numerical prediction of residual stresses are compared to the experimentally measured values.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 14:

Development of API X60 pipeline steel for sour service with lower Manganese

H. Al-Jabr
(SABIC, Saudi Arabia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 14 ( 09:20 )
Title: Development of API X60 pipeline steel for sour service with lower Manganese


Author:
H. Al-Jabr

Company:
SABIC, Saudi Arabia

Co-Authors:
M. Patil, S. Rehman, Y. Al-Zain

Abstract:
Pipelines have an exceptional importance in oil and gas industries as several thousand kilometers of pipelines are commissioned every year. With continuous exploitation of energy resources, the demand for high strength pipelines steel for sour gas services is considerably increasing. This study investigates the effects of manganese addition to develop API X60 pipe steels for sour service on the susceptibility to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC). Two API-X60 pipeline steels for sour service application were investigated in this work. One steel with 1.0% manganese (high Mn) and the other with 0.8% manganese (low Mn). The low Mn steel contained slightly higher amount of other strengthening elements to compensate for the strength drop due to the reduction of Mn content. Both steels achieved the API requirement for mechanical properties for X60 and passed the requirements of NACE TM 0284 standard for HIC resistance. Cracks were not found in the tested HIC samples for the low Mn steel. However, some samples of the high Mn alloy exhibited cracking within the limits specified by the NACE standard. The cracks were present in the center width of the coils at mid thickness. The microstructures were similar for both chemistries and consisted of fine polygonal ferrite with low volume fraction of uniformly dispersed pearlite. However, centerline segregation was more pronounced in the high Mn steel compared to the low Mn steel. Based on SEM results, the Mn index, defined as the ratio of Mn content between the segregated region and the matrix, was higher in the high Mn steel reaching to 1.8 in some samples, especially in the cracked samples. Whereas the Mn index was always below 1.3 for the low Mn steel. The reduction in Mn content suppressed the formation of hard bainitic structure in the mid-thickness and hence increased the resistance to HIC.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 14:

Influence of the alloy composition of an air-hardened, martensitic forging steel on the mechanical and cyclic material behavior

T. Schmiedl
(Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 14 ( 09:40 )
Title: Influence of the alloy composition of an air-hardened, martensitic forging steel on the mechanical and cyclic material behavior


Author:
T. Schmiedl

Company:
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Gramlich, S. Schönborn, R. Wagener, T. Melz, W. Bleck, T. Melz

Abstract:
New steel concepts enable an improved lightweight design with enhanced structural durability of cyclic loaded forged safety components in comparison to conventional quenched and tempered (Q&T) steels. By using the new steel concepts a two-step heat treatment for adjusting the material properties should not be necessary. This leads to a shorter and energy saving process route which reduces the production costs. Overall, the implementation of new steel concepts will increase the competiveness of the German steel and forging industries. For new steel concepts like precipitation hardened ferritic-perlitic forging steels a one-step heat treatment is sufficient to achieve the required material properties. In case of the recently developed bainitic forging steels there is no need for an additional heat treatment as long as cooling from the forging temperature to room temperature is controlled. New air-hardened, martensitic forging steels offer a great opportunity for replacing the conventional Q&T steels (e.g. 42CrMo4) because a two-step heat treatment and a precise cooling are not required. The aims of these investigations are to achieve size independent mechanical/cyclic properties and to increase/maintain these properties in comparison to the conventional Q&T steel 42CrMo4. To achieve a homogenous microstructure even for large parts the alloy composition is varied and several material concepts are created. The microstructure is characterized with regard to the homogeneity by light and scanning electron microscopy and the mechanical properties are determined by tensile tests, Charpy V-notch tests and hardness measurements. Furthermore, Incremental Step Tests with unnotched specimen are performed to determine the cyclic stress-strain behavior, which are compared with the quasi-static material properties. Fatigue tests with notched specimen are used to determine the fatigue strength in the high-cycle fatigue regime. Finally the influence of the alloy composition on the mechanical and cyclic properties is discussed.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 14:

Phase transformation modeling of AISI 4140 steel rods after hot rolling and during direct quenching

A. Meysami
(Golpayegan University of Technology, Iran)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 14 ( 10:00 )
Title: Phase transformation modeling of AISI 4140 steel rods after hot rolling and during direct quenching


Author:
A. Meysami

Company:
Golpayegan University of Technology, Iran

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Direct quenching (DQ) process is an appropriate method in steels heat treatment field after hot rolling. During direct quenching of steel components, obtaining the desired distribution of microstructure would satisfy production goals and reliable service performance. In this study, a Finite Volume Model (FVM) based model has been developed to describe diffusional and diffusionless transformation in AISI 4140 steel rods during direct quenching. In non-isothermal quenching process, subdivision of the cooling curve into various small isothermal steps was introduced with the help of various time–temperature–transformation (TTT) diagrams of AISI 4140. In addition, Scheil’s additive rule and Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation were also solved. On the other hand, Koistinen and Marburger’s equation was used to model the diffusionless transformation. This model could predict microstructure evolution and volume fraction of each phase during process, so that it permits the progress prediction of ferrite, pearlite, bainite, martensite and retained austenite transformation simultaneously. To verify the model results, several experiments have been performed on a physical model. After direct quenching of AISI 4140 rods with radius 55 mm, volume fraction of retained austenite and other phases including ferrite, bainite and martensite have been measured through magnetization and XRD methods. There was a good agreement between numerical and experimental results.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 14:

In-line characterisation of the austenite level to ensure the mechanical properties along the coil

O. Herbiet
(CRM Group, Belgium)

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Close26 June, Room 14 ( 10:20 )
Title: In-line characterisation of the austenite level to ensure the mechanical properties along the coil


Author:
O. Herbiet

Company:
CRM Group, Belgium

Co-Authors:
G. Monfort, G. Moreas

Abstract:
During the manufacturing of the modern high strength steels, it is very important to know the austenite level compared to ferrite at given positions in the line during the steel production. Indeed, ensuring the constancy of the austenite fraction is mandatory for the constancy of the mechanical properties of the final product. There are several positions in the line where it is essential to know the fraction of austenite, namely for example, the exit of zinc bath in steel galvanising lines, several intermediate locations in the annealing furnaces and the exit of steel annealing lines, the exit of the steel hot rolling mills on the run-out table. These positions induce many constraints which are very difficult to address. Indeed, this new sensor aims to overcome the limitations of current measurement devices of the austenite level in steels. In particular, the sensor allows the measurement at low or high temperature of the steel strip (850°C). It allows the measurement at a distance of several tens of millimetres of the strip while keeping a sufficient sensitivity. The measurement is not influenced by the vibrations of the strip as well as by abrupt change of the distance sensor – strip. This sensor is also able to work above and below the Curie temperature. The modularity of this sensor allows characterising not only the full width but different zones on the width and, particularly, the sides and borders of the strip which can show different properties due to different behaviour during the heating or cooling phase.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 14:

Development and application of high strength and corrosion resistant roll-bonded checkered plate

B. Yan
(Baosteel Central Research Institute, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 14 ( 10:40 )
Title: Development and application of high strength and corrosion resistant roll-bonded checkered plate


Author:
B. Yan

Company:
Baosteel Central Research Institute, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract Checkered plate, which is also known as floor plate, has a raised pattern that provides excellent skid resistance for a wide range of applications, such as flooring, walkways, platforms, stair treads, covers, etc. As one of most common used products, carbon steel checkered plate needs high cost in corrosion resistance. Although stainless steel checkered plate meets the requirements of corrosion resistance, it is also hard to provide a highly comprehensive performance for its low mechanical properties, which mean higher thickness, higher weight, lower stability of structure. Combined the advantages of stainless steel and carbon structural steel, one kind of SUS316L-BDT01 or SUS304L-BDT01 roll-bonded clad checkered plate with high performance in skid resistance, high strength and corrosion resistant is developed. The metallography shows cladding interfaces are very good. The yield strength, tensile strength and elongation from tensile tests are significantly better than the other kinds of checkered plates. Both external and internal bending at room temperature can be done successfully done without any cracks. Therefore, roll-bonded clad checkered plate shows superior performance in microstructure, strength, ductility and workability. It will meet the requirements of modern factories and has a broad market prospect. Through a case of the application on a pulverized coal injection platform in an iron-making plant, the processing and installation of this kind of material were introduced. After two years tracking on the platform, the product shows high performance in corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Keywords Clad rolling, roll-bonded clad checked plate, microstructure, mechanical properties

26 June / 11:20 - Steel materials and their application: Advanced High strengths and special steels, characterization and modeling II

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 14:

Study of heat transfer distribution during plate heat treatment

P. Kotrbacek
(Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic)

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Close26 June, Room 14 ( 11:20 )
Title: Study of heat transfer distribution during plate heat treatment


Author:
P. Kotrbacek

Company:
Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic

Co-Authors:
M. Pohanka, M. Chabicovsky

Abstract:
The paper is focused on the experimental research of the heat transfer and boundary conditions of the plate cooling. Real boundary conditions are necessary for the numerical simulation and optimization of the cooling process. Especially in the field of the heat treatment, the knowledge of realistic boundary conditions is necessary. For this purpose, a special methodology was developed. The input data for the inverse task are obtained from laboratory experiments. The main advantage of this method is the achievement of required material and mechanical properties. Heat treatment allows a manufacturing process which can improve product performance by increasing steel strength, hardness, and other desirable characteristics.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 14:

Influence of processing parameters on recrystallization behavior for API-X70 steel

A. Alshahrani
(SABIC, Saudi Arabia)

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Close26 June, Room 14 ( 11:40 )
Title: Influence of processing parameters on recrystallization behavior for API-X70 steel


Author:
A. Alshahrani

Company:
SABIC, Saudi Arabia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Softening mechanisms including dynamic recrystallization on thermo-mechanical processing of API have crucial effect on resultant microstructure, and consequently the mechanical properties. The influence of deformation temperature and strain rate on dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior and mechanical properties of API-X70 were studied using Thermo-mechanical simulator (Gleeble). DRX parameters including critical and peak strains for the deformation temperatures of 950C, 1025C and 1100 C with strain rate of 0.1and 5 s_1 were determined. Peak stresses and strains relationship with the Zener–Hollomon parameter was determined. Moreover, the volume fraction of dynamically recrystallized fraction was computed and the DRX map for the selected steel was developed. The DRX was found to be starting earlier with higher strain rate and lowering deformation temperatures.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 14:

Cleavage fracture modeling of a S355 construction steel using a modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model (GTN)

J. Langenberg
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 14 ( 12:00 )
Title: Cleavage fracture modeling of a S355 construction steel using a modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model (GTN)


Author:
J. Langenberg

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Münstermann, K. Markus

Abstract:
Damage mechanical simulations are a great tool to predict the mechanical behavior of construction steels and can be a great support in the design of steel constructions. Abusing cleavage fracture is thereby a crucial aspect in the design of multiaxially loaded components. So far, cleavage fracture in Gurson models is mostly simulated by a combination with a Beremin model as a post processor. Unfortunately, the Beremin model isn´t able to take stress triaxialities and the lode angle into account, two parameters which are critical to adequately depict cleavage fracture. The extended Orowan cleavage fracture criterion defines fracture in dependence of critical stress- and strain states for every element of the FEA calculation. By using this single element formulation, cleavage fracture in less ductile steels can be very well predicted. However, the extended Orowan criterion is not implemented in any Gurson model yet. The evaluation and implemention of a suitable cleavage fracture criterion for the used GTN model to predict lower shelf behavior in Charpy impact tests will be the aim of this work. Thus, the extended Orowan criterion given by He was implemented into the underlying GTN formulation and a summary of the implementation technique will be given. Regarding the material properties the examined S355 steel shows a very high ductility even at cryogenic temperatures under low triaxialities. Thus, the discussion of the influence of different stress triaxialities and plastic strains becomes one of the most important aspects of this study. Hence, an adequate experimental calibration scheme, including the calibration of a temperature dependent function for the flowcurve, according to its change in stress at low temperatures, turns into another central feature to achieve adequate results.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 14:

Fatigue strength of laser welded butt joints made of high-strength fine-grained structural steels for the application in crane structures

B. Möller
(Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 14 ( 12:20 )
Title: Fatigue strength of laser welded butt joints made of high-strength fine-grained structural steels for the application in crane structures


Author:
B. Möller

Company:
Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability, Germany

Co-Authors:
B. Seyfried, R. Wagener, P. Knödel, T. Melz, T. Ummenhofer

Abstract:
High-strength steels are a convenient choice for the lightweight design of cyclic highly loaded structures. The exploitation of the ultra-high-strength fine-grained structural steels’ potential is not possible in the design phase, due to strength limitations caused by application in load-carrying welds, e.g. transverse butt joints. Within crane construction, usually gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is used to manufacture welded joints. Latest developments tend to employ laser beam and laser hybrid welding to cope with increasing demands for cost-efficiency of the manufacturing processes and further increase of the welds’ strength. The application of modern beam welding processes has the aim of paving the way to a fatigue design in highly stresses areas. Therefore, the present investigation focuses on laser beam and laser-MAG hybrid butt welds made of the ultra-high-strength fine-grained structural steels S1100QL and S1300QL. The laser beam welded butt joints made of S1100QL show a high fatigue strength with a stress amplitude of 142 MPa at 2 million cycles to failure with a survival probability of 50 % and a flat slope of the S-N curve. The results are far above the highest fatigue classes of common recommendations for welded joints. Butt joints made of S1300QL have a similar weld appearance, but show a lower stress amplitude of 102 MPa compared to S1100QL butt welds. The reason can be traced back to the welding processes’ individual effect on the specific microstructure. Fatigue tests on laser-MAG hybrid butt welds result in a considerably lower fatigue strength for both materials, which is in the range of manually MAG welded butt joints. Finally, a linear damage accumulation according to Palmgren-Miner elementary is applied to show the application of the theoretical damage sum of 1 for a fatigue life estimation.

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26 June / 12:40 - Room 14:

Replacement of molybdenum by tungsten of Cr Mo V steel

S. Ghali
(Central Metallurgical Research & Development Institute (CMRDI0), Egypt)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 14 ( 12:40 )
Title: Replacement of molybdenum by tungsten of Cr Mo V steel


Author:
S. Ghali

Company:
Central Metallurgical Research & Development Institute (CMRDI0), Egypt

Co-Authors:
H. El-Faramawy, A. Ahmed

Abstract:
This article aims at investigation the effect of partial and total replacement of molybdenum by tungsten in CrMoV steel on phases. Three steel grades were produced in induction furnace with different molybdenum and tungsten contents. The chemical compositions of three steel grades are: 8.47%Cr, 0.512%Mo, 0.244%V and 0.12%C; 9.17%Cr, 0.284%Mo, 0.245%W, 0.201%V and 0.13%C; 11.16%Cr, 0.569%W 0.30 %V and 0.11%C. Forging process were carried out in temperature range 950 oC – 1100 oC, followed by air cooling. All steel grades were austenized at 1050 oC for one hour followed by water quenching and were tempered at 700 oC for 2 hours. Optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and EDX were used to investigate the microstructure and precipitated phases after austenization and tempering process. Thermo-Calc program was used to predict the phases which may be formed. The obtained results of software were interpreted with the experiment results. The results showed that replacement of molybdenum by tungsten has effect to certain extinction on type of precipitates

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26 June / 13:00 - Room 14:

Analytical and simulation-based description of separations in modern high-toughness steels

D. Lenz
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 14 ( 13:00 )
Title: Analytical and simulation-based description of separations in modern high-toughness steels


Author:
D. Lenz

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Münstermann, M. Könemann, D. Li

Abstract:
The resistance against continuous cracks while guaranteeing crack arrest is one of the most important safety requirements for gas transporting pipelines. In order to meet these requirements, the European steel industry has developed pipeline steels with excellent toughness properties. However, the potential of these modern and extremely tough materials cannot be fully exploited yet. This is due to the fact that phenomena are observed in the toughness characterization which are still unknown in steels with moderate toughness. One of these phenomena are separations (fracture surface tearing). Due to transverse tensile stresses, which result from a occuring transverse elongation obstruction, the fracture surface is ruptured perpendicular to the main crack. When dealing with separations, there are still uncertainties regarding the effects on the component behaviour. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons for the occurrence of separations and the factors influencing them. Since this phenomenon occurs primarily in toughness characterization, the main focus is on the Charpy-V-notch test. Possible influencing factors are the strain rate, the temperature or the type of load. For the influencing variables, tests such as the dynamic tensile test or the 3-point bending test are investigated. The metallographic investigation of the fracture surfaces is applied to find the cause of separations and improve the understanding of its origin. Furthermore, a concept is derived which can depict separations by FEM simulations. The development of a failure criterion which can simulate separations is paramount for this study. These approaches extend the understanding of separations and show to what extent the results can be transferred to the real component.

26 June / 14:00 - Steel materials and their application: Hot formed steel parts for the automotive industry

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 14:

Design of safety relevant steel components considering local damage evolution

M. Hell
(Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 14 ( 14:00 )
Title: Design of safety relevant steel components considering local damage evolution


Author:
M. Hell

Company:
Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
One of the main applications for forged steel components are safety relevant parts, e.g. in the chassis structure of passenger or commercial vehicles. In order to stay competitive on the market, ever-growing demands for weight reduction, cost savings and increased product reliability have driven the development of a huge variety of new steel grades, for example precipitation hardened ferritic-pearlitic steels, TRIP-Steels, etc., as well as enhanced production technology in the past years. Yet, the full potential of new materials and production routes can only be exploited if the improved material properties and process features are implemented already during early design phases. Under service load-time functions, containing loads originating from the regular use of the component as well as overloads induced by special duty or misuse, a safety relevant component is weakened constantly by microscale fatigue phenomena, which accumulate in the component, before macroscopic damage is noticeable. Although the mechanisms of the localized fatigue phenomena are governed by the local elasto-plastic cyclic deformation, the vast majority of state-of-the-art design methods still focus on estimating the damage accumulation with respect to the external loading only. Those methods lack the ability to consider local fatigue mechanisms explicitly and may not unlock the full potential of new steel grades and production technology regarding damage tolerance and reliability. In order to be able to implement the material behaviour properly and enable reliable statements about the fatigue strength under service loading, a design approach is required which allows the evaluation of the local damage evolution. The presented work therefore focusses on a fatigue design approach which allows the design of components under service loading by evaluating the local damage evolution using an elasto-plastic material model and different transfer methods in order to consider e.g. manufacturing process effects or size effects on fatigue life and reliability.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 14:

Development of a press hardened steel with high strength and high ductility

R. Ge
(Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Development of a press hardened steel with high strength and high ductility


Author:
R. Ge

Company:
Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Increase in the demand for high strength combined with high ductility by the automotive and other industries has led to the development of advanced high strength steels. The present work is aimed at exploring one-step quenching press hardened steel. Three types of steels with varying Aluminum contents (1, 2 and 3wt%) and manganese content of 5wt% were considered in this study. Different heat treatment have been carried out on these steels. The mechanical properties were assessed and retained austenite fractions measured. The results show that the press steel with Aluminum content of 2.0 wt% and heated at 800 oC exhibited remarkable property with the ultra tensile strength of 1450Mpa and total elongation of 11%.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 14:

An original press hardening steel with excellent application properties produced by Compact Strip Process technology

H. Wang
(Baosteel/ Wuhan Branch of Baosteel R&D Center, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 14 ( 14:40 )
Title: An original press hardening steel with excellent application properties produced by Compact Strip Process technology


Author:
H. Wang

Company:
Baosteel/ Wuhan Branch of Baosteel R&D Center, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Hot Stamping Process can minimize some problems during the cold forming of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) such as stretching capacity, spring-back, and dimensional accuracy, and today the Press Hardening Steels (PHS) for hot-forming is widely used to produce some automotive parts with relatively complex shapes such as A-pillars, B-pillars, front/rear side members, etc. Thin Slab Continuous Casting and Direct Rolling (TSCCDR) Process is one kind of green and low cost process on the basis of its compact process characteristics. In this paper, an original Pressing Hardening Steel is developed in Compact Strip Process (CSP) mill in WISCO Ltd. China. The application properties of the new PHS by CSP are studied and the results shows that the new PHS has a good spot and laser weld capability, well painting properties, lower hydrogen induced delayed cracking susceptibility. The original HPS has been successfully applied in some B-pillars, A-pillars and cross members.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 14:

Lightweight design in agricultural machinery through the use of higher-strength steels

A. Siegrist
(Hochschule Osnabrück, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 14 ( 15:00 )
Title: Lightweight design in agricultural machinery through the use of higher-strength steels


Author:
A. Siegrist

Company:
Hochschule Osnabrück, Germany

Co-Authors:
C. Schäfers

Abstract:
Lightweight design in agriculture is more necessary than in past. Due to the steady increasing population and related the demand of foods, agricultural machines have to be more efficient.The development of the necessary machines collide with limits of legislation. As well on the Roads as on fields the achselloads and ground pressure are limited. Primary motivation of lightweight design in agriculture are based on stated facts. Therefore as well constructiv as material aspects provide in unison the necessary Weight reduction. In addition fatique analyse should be included in product develpment process. The publicly funded research project includes on the one hand the theoretical approaches to the optimization of a lightweight construction, as well as the practical implementation of the measures on a spray boom. In the foreground of the development is the use of high-strength steels, which allows a significant increase in the allowable stress. At the beginning of the research project, an FE model was constructed from the CAD data and potential measuring points determined. On the basis of the determined measuring points the measuring technology was mounted on the test machine. Subsequently, the stresses which act on the linkage were determined metrologically by means of operating runs. The evaluated data from the test drives serve as a basis in the simulation-based optimization steps. The weight optimization was not only achieved by reducing the wall thickness when using high-strength steels, but was achieved by constructive change both in shape and in the kinematics used. The result shows the successful implementation of the project. Due to the structural redesign of the individual segments, the substitution of the material by a higher-strength steel as well as the change in the kinematics, a weight saving of 36% could be achieved.

Room 15

26 June / 09:00 - Steel materials and their application: High strength steels for bars and wire rods for automotive and engineering industry I

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 15:

Influence Of patenting heat treatment process speed on high carbon steel wire microstructure and mechanical properties

S. Esen
(Celik Halat ve Tel Sanayii A.S., Turkey)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 09:00 )
Title: Influence Of patenting heat treatment process speed on high carbon steel wire microstructure and mechanical properties


Author:
S. Esen

Company:
Celik Halat ve Tel Sanayii A.S., Turkey

Co-Authors:
M. Akar, A. Tığcı, C. Bilen

Abstract:
During the wire drawing process, high carbon steel wires exposed to strength due to mechanical deformation and dislocation action gain toughness with patenting heat treatment. The main goal of the patenting heat treatment is to obtain a fine perlitic microstructure. In this direction, the wires are heated to the austenitizing temperature and cooled under control to the temperature specified in the TTT diagrams. Heat treatment in industrial patenting processes is associated with more than one parameter. In this study, the process speed is examined among the effective parameters. 3,50 mm wires with carbon composition of 0,70%, 0,75% and 0,83% have been investigated the effect of different process speeds at constant heating and cooling temperatures. Mechanical properties and microstructure depending on process speed.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 15:

A modified carburizing heating pattern for enhancing the grain growth resistance of aluminum-killed steel bars

H. Jang
(China Steel Corporation, Taiwan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: A modified carburizing heating pattern for enhancing the grain growth resistance of aluminum-killed steel bars


Author:
H. Jang

Company:
China Steel Corporation, Taiwan

Co-Authors:
Y. Wang

Abstract:
Traditional carburizing parts such as gears and transmission shafts often have to be treated by a double quenching heat treating process in order to refine the grain size of steel matrix by the second quenching process with a relatively lower austenitizing temperature. However, the development of carburizing steels for advanced steel mills, precipitates controls have been used in the steel products to inhibit the abnormal grain growth or grain coarsening. Therefore, the second quenching process after carburizing can be omitted. That resulted in the effects upon reducing the cost and increasing the yield. In this research, the improved aluminum-killed steel bars produced by China Steel corporation are used for carburizing tests. The result shows that not only the grain growth can be inhibited subject to a high temperature carburizing treatment without a second quenching process, but the grain size of the carburizing work pieces will be further finer by forming a lot of finer AlN precipitates under a fine-tuned heating pattern of a carburizing process.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 15:

Fine-grained low carbon bainitic steels with improved properties

H. Roelofs
(Swiss Steel AG, Switzerland)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 09:40 )
Title: Fine-grained low carbon bainitic steels with improved properties


Author:
H. Roelofs

Company:
Swiss Steel AG, Switzerland

Co-Authors:
R. Kuziak, R. Rozmus, L. Oberli

Abstract:
Reducing the weight of car components has led to more filigree parts and the use of stronger materials. Conventional solutions with quenched and tempered steels not always fulfil the wishes concerning technical reliability, economics and environmental friendliness. Continuously cooled bainitic steels are sometimes clearly better balancing these aspects which has led to a successful introduction into car components during the last decade. However, bainitic steels often do not reach the high Charpy impact toughness values of quenched and tempered steels. This is in particular true at sub-zero temperatures and after thermal or thermo-chemical treatments. Applying innovative technologies the above mentionned handicap can be reduced or completely elimated by refinement of the prior austenite grain sizes (not only in flat products but also in long products). In the present work the industrial production technology “XTP” was applied to produce fine-grained low carbon bainitic-martensitic steel bars. In comparison with conventionally hot rolled bars the Charpy transition temperature then was decrease by ~60°C. Charpy impact toughness values were shown to be stable during tempering treatments between 400 and 600°C. The influence of tempering on microstructure and mechanical characteristics were investigated in detail and will be discussed. Results demonstrate significant improvements in comparison with conventionally produced bars. The unique propertiy combinations found open new perspectives in challenging applications.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 15:

Improvement of grain coarsening on the surface of low carbon wire rods after annealing

C. Lu
(China Steel Corporation, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 10:00 )
Title: Improvement of grain coarsening on the surface of low carbon wire rods after annealing


Author:
C. Lu

Company:
China Steel Corporation, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Low carbon wire rod is widely used in manufacturing industry components such as rivets. Due to mechanical property and drawability, annealing heat treatment is inevitably applied to soften the material during the wiredrawing process. However, the annealing parameters such as heating time, temperature and rate depends on the process design and heating furnace. Under specific process, such as high annealing temperature or slow heating rate, the coarsen ferrite grain sometimes can be observed, which will result in orange peel defect on the surface of rivert. Therefore, the mechanism of the abnormal growth of ferrite grain after annealing is well investigated in this study. It’s shown that the as-rolled ferrite grain size and AlN precipitation behavior has a significant influence on the grain growth. Thus by making stock rolling in ɑ-phase and slow cooling rate after rolling, CSC develops the anti-coarsening low carbon wire rod, which can ensure the material with fine ferrite grain after annealing.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 15:

Requirements for a digital twin for fatigue assessment with respect to the cyclic material behavior

R. Wagener
(Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 10:20 )
Title: Requirements for a digital twin for fatigue assessment with respect to the cyclic material behavior


Author:
R. Wagener

Company:
Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
A digital twin is a numerical model of the reality. In case of a digital twin for cyclically loaded safety relevant components of steel with respect to light-weight design multiple influences have to be considered in order to exploit the advantages of new material developments. Besides the influences of the loading boundary conditions, manufacturing parameters like the cooling route and local deformations affect the cyclic material behavior. However, due to the multiple influences and their interactions it is not possible to perform an experimental characterization of all parameters. Therefore, different estimation methods like Synthetic Wöhler-curves or Uniform Material Law in case of strain-life curves have been developed. Independent of the type of Wöhler-curve all these estimation methods are based upon databases which have been collected with different scopes of investigation. With respect to big data analyses a lot of database entries are not sufficient, because the documentation is not consistent. In order to develop a digital twin for the numerical fatigue approach the database must consider the main influences caused by the manufacturing process, the geometry and loading conditions. In order to build up a database, which enables big data analysis with respect to the local material behavior of modern steels, the influence of anisotropy caused by the forging process, heat treatment and local cooling routes as well as the interaction of constant and variable amplitude loading on the cyclic material behavior of new steel generations will be discussed. With respect to the setup of a digital twin, it is questionable, if the phenomenological size effects according to Kloos may be employed or if more sophisticated approaches are required. Furthermore, this discussion leads to the derivation of requirements for a material data space in order to improve the numerical fatigue approach considering the main influences of manufacturing and loading.

26 June / 11:20 - Steel materials and their application: High strength steels for bars and wire rods for automotive and engineering industry II

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 15:

Influence of cooling schedule on microstructural heterogeneity in bainitic steel wires

Ackermann
(RWTH Aachen University/Arcelor Mittal, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 15 ( 11:20 )
Title: Influence of cooling schedule on microstructural heterogeneity in bainitic steel wires


Author:
Ackermann

Company:
RWTH Aachen University/Arcelor Mittal, Germany

Co-Authors:
B. Resiak, P. Buessler, S. Gremme, W. Bleck

Abstract:
In the field of long products, final parts often have to meet high demands on the mechanical properties to endure for example cyclic loading or high impact energies. A precise control of the cooling parameters produces a microstructure tailored to obtain specific properties. The investigated bainitic steels consist of bainitic ferrite as primary phase, Martensite-Austenite (M/A) constituent and retained austenite films, representing the secondary phase. Hot deformation trials with subsequent continuous cooling were carried out in a thermomechanical treatment simulator to produce a dominantly lower and upper bainitic microstructure in two different low alloyed carbon steels with different Molybdenum content. The cooling parameters were set according to the process window of the Stelmor cooling system for wire rod production. The microstructural analysis showed inhomogeneities in the appearance of the secondary phase depending on the cooling schedule. Some cooling cycles result in a more inhomogeneous microstructure, whereas certain cooling parameters were less sensitive to influence the final microstructure. A quantitative analysis of the microstructural constituents indicated that the scatter in size of the M/A constituents can be correlated with the mechanical properties. Therefore, the cooling cycle can be used to adjust the appearance of M/A constituents to achieve the desired mechanical properties.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 15:

Development of high strength leaf spring steel

D. Kumar
(JSW Steel Ltd, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 11:40 )
Title: Development of high strength leaf spring steel


Author:
D. Kumar

Company:
JSW Steel Ltd, India

Co-Authors:
S. Kumar, K. Ragu, V. Singh, P. Tripathi

Abstract:
The suspension leaf spring is one of the most critical components of automobile which governs the riding quality. The steels used for manufacturing of these leaf springs are generally low-alloy manganese, medium-carbon or high-carbon steel with very high yield strength. These are made from continuously cast billets, rolled into flat shapes. The leaves are heat treated after the forming process to achieve the final strength. The yield strength of commonly used leaf spring grades such as SUP-11 grades is in the range of 1400 to 1450 MPa. The present work shows the development of new spring steel through offline simulation method with increased yield strength (> 1550 MPa).. The composition was C-M-Cr-Ni based, finalised using J-Mat Pro and rolling was simulated in Gleeble Thermo-mechanical simulator. The finalized composition was cast in an induction furnace and forged to break the cast structure. In the rolling mill, initial 5 passes are roughing passes whereas the subsequent passes 1-15 are the finishing passes wherein the deformation is provided in alternate passes in mutually perpendicular directions. The total reduction ratio was higher than the Gleeble limits, hence only passes which were below non -crystallization Temperature were simulated in Gleeble, keeping the strain and strain rates similar to the mill. It was found that the Gleeble simulated samples for the new alloy composition have substantially higher (~14%) hardness than that of SUP11A grade. The comparison of flow stress during the deformation, and final hardness and microstructure between the standard SUP11A and new composition indicated that the selected composition can be successfully utilized for the actual plant production of high strength spring steel. KEYWORDS : Thermo-mechanical simulation, Gleeble, grade development, leaf spring application.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 15:

Development and application of thin gauge ultra fast cooling process wear-resistant steel

He
(Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 12:00 )
Title: Development and application of thin gauge ultra fast cooling process wear-resistant steel


Author:
He

Company:
Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The production of thin gauge steel for construction machinery, especially high strength wear resistant steel, is limited because of the lack of heat treatment production line for sheet metal in WISCO. Under this background, it is necessary to develop the ultra fast cooling technology for high strength wear resistant steel by utilizing the 2250mm hot strip rolling line and its ultra fast cooling equipment of WISCO, which can cancel the offline quenching and tempering process for traditional wear resistant steel, so as to quickly seize the market with the advantages of high performance cost ratio. The stage achievement is illustrated in this paper. Based on the progressiveness of ultra fast cooling technology and the production dilemma of high strength wear resistant steel in WISCO, the thin gauge wear resistant steel has been successfully developed by reasonable composition design (CE is below 0.5%), smelting, continuous casting ,controlled rolling and controlled cooling especially ultra fast cooling process. The microstructure is fine and uniform lath martensite, and retained austenite (content 1%~2%). Retained austenite can effectively reduce the yield-strength ratio and obtain excellent workability, cold bending performance and low temperature toughness products. The properties are excellent, strength and toughness, hardness and cold bending performance reach even far beyond the technical requirement, fully meet the requirements of welding and processing in the downstream engineering machinery industry. For example, the hardness reaches 430~450HBW, the center hardness reaches 103% of the surface, while the longitudinal impact energy of -20℃ is above 37J (sample size: 7.5 ×10 ×55mm), the transverse cold bending property can bend beyond 120° without crack at the condition of diameter equaling 4 multiply by thickness. In conclude, the effect of water instead of alloy has been realized through ultra fast cooling process, the production cost is significantly reduced, and labor productivity is significantly improved.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 15:

Use of self-learning technology software for high carbon steels

E. Martinez Rehlaender
(SvMet Engineering S.A., Mexico)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 12:20 )
Title: Use of self-learning technology software for high carbon steels


Author:
E. Martinez Rehlaender

Company:
SvMet Engineering S.A., Mexico

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
With an increasing demand for more accuracy in steel properties in the high carbon steel market [tire cord, bead cord, PC wire] it has become necessary to use highly advanced software tools. Namely the use of self-learning objects or quasi-AI. Zero deviation from mechanical properties "bands" such TS or reduction of area for assure-safety products has promoted the above mentioned technology. Accurate additions systems during steelmaking as well as sophisticated temperature adjusting systems {Castev} have been tested for several products. In this paper the results and observations of such technology is presented. Terms like SDT {suggested delivery temperature} are now being used for high carbon steel production as well as other products. Results of rod microstructure indicate that the methods used are accurate enough to achieve the required specs to ensure zero deviation. The above is the result of careful management of steelmaking process done with self-learning objects in software tools.

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26 June / 12:40 - Room 15:

Application of numerical simulation to predict microstructure and hardness of Q&T steel forgings

E. Anelli
(Franchini Acciai SpA, Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 12:40 )
Title: Application of numerical simulation to predict microstructure and hardness of Q&T steel forgings


Author:
E. Anelli

Company:
Franchini Acciai SpA, Italy

Co-Authors:
A. Chugaeva, M. Lucchesi

Abstract:
Calculation tools to predict the thermal and microstructural evolution during quenching and tempering (Q&T) have been developed and applied. Activities carried out for the setup and tailoring of the coefficients of both heat transfer and phase transformation models are presented. In particular, cooling characteristics of stirred aqueous polymer quenchants were characterized by means of laboratory tests according to ASTM D 6482 and industrial trials using steel blocks instrumented with thermocouples. The commercial 3D FEM software DEFORM-HT able to calculate the thermal and microstructural evolution and the stress field during quenching was specialized for steels of interest and available quenching facilities. Moreover, an in-house 2D finite volume thermal-metallurgical model, specific for components of simple shape, such as bars, pipes, and blocks, has been developed, calibrated and applied. In both cases, the austenite transformation is determined by considering the cooling curve as a series of micro-isotherms and applying the laws governing the isothermal austenite transformation, derived by isothermal diagrams for diffusive transformations. Furthermore, martensite formation is calculated as a function of undercooling below martensite start temperature. The hardness of each phase is calculated after both quenching and Q&T from the chemical composition and the tempering conditions according to empirical regression formulas. The total hardness is calculated using a linear mixture law, using as weights the volume fractions of the microstructural constituents. The results of numerical modelling have been compared with actual properties of quenched and tempered forgings made of different steels. The microstructure has been investigated and hardness measured in order to verify the numerical model accuracy. The optimal design of the heat treatment in order to develop the target microstructure and strength levels and reduce the risk of quenching cracks are discussed with reference to forged components for power generation and oil & gas sectors.

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26 June / 13:00 - Room 15:

The research on the properties of 16MnCrS5 carburizing gear steel via continuous bloom casting

Z. Ding
(Baosteel special Metals long Product Co.,Ltd., China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 13:00 )
Title: The research on the properties of 16MnCrS5 carburizing gear steel via continuous bloom casting


Author:
Z. Ding

Company:
Baosteel special Metals long Product Co.,Ltd., China

Co-Authors:
X. Meng

Abstract:
The research on 16MnCrS5carburizing gear steel by adpotion of the process of continuous bloom casting was analyzed in this article,compared with the traditional process via ingot casting,the bar yield was improved more than 10%,and the influences of the new process on the component homogeneity,microstructure and properties of steel were investigated.The research results indicated that produced via continuous bloom casting is equal to that produced via ingot casting in chemical component homogeneity,macro-structure, grain sizes,end hardenability ,mechanical property. At the meantime with the full protect casting for continuous bloom casting,the oxide inclusioncontent of continuscasting steel was lower than that of ingot casting steel .

26 June / 14:20 - Steel materials and their application: Solutions for hydrogen embrittlement of high strength steels

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 15:

Sensitivity of high-strength fine-grained steel to hydrogen under consideration of the welding process

M. Christ
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 14:20 )
Title: Sensitivity of high-strength fine-grained steel to hydrogen under consideration of the welding process


Author:
M. Christ

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
Z. Sheng

Abstract:
Damages caused by so-called hydrogen induced cold cracking (HIC) are a widespread and feared phenomenon in connection with welding of metallic materials and occur in particular when there is a critical combination of hydrogen content in the welding zone, unfavourable stress state and susceptible microstructure. The hydrogen absorption into the welding zone is influenced, for example, by the selected welding process, the welding parameters, the condition and chemical composition of the materials (filler/ base metals, welding consumables), the workpiece geometry and the temperature cycle. The resulting microstructure in the weld zone, i.e. in the weld metal and in the heat-affected zone, determines the hydrogen transport by diffusion and effusion and influences the residual stress condition and ductility of the weld joint. Due to the material-specific microstructures and the resulting high strength of HSLA steels, these steels are considered to be particularly at risk. Depending on the hydrogen content in the material, property changes may occur with regard to the mechanical-technological properties. Investigations are carried out which deal with the fundamental sensitivity of high-strength structural steel S690QL to hydrogen and also consider the resulting influence on weldability. A major challenge in welding manufacturing is therefore to avoid a critical superposition of the influencing factors mentioned above. Within the framework of this work, gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is used as industrially relevant welding process in order to investigate indications of HIC during welding of high-strength structural steel S690QL.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 15:

Resistance spot welding under external load for evaluation of LME susceptibility of zinc coated advanced high strength steel sheets

J. Frei
(Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 14:40 )
Title: Resistance spot welding under external load for evaluation of LME susceptibility of zinc coated advanced high strength steel sheets


Author:
J. Frei

Company:
Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Rethmeier, M. Biegler

Abstract:
Some zinc coated advanced high strength steels (AHSS), under certain manufacturing conditions, are known to be prone to liquid metal embrittlement (LME) during resistance spot welding. LME is an undesired phenomenon, which can cause both surface and internal cracks in a spot weld, potentially influencing its strength. An effort is made to understand influencing factors of LME better, and evaluate geometry-material combinations regarding their LME susceptibility. Manufacturers benefit from such knowledge because it improves the processing security of the materials. The experimental procedure of welding under external load is performed with samples of multiple AHSS classes with strengths up to 1200 MPa, including dual phase, complex phase and TRIP steels. This way, externally applied tensile load values are determined, which cause liquid metal embrittlement in the samples to occur. In the future, finite element simulation of this procedure gives access to in-situ stress and strain values present during LME formation. The visualization improves the process understanding, while a quantification of local stresses and strains allows an assessment of specific welded geometries. The paper includes initial results from IGF research project no. 19311 N (FOSTA P1138)

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 15:

Detection method for liquid metal embrittlement cracks inside the intermediate sheet zone of dissimilar resistance spot welds

S. Lindner
(Outokumpu Nirosta GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 15 ( 15:00 )
Title: Detection method for liquid metal embrittlement cracks inside the intermediate sheet zone of dissimilar resistance spot welds


Author:
S. Lindner

Company:
Outokumpu Nirosta GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
R. Deike

Abstract:
Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) is a phenomenon, which is described in literature by an intergranular crack path. A first systematic investigation about brittle grain boundary fracture was given by Roberts-Austen in 1888, but it was only since 1914 that “liquid metal embrittlement” was published as a specified topic by Huntington who investigated the damaging effect of liquid mercury in a solid copper-zinc-alloy. In the meantime, numerous investigations for different metal systems and applications are known in the literature, where a liquid metal damages a solid bulk metal. Notwithstanding the long time period, LME remains an actual as well as a still not understood topic. A so far not yet investigated area of the LME-phenomenon can be defined with ultra-high strength austenitic (stainless) steels for passenger cars. The mostly used joining procedure in car body engineering is still resistance spot welding. In this application, the uncoated surface of an austenitic steel is because of a lap joint configuration in direct contact with zinc-coated steels. During resistance spot welding liquid zinc penetrates inside the intermediate sheet zone the grain boundaries of the austenitic steel surface and is therefore able to initiate LME cracks. This results on the question of a process-reliable testing and detection method: Destructive testing methods must be probably excluded to avoid a further crack expansion. The paper will explain the way how to use and qualify a non-destructive testing method for the question of LME cracks. In a second step the crack characteristics are explained by radioscopic results. Further investigations about influencing parameters will be pointed out. The presented results will further complete the understanding of LME. In combination with the qualified non-destructive testing method, the results help to find a reliable and reproducible way for this steel problem inside car body manufacturing for the future.

Room 16

26 June / 09:00 - Oxygen steelmaking: Ladle metallurgy I

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 16:

An innovative technology for calcium treatment

A. Visser
(AlzChem Trostberg GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 09:00 )
Title: An innovative technology for calcium treatment


Author:
A. Visser

Company:
AlzChem Trostberg GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Landström, L. Gustavsson, M. Andersson, W. Gross, J. Bezler

Abstract:
In secondary metallurgy, calcium treatment is important to modify non-metallic inclusions to assure castability and to optimize the properties of the produced steel. Therefore, it is essential to understand the process of non-metallic inclusion formation and the influencing factors on composition, mechanical properties, amount, size and distribution. The choice of type and amount of a suitable calcium additive is important for an effective and efficient Ca-treatment. The innovative cored wire based on calcium carbide offers a Si-free alternative to CaSi-, CaFe- and pure Ca-wires. Due to its high melting and boiling temperature, calcium carbide dissolves in the steel melt, creates reducing conditions and feeds calcium to the steel under low turbulence. This paper describes the application of the calcium carbide cored wire CalciPro® in large-scale steel plants and discusses its effect in comparison to other standard calcium treatment technologies.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 16:

Tata Steel continues to increase production of IF grades at Jamshedpur, as the duplex RH degasser passes two year operational milestone

S. Sinha
(Tata Steel Ltd., India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 09:20 )
Title: Tata Steel continues to increase production of IF grades at Jamshedpur, as the duplex RH degasser passes two year operational milestone


Author:
S. Sinha

Company:
Tata Steel Ltd., India

Co-Authors:
M. Whitehead , A. Kumar , R. Srivastava, S. Kumar Singh, A. Khullar

Abstract:
The duplex RH degasser at Tata Steel’s Jamshedpur Works completed two full years of operation in 2018. The plant, which was a substantial upgrade to the original RH Unit (built in 1996, as a single station winch type, by Mannesmann Demag Metallurgie Messo of Duisburg, Germany, now SMS Mevac) was the first modern RH installed in India. A mid-life upgrade followed in 2005, when the plant was modified to include a new more powerful vacuum pump and an oxygen blowing lance, giving the unit better performance and more versatility. The conversion to a duplex unit in 2016 more than doubled its original capacity and added state of the art performance to enable Tata Steel to continue its dominance of the domestic automotive strip market. This paper continues to track the performance of the unit along with highlighting the innovations developed and challenges encountered on the unit in its first two years of operation.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 16:

Monitoring and control of adequate gas stirring of ladles in secondary metallurgy

H. Köchner
(KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Monitoring and control of adequate gas stirring of ladles in secondary metallurgy


Author:
H. Köchner

Company:
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

Co-Authors:
B. Glaser

Abstract:
Monitoring and control of adequate gas stirring of ladles in secondary metallurgy Although ladle stirring is a well-known procedure, few methods are regularly applied to monitor adequate stirring in industrial practice. Different approaches are presented and compared. These include monitoring of gas flow rate and pressure, vibration analysis and bath surface monitoring and analysis. Recommmendations are given.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 16:

The role of secondary metallurgy in the automated steel plant of the future: higher safety standard and improved steel quality

A. Pezza
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 10:00 )
Title: The role of secondary metallurgy in the automated steel plant of the future: higher safety standard and improved steel quality


Author:
A. Pezza

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Apfel

Abstract:
What is the future of secondary metallurgy? The improvement of material quality is linked to higher safety standard and reduced conversion costs. The combination of higher safety standards and proper process control are connected to higher automation. The important resource of steel making know-how will be more and more centralized, considering the reduction of investment costs and a change of steel making strategies all over the world. The process and design know-how will be made available on digital platforms accelerating the reaction speeds and eliminating long distance travelling. The quality will be monitored remotely in competence centers, the constant feedback will lead to new customer assistance concepts. The m.connect platform is the latest development of Primetals in this area. Robotic solutions for sampling and temperature manipulators is already a typical solution for secondary metallurgy. Logistics will be linked closer to plant operations. The secondary metallurgy has to cover different design concepts: •The Ladle Refining Furnace is a fundamental part of this area. Its operations will be made easier and better monitored. For example special mechanical solution for reduced distance between heating stations are reached anchoring the electrode columns gantry on the transformer wall. •Vacuum Metallurgy will be a zero waste process, vacuum operations will move to dry solutions: latest Primetals startups are described in the paper. •Plant operations using active video camera intelligence is installed and used and is described in the paper. •Low raw material quality with high end quality demands will be obtained by new process practices and detailed monitoring. The secondary metallurgy has the smallest energy demand in the complete process but the highest increase of quality in the whole steel making process.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 16:

Combustion performance of nozzles with multiple gas orifices in large ladles for temperature uniformity

F. Yuan
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 10:20 )
Title: Combustion performance of nozzles with multiple gas orifices in large ladles for temperature uniformity


Author:
F. Yuan

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In order to improve the baking temperature uniformity of the large ladle in steel-making plants, the simulation investigation about the flame combustion characteristics of nozzles with different inner structure was conducted. The flow field and premixed combustion reaction inside or outside the nozzle with multiple gas orifices were numerically simulated with the finite volume method code, Fluent. The influence of the gas injecting angle and the number of gas orifices on temperature, velocity and pressure field was studied. The results show that the flame length and width at the rear of flame temperature field reach the maximum values in the nozzle with the 20º gas injecting angle and 4 gas orifices for the control of premixed combustion inside of the nozzle, which could provide a better temperature uniformity in ladles. The length of the 1273 K isothermal surface is 4.89 m and the cross section area which is 4 m away from the outlet of the nozzle is 0.13 m2. The pressure losses of different types of nozzles range from 112.2 Pa to 169.4 Pa and decrease with the decrement of gas injecting angle and gas orifices. The ladle bottom preheating temperature is increased by 320 K~360 K for the optimized nozzle. The inner surface temperature differences between wall and bottom of the ladle are less than 10%. There is a good baking temperature uniformity after the application of best structurally designed nozzles.

26 June / 11:20 - Casting: New installations and revampings

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 16:

Consequent secondary cooling system optimisation results in productivity increase at TATA Steel Jamshedpur LD2 slab casters

R. Wolff
(Lechler GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 11:20 )
Title: Consequent secondary cooling system optimisation results in productivity increase at TATA Steel Jamshedpur LD2 slab casters


Author:
R. Wolff

Company:
Lechler GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Khullar, H. Shah, V. Mishra, R. Singh, S. Chacko

Abstract:
Tata Steel Jamshedpur LD2 are operating 3 slab casters which have been revamped in 2005 to achieve design maximum casting speeds of 1.8 and 1.75 m/min respectively. These speeds could not be achieved until recently due to bulging and related mould level fluctuation. A section thickness increases further aggravated this issue. From 2012 several investigations have been taken conducted in order to improve the process including a secondary cooling study performed by Lechler. As a result of these investigations the secondary cooling layout has been optimized in several steps, each improving the quality of the products and the productivity of the casters. These steps included redistribution of existing cooling water capacities, utilization of additional secondary cooling water capacities, revision of the secondary cooling intensity, revamp of secondary cooling nozzle and header design and extension of the secondary cooling length. After implementing all steps an increase of 20 % in maximum casting speed could be achieved, the secondary cooling intensity was increased from 0.9 l/kg to 1.7 l/kg. The problem of bulging and mould level fluctuation have been eliminated. These measures are giving a boost to the productivity and could be realized within regular maintenance time with minimum capital invest.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 16:

Continuous casting machine (CC3) transformation

A. Ciuffini
(Acciai Speciali Terni S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 11:40 )
Title: Continuous casting machine (CC3) transformation


Author:
A. Ciuffini

Company:
Acciai Speciali Terni S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
A. Baracchini, G. Disarò

Abstract:
After many years of operations in Terni plant the time for a renovation for the existing slab casting machine named CC3 was come. The drivers for the change were the increase of demand for new products from end users and the need for improve of production quality that the existing control systems were not able to support anymore. The first step in the quality improve direction especially when processing ferritic grades, very demanding in term of solidification structure, was the installation of the new Stirrers by Danieli & C. Of­ficine Meccaniche. At the end of 2017 it was reached the time to perform the jump to the modern technology, dominated by Industry 4.0 solutions. The intervention, focused on the machine automation, was assigned to Danieli Automation which took the challenge to drive the CC3 to this century in less than 6 months. The modernization project embraced the entire automation system, with particular attention to the Process Control System responsible to provide CC3 with in-line modeling packages in coordination with the lower automation layer. Dynamic control of the secondary cooling, Breakout prevention, On-line quality control with real time identification of quality issues on final products were a must to achieve the quality targets. On top of that the Business Intelligence suite is automatically collecting and storing on long term basis plant data and centralizing the reporting and advanced data analysis becoming the machine optimization tool. The change in the machine conduction was drastic: from a user know how approach to a system driven approach thanks to advanced user interfaced and decision-making support tools. The learning curve for the use of the control system was very short and the operators became readily comfortable with the new control tools since from the very beginning.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 16:

Modernization of six-strands billet caster at SIDENOR Basauri

U. Zanelli
(Sarralle Equipos, Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 12:00 )
Title: Modernization of six-strands billet caster at SIDENOR Basauri


Author:
U. Zanelli

Company:
Sarralle Equipos, Italy

Co-Authors:
D. Mier

Abstract:
Modernization of six-strands billet caster at SIDENOR Basauri Dr. Ugo Zanelli, Senior Manager Technology Grupo Sarralle Dr. Diana Mier, Sidenor Investigación y Desarrollo S.A. Basauri ABSTRACT SIDENOR is leader in the European steel industry for the production of special steel long products and one of the main producers of forged and cast pieces. It is also an important supplier of cold finished products in the European market. The company has production centers in Basque Country, Cantabria and Catalonia as well as business delegations in Germany, France, Italy and the U.K. In 2017 SIDENOR awarded contract to Sarralle for the upgrading of its six-strand billet caster in the plant of Basauri. The existing 9 m radius casting machine was then modified in in order to expand existing production range, according the implementation of state-of-the-art Sarralle technology, including new hydraulic oscillators, new moulds for expanded section, new Electromagnetic Mould and Final Stirrers, new designed air-mist secondary cooling, multi-point withdrawal and straightening units, and related electrical and automation system for supplied equipment. Previously cast sections (155×155 mm and 185×185 mm) were hence implemented with new casting section. After the upgrade the machine is casting additionally square section 240×240 mm. Sarralle provided as well technical and metallurgical assistance during erection and commissioning. Thanks to application of new technologies by Sarralle and strict contact between SIDENOR and Sarralle team during all project period, it was possible to obtain remarkable results since start up in early 2018, with required quality of the as cast product, according stringent demand of the market. Due to fruitful cooperation and good relationships established between the two teams, fine tuning and increase of obtained performances in terms of productivity and quality is still ongoing.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 16:

Development of the thickest cc slab caster and its operational results

K. Oh
(POSCO, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 12:20 )
Title: Development of the thickest cc slab caster and its operational results


Author:
K. Oh

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The thickest cc slab caster in the world, so called POSCO Mega Caster(PosMC) was developed by POSCO's own engineering in order to supply slabs for heavy plate more than 130mm by POSCO replacing ingot casting process. The caster is being under operation that more than 8000 ton of slabs had been produced after about one year construction. In this paper, some engineering results, slab quality, and property of forged slab and heavy plates. An internal and surface quality of the slab as well as yield ratio are found to be better than an ingot. "A" segregation was found to typically appear in the slabs and it didn't appear in the conventional CC slabs. It is thought to be occur when solidification rate is very low, being less than 0.02mm/sec and at the time of solidification structural change from columnar to equiaxed structure. ‘A’ segregation occurs mainly at transition time when columnar-->dendritic equaxed-->globular equiaxed, or in columnar structure. ‘A’ segregation channel is thought to be formed at solid fraction 0.6~0.7. ‘A’ segregation occurs when growth rate was changed to be decereased in a certain range of low growth rate. ‘A’ segregation in conventional CC strands is thought not to be caused by higher growth rate. Equiaxed zone of the PosMC ingot was much enlarged and its structure was found to be compactly composed of fine globular crystals. Shrinkage pipe was also greatly reduced by 300% compared with the one from the earlier tests. PosMC process is capable of high yield rate, eco-friendly environment, quality control and automation compared to the ingot process. In the future, the majority of medium and large ingot processes over the world are expected to be replaced by the PosMC

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26 June / 12:40 - Room 16:

Achieving highest quality levels on slab casters at Dillinger

K. Meder
(AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 12:40 )
Title: Achieving highest quality levels on slab casters at Dillinger


Author:
K. Meder

Company:
AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany

Co-Authors:
D. Schöne, O. Bode, R. Bruckhaus

Abstract:
The unique feature of the continuous casters at Dillinger is solidification in the vertical part of the machine. This practice - in combination with optimized soft reduction adjustment - guarantees lowest levels of segregation and micro-porosity of the slabs. In addition Dillinger’s new vertical caster CC6 improves the already high quality levels eliminating the need for bending and straightening of the strand. Beyond the means of vertical bending machines casting of steel grades with more sophisticated chemical analysis and production of slabs with thicker dimensions are feasable. These slabs can now be produced with a low risk of crack formation and thus without post-treatment of the slabs before rolling. A world record was set casting slabs with a thickness of 600 mm.

26 June / 13:40 - Oxygen steelmaking: Ladle metallurgy II

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 16:

Desulphurization with ladle furnace slag

S. Panda
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 13:40 )
Title: Desulphurization with ladle furnace slag


Author:
S. Panda

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
R. Kooter, A. Overbosch, E. Harbers

Abstract:
The sulphide capacities of slags used during ladle furnace treatment were estimated using the thermodynamic software known as FactSage. The experimental sulphide capacities found in literature are compared with FactSage calculations which showed good similarity. FactSage is used to carry out a sensitivity analyses of the sulphide capacity and liquid fraction of steelmaking slag depending on slag composition and temperature. From the analysis, the sulphide capacity of all slags has been seen to increase with the operating temperature. For maximum slag in liquid state, the CaO/Al2O3 ratio should be between 0.9 to 1.4 and temperature should be above 1385 °C. This will increase the desulphurization capability of the slag. MgO is added to the slag to decrease the dissolution of slag-line refractory, which adversely effects the sulphide capacity and liquid fraction. The presence of MnO in slag composition increases the sulphide capacity and liquid fraction of the slag. SiO2 increases the liquid fraction towards high CaO composition. The present study indicates the overall slag chemistry area that is used in LF practise for better desulphurization. Further study is needed to determine the oxygen activity in steel around steel-slag interface, which largely effects the exchange of sulphur from steel to slag.

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 16:

Simultaneous treatment in the RH-twin vacuum degasser

B. Cerchiari
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 14:00 )
Title: Simultaneous treatment in the RH-twin vacuum degasser


Author:
B. Cerchiari

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:
H. Segundo, F. Alexandre, P. Wojnar, L. Demuner

Abstract:
A demand for high quality steels is growing around the world. The RH vacuum degasser is one of the equipment used to refining these steels. During the vacuum process, it is possible to reduce H, N, C and increase the cleanliness of molten steel. The RH process is characterized by the continuous circulation of steel through two snorkels in a refractory vessel that is under vacuum. The vacuum generator system is composed of a series of steam ejectors and condensers. To produce vacuum, high volumes of steam is used in the vacuum pump. Its operational cost is very high and efforts should be made to optimize the process times. Usually the RH-twin is composed of two vessels that share the same vacuum pump. The conventional practice is to finish the vacuum in first vessel and then start vacum in second heat in the another vessel. At Ternium-BR, improvements in vacuum pump operating logic allowed to treat two heats in different vessels at the same time using the same vacuum pump (simultaneous treatment in the RH-twin vacuum degasser). The results are promising as they affect the productivity rate of the steelmaking plant.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 16:

The first production results of a new ladle-furnace in Oxygen Steel Plant No.2

A. Ponamarenko
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 14:20 )
Title: The first production results of a new ladle-furnace in Oxygen Steel Plant No.2


Author:
A. Ponamarenko

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Brand, M. Löcken, M. Arns, S. Meiß, B. Dolle

Abstract:
The first production results of a new ladle-furnace in Oxygen Steel Plant No. 2 thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG at Duisburg, Germany The steel plant in Beeckerwerth, has a capacity of 5,4 mio t of crude steel per year with three converters in operation and a tapping weight of 265 t/heat. The plant is equipped with two RH degassers, and two Argon stirring stations. The steel produced covers a wide range of grades - from ultralow carbon and IF grades - over Structural Grades to heavy plate pre-material and Carbon grades. To extend the range of steel grades and to improve the quality of steel, the new ladle furnace was integrated in the production line without significant impacts to the productivity of the steel plant. This is the first ladle furnace fully surrounded by a “cube” consisting of noise reduction panels. For the optimal heat treatment in the furnace, the steel ladles were equipped with porous plugs. We have the possibility to treat a heat without porous plugs. The inert gas lance can be used in two positions. One of these positions can be used by heating, also the lance can be inserted vertically into the steel bath via one of the electrode openings in the roof delta. With the first production at the 16th of August 2018 via the new furnace, the hot metal and scrap ratio is more flexible than before. Especially the reaction to the hot metal availability was enormously improved. Apart from that, the ladle furnace showed the expected results concerning steel quality, and steel grades with improved chemical compositions were produced successfully. The sulfur content was lowered by optimized steel desulfuring and phosphorus content was lowered by optimizing the tapping temperature which also has a positive effect on the purity of steel because scrap is not needed

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 16:

Optimization of AISI 443 stainless steel cleanness during secondary steelmaking process using Factsage Thermodynamic

J. Li
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 14:40 )
Title: Optimization of AISI 443 stainless steel cleanness during secondary steelmaking process using Factsage Thermodynamic


Author:
J. Li

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Nonmetallic inclusions formed during Ti-stabilized 443 stainless steelmaking process can cause the clogging of submerged entry nozzle (SEN) and surface defects of cold-rolled. The formation mechanism of oxide inclusions in 443 stainless steel was investigated by industrial experiment and Factsage thermodynamic calculation. After Al deoxidized and calcium treatment, the main types of inclusions in three samples were different, including irregular MgO-Al2O3 and spherical CaO-MgO-Al2O3, which was due to the different Ca and Al contents in samples. Combined with Factsage thermodynamic calculations, the calcium contents which could effectively modify oxide inclusions in 443 stainless steel with different Al contents were obtained. The initial calcium and aluminum contents in molten steel affected the main type of oxide inclusions formed during Ti addition process. High melting point Ca-Ti-O inclusions were observed in the sample containing high Ca content and low Al content. The experimental results and Factsage thermodynamic calculation results show that reducing Ca content and increasing Al content before Ti addition can reduce the formation of high melting point perovskite inclusions.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 16:

Study of formation behavior of CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in steel melts during an LF process

T. Yoshioka
(Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 15:00 )
Title: Study of formation behavior of CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in steel melts during an LF process


Author:
T. Yoshioka

Company:
Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:
T. Ideguchi, A. Karasev, Y. Ohba, P. Jönsson

Abstract:
Experiments were carried out during an LF process to investigate the formation behavior of CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in a steel melt. Samples were taken during the production of two different steel grades: a low-Al steel (Al=0.023%) and a high-Al steel (Al=1.1%). Liquid CaO-Al2O3 inclusions were detected in the low-Al steel samples. On the other hand, liquid CaO-Al2O3 inclusions were not detected in the high-Al steel samples. Instead, the inclusions consisted of MgO∙Al2O3 and Al2O3. The conditions of the LF operations, such as slag viscosities, temperatures, and gas flow rates, were almost the same in the two steel grades. This fact indicates that the detected liquid CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in the low-Al steel melt were not generated by slag entrapment, but by inclusion evolutions. In the low-Al steel, the thermodynamically stable phase of inclusion composition was calculated to be a liquid CaO-Al2O3 phase. On the other hand, the stable phase was found to be a CaO∙2Al2O3 phase in the high-Al steel. These differences in thermodynamic stable phases can influence the degree of inclusion evolution in the steel melts. However, in the high-Al steel, most inclusions have much lower CaO contents than that of the calculated phase (CaO∙2Al2O3). This large inconsistency between the detected and calculated inclusion compositions in the high-Al steel melt can be explained by two reasons: one is the low thermodynamic driving force of an Al2O3 modification and the other is the high removability of the inclusion types in the steel melt.

26 June / 16:00 - Casting: Remelting

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26 June / 16:00 - Room 16:

Transient simulation of the vacuum arc remelting process

M. Eickhoff
(Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 16:00 )
Title: Transient simulation of the vacuum arc remelting process


Author:
M. Eickhoff

Company:
Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The vacuum arc remelting process is used to improve both cleanliness and a controlled grain structure for high potential metals like Nickel based superalloys. A self-consuming electrode is continuously molten by electric arcs sparkling between electrode tip and metal pool. The liquid droplets fall from the electrode to the metal pool and resolidify because of the water-cooled copper mold. The numerical simulation is done with ANSYS Fluent in combination with user-defined functions and coupling with ANSYS APDL. ANSYS Fluent models the flow field and temperature distribution in the ingot. The user-defined functions offer the possibility to model different heat transfer mechanisms in detail. The current density and Lorentz forces are calculated with ANSYS APDL and implemented as source terms.

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26 June / 16:20 - Room 16:

The-state-of-the-art of electroslag remelting technology

Z. Jiang
(Northeastern University, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 16:20 )
Title: The-state-of-the-art of electroslag remelting technology


Author:
Z. Jiang

Company:
Northeastern University, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The electroslag remelting (ESR) technology is one of the most important methods to produce the high-quality special steels and alloys nowadays. The history of electroslag remelting(ESR) technology in China since 1958 was briefly reviewed in this paper. The new ESR technologies developed by a special metallurgy research group of Northeastern University in the last decade with the cooperation of several Chinese Special Steel Companies were mainly introduced including electroslag continuous casting(ESCC), ESR of heavy slab ingot, ESR of hollow ingots, ESR furnace with controlled atmosphere, 100t extra large electroslag remelting furnace with three phases, electroslag remelting process for bimetallic rolls and the pre-melt ESR slag with low permeability, low fluoride, high resistance. The ESR products have been manufactured by above new technologies including 40-53t slab ingots for extra thick plates of hydropower station, 70-100t 316L ingots for main pipes of AP1000 nuclear power station, bearing steels for wind power generation, heat resistance steel for thermopower stations, die steels for automobile industry, superalloys for nuclear power station, high nitrogen stainless steels for retaining ring of power generation and so on.

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26 June / 16:40 - Room 16:

The Effect of Interdendritic Segregation on Hot Ductility Behavior of Medium Carbon Steels

J. Jeong
(GIFT POSTECH, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 16:40 )
Title: The Effect of Interdendritic Segregation on Hot Ductility Behavior of Medium Carbon Steels


Author:
J. Jeong

Company:
GIFT POSTECH, South Korea

Co-Authors:
C. Yim, D. Kim, M. Kang, J. Lee, Y. Heo, S. Kwon, B. Kim

Abstract:
Recently, as the strength of the steel increases, the kinds and amounts of the additive elements also gradually increase. As a result, segregation of elements and precipitates are likely to form in the cast steel at high temperatures during the continuous casting process. These segregation elements and precipitates act as factors that deteriorate the high temperature properties of the steel. Despite the development of a refining process to control these elements, small amounts of segregation elements remain in the cast steel. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effect of segregation elements such as P and S on the steel, and the high-temperature properties considering micro-segregation during solidification should be clearly evaluated in order to control the surface quality of the cast steel effectively. In this study, the re-melting tensile test was established to evaluate the high temperature properties of cast steel considering the effects of micro-segregation during solidification. Two medium carbon steels with different amounts of segregation elements were used for the tensile tests, and the high temperature properties were evaluated using both the re-heating and the re-melt tensile test. The specimen was melted by heating and holding at 1,570°C above the liquidus temperature for re-melting tensile test. In the case of the reheating tensile test, the solution treatment was performed at 1,400°C. High-temperature properties of re-heating and re-melting were similarly measured for low-content segregation elements such as P and S. However, there is a significant difference between the two measurement methods at specific temperature in the steel with relatively high P and S contents. To clarify the mechanism of high temperature properties in both conditions according to two steels, behavior of microstructure and micro-segregation was investigated by using optical microscopy(OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and electron probe X-ray micro-analyzer (EPMA) etc.

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26 June / 17:00 - Room 16:

New generation of the ESR (Electro Slag Remelting) furnace

C. Demirci
(SMS Mevac GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 16 ( 17:00 )
Title: New generation of the ESR (Electro Slag Remelting) furnace


Author:
C. Demirci

Company:
SMS Mevac GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
R. El-Rabati, C. Wissen, J. Schlüter, B. Friedrich, M. Schwenk

Abstract:
Electroslag remelting involves the gradual and controlled melting of the lower end of a self-consuming ingot through a layer of molten slag. As the process continues, a purified ingot is built up in a water cooled mold. Being electrically conductive, the molten slag acts as a resistance heating element when high current is passed between the electrode and the mold. Remelting takes place under inert gas (Ar, N2). The refining mechanism and crystallization accuracy during the ESR process are dependant on; filling ratio, slag compositions, grade of the electrode respectively ingot, cooling rate of the crucible, thickness of the slag skin and finally the number of the droplets from the front face of the electrode. The above are closely connected with the design of the ESR furnaces. SMS Mevac redesigned an ESR furnace at the IME Institute for Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University. This redesign included new developed rotating equipment including the development of a new device to transfer current from a static shaft onto a rotating electrode rod. The focus of this paper is the investigation of a rotating electrode during the ESR process; the effect of smaller droplets due to a greater horizontal centrifugal force, a thinner molten metal pool for better crystallization accuracy, cleanliness and higher productivity.

Room 17

26 June / 09:00 - Casting: Quality control and special technologies for high performance steels

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 17:

High precious phase diagrams - a roadmap for a successful casting processing

P. Presoly
(Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 09:00 )
Title: High precious phase diagrams - a roadmap for a successful casting processing


Author:
P. Presoly

Company:
Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Phase diagrams are essential scientific tools for a fundamental thermodynamic material understanding. In times of increasing digitalization of the continuous casting process (CC), the availability of high-precision phase diagrams is of great importance. Especially for process control and quality prediction considerations, the knowledge of reliable thermodynamic data plays a key role, next to the numerical algorithms. These thermodynamic data should be valid for a wide range of concentrations far beyond the compositions of current steel grades to describe future alloys. Above all, thermodynamic data need to describe highly increased concentration levels, which can result from strong micro segregation around final point of solidification. The present work provides an overview of the following selected topics: pre-identification of peritectic steels before the production by means of DSC-measurements, evaluation of microsegregation calculations for higher manganese alloyed steels by thermal analysis of “artificial” segregations and solidification calculation of phosphorus alloyed steels using a new assessment of the Fe-P system. All these examples point out the importance of “real measurements” and even why it is nowadays still necessary to critically re-examine a binary system (e.g. Fe-P) in detail.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 17:

New developments of indicators in the algorithms to detect defects automatically on the slabs by utilising images taken from the hot slabs on line during continuous casting.

P. Hooli
(Sapotech Oy, Suomi)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 09:20 )
Title: New developments of indicators in the algorithms to detect defects automatically on the slabs by utilising images taken from the hot slabs on line during continuous casting.


Author:
P. Hooli

Company:
Sapotech Oy, Suomi

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
With a tool called Reveal CAST it is possible to take images from the hot slabs (or any kind of semis) after cutting during continuous casting. With the special technique used thermal radiation is avoided and the surfaces of the slabs looks like taken from the cold slabs. Images are taken and documented from the all slabs and if needed with the all surfaces. Automatic defect detection is developed. New algorithms can detect automatically more different kind of defects. It is also developed continuous numerical feature index with automatic indicators. This index is giving local quality level of the slab for example with 10 cm steps along whole slabs length. This continuous feature index is possible to connect with short lasting events in the casting process. This helps to study and find responses of every event in the casting process on the corresponding place with the features on the slab surface. Examples are presented, how surface quality can change gradually because of gradual change in process conditions or suddenly because of an accident in the process. With the reporting tools included in the Reveal CAST it easy to make studies with the different periods with different sub-criterions. These results are as a part of RFCS project “SUPPORT-CAST”. Goals of the project and participants shall be presented.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 17:

A major step forward in improving internal slab quality: development and first implementation of the SMART Single Roll DynaGap (SRD) Segment at Ternium Brasil

V. Cunha Aranda
(Ternium Brasil, )

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 09:40 )
Title: A major step forward in improving internal slab quality: development and first implementation of the SMART Single Roll DynaGap (SRD) Segment at Ternium Brasil


Author:
V. Cunha Aranda

Company:
Ternium Brasil,

Co-Authors:
P. Pennerstorfer, D. Burzic, L. Martins Demuner, F. Lourenço, V. Cunha Aranda, G. Romeu Trindade dos Santos

Abstract:
For many years, Dynamic Soft Reduction has been regarded as a proper method in improving internal quality of slabs. Even though processes models improved significantly over the past years, the efficiency of Soft Reduction was always limited by the discretization error, which inherently exists if segment rollers cannot be positioned individually. The recently developed SRD segment type allows for an individual roller positioning within the mushy zone by avoiding any discretization deviation from the optimal gap. This paper provides a detailed technological overview of the SRD segments as well as operational results at their very first implementation at Ternium Brasil.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 17:

Analysis of non-metallic Inclusions on a API X65 Sour Service High Processing temperature (HTP) steel

A. Malynowskyj
(Gerdau S.A., Brazil)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 10:00 )
Title: Analysis of non-metallic Inclusions on a API X65 Sour Service High Processing temperature (HTP) steel


Author:
A. Malynowskyj

Company:
Gerdau S.A., Brazil

Co-Authors:
E. Taiss, D. Escobar, C. Batista, K. Camey

Abstract:
ANALYSIS OF NON-METALLIC INCLUSIONS ON A API X65 SOUR SERVICE HIGH PROCESSING TEMPERATURE (HTP) STEEL Abstract This paper investigated the formation of inclusions in a steel HTP (High Temperature Processing) API X65, sour service, submitted to the Ca injection process and continuously cast with dynamic soft reduction. The results obtained on the slabs were compared with a liquid sample taken from the tundish. Inclusion engineering was supported by scanning electron microscope mapping and specific methodology. There was a difference in the clean steel level (NL) and types of inclusions / particles between the samples, and the cause-effect relationships were analyzed and discussed. Most inclusions and particles detected do not favor hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC). Keywords: non-metallic inclusions, HTP steel, tundish, continuous casting.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 17:

Evaluation of internal slab quality by an advanced ultrasonic testing system

S. Rieß
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 10:20 )
Title: Evaluation of internal slab quality by an advanced ultrasonic testing system


Author:
S. Rieß

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Herrmann, S. Pudovikov, U. Rabe, S. Petry, W. Weber

Abstract:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG at Duisburg, Germany performs comprehensive efforts to improve slab quality. According to the current state of the art the internal quality of slabs could only be determined by extensive destructive and time consuming slab sampling. In collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP, Saarbrücken, a new tomographic ultrasonic system was developed and set in service for evaluating the internal slab quality in situ in the process chain. The new ultrasonic slab testing system is able to inspect the complete slab by providing cross-section images, which allow quantifying the internal homogeneity. To perform an inspection the mobile unit is placed on the slab surface at the slab yards. The system automatically scans the slab over its whole length, acquires ultrasonic data, performs reconstruction and presents images. For an intuitive evaluation directly after measurement, cracks and segregation porosity could be visualised in situ without destroying the examined slab or taking samples. For comparison of testing results and quality management, a new classification standard for scoring the slab quality was developed. With the new device, real time testing of internal slab quality can be performed, which enables adjusting the casting machine and slab handling parameters quickly after production.

26 June / 11:20 - Casting: Mould lubrication, performance and initial solidification I

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 17:

Fluorine-free casting fluxes, an overview

H. Tavernier
(Imerys Metalcasting France, France)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 11:20 )
Title: Fluorine-free casting fluxes, an overview


Author:
H. Tavernier

Company:
Imerys Metalcasting France, France

Co-Authors:
K. Schulz, M. Pereira

Abstract:
Mould powders, used in continuous casting process, usually contain 4 to 10% of Fluorine. This element is very efficient to adjust the slag viscosity. It also plays an important role in the control of heat flux extraction in mould by creation of cuspidine crystals, which avoid longitudinal cracks with peritectic steel grades by reducing stresses into the solidifying steel shell. For years, the use of Fluorine-containing slags was acceptable, but with the increasing health and environmental regulation, it becomes important to find alternatives. And it is interesting to see that these changes could have additional and positive impacts on process conditions and on steel quality. It is proposed to present an overview of the topic of Fluorine-Free casting fluxes, based on many developments and industrial trials, under different working conditions (billets, blooms, slabs, low-Fluorine or Fluorine-Free fluxes, ...). It will be discussed about the state-of-the-art, together with the remaining challenges to be addressed. A rough estimate of the savings given to the steel producers will be seen and discussed.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 17:

PROIL™: Value Innovation for Mid American Steel & Wire Inc.

A. Giacobbe
(RHI Magnesita GmbH, Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 11:40 )
Title: PROIL™: Value Innovation for Mid American Steel & Wire Inc.


Author:
A. Giacobbe

Company:
RHI Magnesita GmbH, Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on results achieved by the application in the open continuous casting practice of a solid-liquid dispersion of a mold flux called Proil™. The use of Proil™ has delivered significant improvements in the process in terms of billet surface defects reduction, expanding casting grade capability and sharp breakout depletion. Additional benefits have been also achieved in better billet square shape and reduced sparkling phenomena in the mold. These results have been confirmed by an extensive use of the product in a time period longer than 1 year. A specific equipment has been engineered for delivering and dosing Proil™.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 17:

Heat transfer control through dispersed metallic particles in glassy mold flux film with continuous steel casting

S. Hyun
(GIFT POSTECH, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 12:00 )
Title: Heat transfer control through dispersed metallic particles in glassy mold flux film with continuous steel casting


Author:
S. Hyun

Company:
GIFT POSTECH, South Korea

Co-Authors:
J. Cho

Abstract:
The excessive cooling rate during initial solidification period is believed to be the main reason for surface defects on continuously cast steel. Therefore, controlling heat transfer through the mold flux film is significant for improvement of both the surface quality and casting productivity. It is widely known that increasing the crystallinity of mold flux with high basicity is most effective to reduce the mold heat transfer rate. However, highly crystalline mold flux will bring a detrimental side effect known as ‘sticker breakout’ due to deterioration of lubrication between molten steel and mold. In present study, an innovative idea to reduce the mold heat transfer rate has been suggested by increasing the extinction coefficient (β) through Mie Scattering of metallic particles in the glassy mold. The metallic particles dispersed in the mold flux bring decisive effects on reduction of thermal radiation, which is one of the major roles of crystalline phase in mold flux film. Based on these findings, CaO-Al2O3-CaF2 based structurally stable glassy mold flux system was examined with 0%, 2%, 5% of FeO or Fe metallic particles, respectively. The change of extinction coefficient by Mie Scattering of the Fe particles and absorption by FeO were investigated using an FTIR and a UV-VIS. Also, in order to evaluate thermal conductivity of mold flux film with dispersed metallic particle, the laser flash technique has been applied. Finally, to simulate the heat transfer ratio by both the conduction and radiation, measurement of actual heat flux through mold flux film has been performed with an Infrared Emitter Technique (IET). It is found that the overall heat transfer rate across liquid flux film could be reduced significantly by dispersion of metallic particles.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 17:

Hybridization of lime for use in granulated mold fluxes

M. Alloni
(Prosimet S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 12:20 )
Title: Hybridization of lime for use in granulated mold fluxes


Author:
M. Alloni

Company:
Prosimet S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Mold flux technology has in the last years reached its full maturity, thus the process of de-commoditization has become more and more important to improve profitability and competiveness. A way to achieve this, has been to work on performance bearing components of the product to substitute raw materials which may prove to be constraints in manufacturing and selling of mold fluxes due to their prices or their limited geographical sources. Wollastonite is a prime example of such a raw materials since its one of the main components of mold fluxes and sources of suitable grade of this mineral are limited. In this work we tried to substitute wollastonite in granulated products with lime and sand. To achieve this, a process of hybridization of calcium oxide particles has been carried out to inhibit reaction of lime with water by covering the surface with an hydrophobic material . Different additives have been tested and a procedure has been defined to test water reactivity. Once sufficiently inhibited calcium oxide particles were obtained, a batch production has been prepared to manufacture a mold flux to be tested in the laboratory.

26 June / 13:40 - Casting: Mould lubrication, performance and initial solidification II

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 17:

Conversion of slab casting mould to Bragg grating optical fibers

E. Castiaux
(EBDS Engineering SPRL, Belgium)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 13:40 )
Title: Conversion of slab casting mould to Bragg grating optical fibers


Author:
E. Castiaux

Company:
EBDS Engineering SPRL, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Bragg grating optical fibers can replace, with significant advantages, the temperature measurements previously performed by thermocouples. Following a successfull trial with a broadface equipped with 4 FBG fibers installed horizontally (4 x 70 measuring points), APERAM Chatelet has decided to convert its moulds from thermocouples to FBG temperature measurements. This paper describe, from a pratical point of view, the first results of the conversion.

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 17:

Casting oil selection, effect on the open stream continous casting process

J. Linazasoro
(Quaker Chemical S.A., Spain)

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Close26 June, Room 17 ( 14:00 )
Title: Casting oil selection, effect on the open stream continous casting process


Author:
J. Linazasoro

Company:
Quaker Chemical S.A., Spain

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
SUMMARY: Steel industry is one of the largest lubricant consumers, especially for process oils used in the steel production. Around the world steel plants face challenging scenario to produce under big cost pressure and process improvement. In the process of open stream steel billet production vegetal oil is the most common used lubricant despite there are other products that show better behaviour. This paper explains the comparison made between different casting oils considering lab test and field experience. The aim of this paper is to compare the behaviour of different casting oils in continuous casting machines.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 17:

Development and application of POSCO's innovative endless rolling technology(CEM®) for various steel products

K. Cha
(POSCO, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 14:20 )
Title: Development and application of POSCO's innovative endless rolling technology(CEM®) for various steel products


Author:
K. Cha

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:
J. Kong, J. Chung, Y. Ko, M. Cho

Abstract:
POSCO has developed CEM® (Compact Endless casting and rolling Mill) process, which is the competitive and innovative strip making process. CEM® has two key technologies which include high speed thin slab casting and endless rolling technologies. By optimizing the fluid flow and minimizing the bulging through various technology development, CEM® process has achieved high speed casting with maximum 8m/min and it allows to make highly valuable hot-rolled products through a directly connected process between casting and rolling line. Especially, CEM® is most efficient process to produce high-strength thin gauge products because it has the advantage of obtaining excellent shape and homogeneous material properties by constant speed and isothermal rolling process. In recent years, POSCO has made great efforts to develop production technology for a variety of products such as HSLA(High Strength Low Alloy), AHSS(Advanced High Strength Steel) and silicon steel in addition to ultra-thin products using the CEM® process. And some results will be introduced in this paper.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 17:

Reduction of start-of-cast breakouts at the Direct Sheet Plant at Tata Steel in IJmuiden.

R. Kalter
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 14:40 )
Title: Reduction of start-of-cast breakouts at the Direct Sheet Plant at Tata Steel in IJmuiden.


Author:
R. Kalter

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Start-of-cast is a highly unstable part of the continuous casting process, leading to quality rejects and in severe cases to breakouts. In the Tata Steel thin slab caster at IJmuiden, especially sticker type breakouts at start-of-cast and breakouts due to severe mould level fluctuations were a recurring problem. It was recognized that sticker breakouts occurred due to severe splashing in the mould at stopper opening. Also splashing at the meniscus at the moment of SEN submergence was linked to stickers. The sticker breakouts typically happened within the first 2 meters of cast slab. In this paper we present a softened mould filling procedure with which splashes at start-of-cast was reduced, leading to a large reduction in start-of-cast breakouts. Another reason for breakouts at start-of-cast was the occurrence of severe mould level fluctuations at the closing of the segments for liquid core reduction after exit of the dummy bar. It was hypothesized that mould level fluctuations caused entrapment of mould powder, leading to weak spots in the solidifying shell, in turn leading to breakouts. The breakouts happened typically after 7-9 meters of casting. A two way approach of reducing the mould level fluctuations was followed. First, the pre-opening of the segments was reduced, leaving just enough space for the dummy bar to pass. Second, the stopper control setting was adjusted, such that the stopper reacts faster to mould level fluctuations. The combination of these two adjustments led to a reduction of the mould level fluctuation, expressed by the measured difference between the maximum and minimum mould level on cast lengths of 3 to 13 m. Since implementing the adjustments, no breakouts of this type have occurred.

26 June / 15:20 - Casting: Continuous casting technology

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 17:

The sophisticated SMS group compact mold

L. Fischer
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 15:20 )
Title: The sophisticated SMS group compact mold


Author:
L. Fischer

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
One of the most important prerequisites for smooth production of high-quality steel slabs is an optimal condition of the mold. SMS group designs the X-Cast® Compact Mold in 3D using a digital mock up. The engineering and for example, the flow is calculated and checked with the finite element method. Combining engineering know how with digitalization, SMS group developed solutions providing for intelligent processing and automation of processes. With HD LASr [mold] for perfect mold aligning, HD moldFO for homogeneous solidification and Mold Track for wear information at the right time, SMS group paves the way to the digitized mold. The X-Pact® technological packages Oscillation Control, Level Control, Width Control and Cast Optimizer are responsible for a perfect slab surface, the smoothest mold level in all process situations, the biggest width changes with shortest transition pieces at maximized operating reliability and a continuous optimization of the casting process regarding for example casting speed or cut length optimization. In addition, the SMS group has optimized the mold in terms of "quick and easy" and made it more user-friendly. Examples for installation and removal of the mold are the lock fixation with cup-springs, water connection plates for water supply and much more. Based on the steel grades to be produced, the X-Pact® Tech Assist automatically selects the optimum technological parameter settings for the metallurgical process starting in the Compact Mold. The combination of the above mentioned technologies form the holistic approach.

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26 June / 15:40 - Room 17:

Latest achievements in long product casting

D. Burzic
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 15:40 )
Title: Latest achievements in long product casting


Author:
D. Burzic

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
M. Hadler, F. Wimmer

Abstract:
Tough economic environment, together with, constant demand for higher quality are the main challenges for today´s steel producers. This calls for flexible and well-designed production plants with reduced maintenance and longer equipment lifetime. This paper provides an overview about latest realized solutions for the bloom/billet continuous casters with the special accent on the machines designed for high-quality automotive grades. Centre segregation and porosity, in high quality blooms and billets, can cause inconsistent mechanical properties and potential failure of the final product. The DynaGap Soft Reduction® technology, which includes an online 3D thermal tracking system, Dynacs 3D, for the calculation of solid fraction, is already a must when speaking about high-quality billets and blooms. Additionally, introduction of DynaPhase model influences further improvement of thermal tracking, resulting superb quality of the cast product.

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26 June / 16:00 - Room 17:

Modernization of a secondary cooling system using a process model for quality improvement

R. Wilmes
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 16:00 )
Title: Modernization of a secondary cooling system using a process model for quality improvement


Author:
R. Wilmes

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Modernization of a secondary cooling system using a process model for quality improvement Due to increasing product diversity and increasing cost pressure, the production of high quality slabs today requires ideal cooling of the strand. Crack-sensitive steels require a tightly controlled temperature guidance to prevent defects. Other, less crack-sensitive grades are cast with maximum casting performance to reach maximum production. The process model X-Pact® Solid Control was developed to control the solidification process as well as to launch new grades. Expensive trials at product launch of new grades are avoided by pre-simulation with X-Pact® Solid Control. The process model allows the simulation of the solidification process, taking into account the chemical composition of the steel, the various process variables as well as the phase transformations and the formation of precipitates. By means of variation of the simulation parameters existing cooling methods can be evaluated, improved and, if necessary, new cooling strategies can be developed. The maximum production performance and quality is ensured by a model-based tem-perature control of the strand. During operation, the system provides values that are not directly measurable but de-rived from the model, so-called soft sensors. These can be accessed via a data cloud and represents an important step towards Industry 4.0 / digitalization.

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26 June / 16:20 - Room 17:

Construction design optimization of the secondary cooling zone for continuous casting

J. Stetina
(Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic)

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Close26 June, Room 17 ( 16:20 )
Title: Construction design optimization of the secondary cooling zone for continuous casting


Author:
J. Stetina

Company:
Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In steel production we often encounter special steel grades having increased requirements in terms of the surface quality. The fulfillment of such quality requirements can be achieved by a suitable choice of cooling intensities in individual loops of the secondary cooling zone. This preserves a final product with a minimum number of defects. The developed 3D transient solidification model BrDSM is applicable to monitor and control the evolution of temperature distribution of the cast strand. The solidification model is coupled with the fuzzy-based regulator, which controls and adjusts cooling intensities in the secondary cooling zone to maintain surface temperatures of the strand in specified temperature intervals ensuring a low occurrence of defects and a good final quality. The aim of the paper is to investigate an optimum design of the secondary cooling zone, which allows for sufficiently smooth regulation, but with regard to a minimal cost of the zone (number of pumps, valves, electronics). Therefore, the objective is to optimally split a secondary cooling zone into proper number of cooling loops. The paper presents results for an optimal number of cooling loops for a case of dynamic process fluctuations with abrupt changes of the casting speed. Results demonstrate that the proposed coupled system is an efficient tool capable for the design optimization of the secondary cooling zone.

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26 June / 16:40 - Room 17:

CC plant concepts

L. Fischer
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 16:40 )
Title: CC plant concepts


Author:
L. Fischer

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Managing the product mix – Sophisticated Continuous Casting Plant Concepts for very thick slabs The production of thick and very thick slabs for special applications is becoming increasingly important in the narrowing steel market. In order to successfully fill the profitable market niches for special grades, steel plants need tailor-made plant concepts. Demanding steel grades for the oil industry, for bridge constructions or special application machinery can be manufactured on-target. Based on the system configuration of the Vertical Bending System (VLB Vertical Liquid Bending), which is favored today for non-critical grades, the specific advantages of alternative concepts are highlighted. At the end of the 1980's, this concept was introduced to achieve a better distribution and reduction of non-metallic inclusions especially for thin rolled thicknesses. An alternative is the bow-type caster, which is characterized by the elimination of bending stresses in the solid-liquid phase. In addition, this concept offers a system-related advantage of the surface temperature in the straightening range. Without tensile or compressive stresses in the solid-liquid phase, the vertical plant (VSB Vertical Solid Bending) produces very thick slabs. After a completely vertical strand guidance, the solidified strand is brought to the horizontal by means of a bending straightener, before the torch cutting machine separates it into slabs. The low casting speed due to the casting thickness and limited strand guiding length, combined with the long vertical distance, results in exceptionally few non-metallic inclusions. The step towards the casting of ultra-thin slabs up to 600 mm is marked by an updated version of the historically oldest concept, the pure vertical installation. Neither the liquid nor the solidified strands are bent or straightened. The slabs produced in this way shift the limits of what was previously possible. The experience of recent years shows that the various continuous casting concepts do have advantages for the casting of thick and very thick slabs.

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26 June / 17:00 - Room 17:

Energy efficiency in secondary cooling - new generation of hydraulic nozzles with increased water turn down ratio and cooling efficiency for slab casting processes

R. Wolff
(Lechler GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 17 ( 17:00 )
Title: Energy efficiency in secondary cooling - new generation of hydraulic nozzles with increased water turn down ratio and cooling efficiency for slab casting processes


Author:
R. Wolff

Company:
Lechler GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
R. Conte, A. Carboni, J. Frick

Abstract:
Modern slab casting machines utilize air-mist secondary cooling systems which provide dedicated cooling performance in terms of liquid distribution, cooling efficiency and cooling flexibility. The air-mist nozzles installed in such systems have been designed to overcome shortcomings of hydraulic nozzles decades ago. Until today these nozzles have been optimized to meet today’s secondary cooling system demands. Lechler and Danieli are now cooperating in the development of an innovative and purely hydraulic operated secondary cooling technology. The nozzle types provide improved cooling performance whilst maintaining dedicated liquid distribution on the strand surface. The hydraulic solution requires no compressed air for spray atomization. The new Hydro Spray technology is the result of this cooperation. The Hydro Spray represents a quantum leap in secondary cooling technology. The removal of compressed air required for air – mist nozzles leads to a significant energy saving, together with CO2 emission reduction and lower OPEX. Moreover, the on board and interconnecting piping are simplified, giving two advantages: the spray width control is enhanced through a finer resolution and the installation time and costs are cut. The Hydro Spray technology package, operated by Q – Cool closed loop control system, offers the opportunity to achieve outstanding performances in secondary cooling through a high resolution temperature control. Extensive testing of the spray characteristics in terms of spray appearance, liquid distribution, impact pressure, pressure-flow rate and cooling efficiency has been conducted and compared with existing state of the art air-mist nozzle solutions. The Hydro Spray has shown better performances compared to state-of-the-art air-mist secondary cooling systems, offering the opportunity to steel makers to take advantage of a breakthrough technology which also contributes to energy efficiency and cost savings.

Room 18

26 June / 09:00 - Cokemaking: Coal blending practise; Fundamentals in coke making II

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 18:

Use of petrographic method and reflectogram analysis for composition determination of complex coal mixtures

D. Vorsina
(SIAMS Ltd, Russia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 18 ( 09:00 )
Title: Use of petrographic method and reflectogram analysis for composition determination of complex coal mixtures


Author:
D. Vorsina

Company:
SIAMS Ltd, Russia

Co-Authors:
R. Kadushnikov, V. Alievskiy, I. Kamenin

Abstract:
Coal processing plants produce concentrates - mixtures of coals with different ranks that vary in terms of composition and quality, complicating the process of coke burden preparation. Process optimization minimizes consumption of sintered components and improves quality of produced coke. Feed coal quality and stability have technological and economic consequences - degrading quality of furnace coke causes increase of coke consumption during cast iron production, and increase in factory costs. Authors propose using petrographic method and reflectogram analysis performed using SIAMS-620 coal analyzer for rational composition of coal mixtures. Analyzer is a microscope with image digitizer, and a computer with specialized software. Object of research is a cylindrical specimen with one polished face, made of milled coal and binder. Applied algorithms allow recognition of four coal maceral groups, and mineral impurities. If vitrinite is discovered, application computes reflectance. Results are presented as reflectograms. Operation modes include automated, manual, and expert one. Use of reflectogram, petrographic composition data, and data on raw material sources allow precise definition of coal mixture and burden composition. At early stages of analyzer implementation at coal and metallurgical plants, there were multiple facts of difference between the actual concentrate composition and data provided in attached documents. The discrepancies could mean both over– and understating the amounts of coal with ranks that are valuable or barely suitable for coking, that causes financial losses for suppliers and consumers. Implementation of unified quality standards and means of implementing these standards did allow changing negative trends, and resolving issues related to deficit of coking coals. Automation allowed speeding of concentrate quality control, processing concentrates immediately after delivery, and keep amount of coal stock at optimal level. Preparation of coal burden became a routine task performed as the base of raw materials change, while staying within the acceptable quality boundaries.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 18:

An application of coke microstructure and microtexture to indonesian coal briquette

Y. Chen
(China Steel Corporation, Taiwan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 18 ( 09:20 )
Title: An application of coke microstructure and microtexture to indonesian coal briquette


Author:
Y. Chen

Company:
China Steel Corporation, Taiwan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Taiwan is located at a compressive tectonic area and lack of natural resources; therefore most industrial feedstocks are imported. Metallurgical coal and iron ore are two main ingredients in steelmaking. It is necessary to be conversant with the characteristics from different resource areas. Indonesia is playing a major role in the coal market since Indonesian coal benefits from low ash and sulfur contents. Due to the ideal geographic position for Asian coal demand, it is time to engage in the study of Indonesian metallurgical coal. Basic coal and coke analysis are undertaken to generalize the chemical and physical properties. Nevertheless, the coke strength after a high temperature is unpredictable. Coal and coke petrographic methods are attempted to correlate the qualities of coke with coal. High vitrinite contents are found in most of Indonesian coals, and therefore the reactive maceral derived components are abundant in coke microtexture. The lack of inert maceral derived components and thin coke walls are discovered from the coke microstructure. The briquetting process was adopted to increase the bulk density, and the 15lb pilot coke oven test was undertaked to testify the quality impovement. Both microtexture and microstructure analysis of coal briquette and coke lump are used to clarify the coke reactive mechanism.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 18:

Comprehensive model of coking coal pyrolysis

B. Mertas
(Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Poland)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 18 ( 09:40 )
Title: Comprehensive model of coking coal pyrolysis


Author:
B. Mertas

Company:
Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Poland

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Carbonisation is a basic available industrial process used for metallurgical coke production. The basic reaction is pyrolysis which consists in the decomposition of the original organic matter caused by the increasing of coal temperature in a coking chamber. The pyrolysis models which have been developed so far are limited either to general yields of gas, tar and coke or does not consider in details the basic gas components. The closure of mass balance is doubtful. Those which can deliver all necessary information are very complicated.The aim of the work was to develop and validate the comprehensive model of coal pyrolysis particularly suitable for high temperature carbonization. As a result of the work a pyrolysis model is proposed that reflects the chemical composition of coal. The obtained results were possible by solving the following research tasks: - Performing TGA experiments for the determination of general kinetic model of coal pyrolysis considering the effect of heating rate. - Determination of kinetic parameters of hard coals particularly energy of activation and preexponential factor - Development a standardized model of coal pyrolysis to take account of its properties for applications in both the processes of coking of coal. - Model validation for lab scale carbonization test in a 5 kg retort and determination of coke, tar, gas and BTE yields including specific coke oven gas composition. The model developed can be directly used for coking process modeling enabling simulation of time related progress of coal pyrolysis, heat of reaction, heat demand for a process, heat effects during the progress of pyrolysis, prediction of yield and compositions of products. The model is internally balanced i.e. the mass and substance balance is closed. The model was applied for the prediction of products yield and heat effects in full scale industrial oven.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 18:

Enlargement of the analysis output from a 10-kg carbonization retort

M. Grimm
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 18 ( 10:00 )
Title: Enlargement of the analysis output from a 10-kg carbonization retort


Author:
M. Grimm

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
V. Stiskala, M. Schulten

Abstract:
Since 2015 thyssenkrupp Steel Europe A.G. (tkSE) operates a pilot coke oven lab in Duisburg. Besides 60-kg movable wall oven another 10-kg carbonization retort is employed to determine coking properties of single coals and blends on a routine basis. The retort operates with short coking time and requires small quantity of coal for a single test run; both features rank among the advantages of such a small scale test facility. Compared to the movable wall oven the retort does not have capacity to measure oven wall pressure or the cold strength indices due to insufficient amount of coke produced. In order to enlarge the analysis output from carbonization tests carried out in the retort and to overcome the drawbacks resulting from its design the measurement of the formation of carbon deposits during carbonization process as well as determination of coke cold strength have been implemented. For developing requested cold strength parameters different procedures have been investigated to determine suiting method. Varieties of coals from different geographical regions have been tested and the obtained results aligned with maceral composition. To quantify the formation of carbon deposits a specimen of refractory material is placed into the free space above the coal and the gain in mass is measured after the coal has been carbonized. The goal is to investigate the driving forces behind the formation of carbon deposits with the aim of applying the project results in industrial scale of Schwelgern coke plant. For that reason numerous coals and carbon bearing material have been tested. The article gives an outline of both the results achieved and factors that need to be considered when comparing the quality of coke from conventional movable wall oven and the carbonization retort.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 18:

Upgrading effect of aromatic amine on coal fluidity and coke strength

H. Otsuka
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Upgrading effect of aromatic amine on coal fluidity and coke strength


Author:
H. Otsuka

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Coal fluidity is the important parameter in coal blending techniques for coke making because it strongly influences coke qualities. On the other hand, recently, the amount of high fluidity coals has been decreasing. To cope with this problem, caking additive method which improves fluidity of coal has been developed and commercialized. However, since tight supply of high fluidity coal is anticipated in the future, it is of great importance to develop more effective caking additive. Therefore, in this study, we investigated effect of 10 kinds of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons which include oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds on coal fluidity in order to search for more effective chemical substances. The additives were added to low fluidity coal, and fluidity analyses were carried out according to the Gieseler plastometer method. Addition of sulfur and oxygen containing compounds lowered fluidity of coal, whereas addition of aromatic amines enhanced fluidity of coal. Coal fluidity ameliorated with increasing the molecular weight of aromatic amine, and N,N'-di-2-naphthyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DNPD) was the most effective aromatic amine in this study. Carbonization tests in an electric furnace were conducted to investigate an effect of DNPD on coke strength. As a result of adding only 1wt% DNPD, fluidity of blended coal and coke strength (Drum Index) were highly improved. In conclusion, we gained the implications to search or design more effective caking additive.

26 June / 11:00 - Cokemaking: Coke plant operation

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 18:

New coke making complex in Russia

A. Filippov
(PAO Severstal, Russia)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: New coke making complex in Russia


Author:
A. Filippov

Company:
PAO Severstal, Russia

Co-Authors:
O. Ryazanov , O. Vinogradov, E. Vinogradov , M. Hoffmann, F. Mura, A. Esposito, R. Loddo

Abstract:
Early 2018 Severstal and Paul Wurth signed a contract for the construction of a New Coke Making Complex at Severstal’s integrated steel works at Cherepovets in the North-West of Russia. The core of the new complex are two brand-new, stamp charged coke batteries. The two batteries (2 x 56 coke ovens of 6.25 m height) are designed for a total production of 1.4 million tons of coke. They will be the first coke batteries of stamp-charging type in Russia, allowing Severstal to use cheaper raw material while maintaining a high coke quality. Furthermore, the most innovative solutions for protecting the environment will be integrated. Along with the two Coke Oven Batteries (“Block 1” and “Block 2”), Paul Wurth’s technologies and engineering solutions will be applied in the three new Coke Dry Quenching Systems, in the Coke Oven Machines, in ancillaries for coal preparation and coke handling as well as in the Tar Decanting Plant. Paul Wurth’s hardware supplies will include key equipment and systems such as the coke oven doors, refractories, the complete set of Coke Oven Machines and the SOPRECO® system for single oven pressure control. As a first for Paul Wurth the project includes the design and supply of stamp charging machines, with in its center the combined Stamping Charging Pushing machine. The paper will highlight the technological challenges of the project as well as environmentally friendly solutions of the design. The new complex is foreseen to be commissioned by September 2021.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 18:

Advanced coke-making process to produce coke with high quality in Germany

R. Lin
(AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Advanced coke-making process to produce coke with high quality in Germany


Author:
R. Lin

Company:
AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Advanced coke-making process to produce coke with high quality in Germany Rongshan Lin1), Frank Rullang2) and Hans Bodo Lüngen3) 1)Manager of R&D of coke and ironmaking, AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany 2)General manager of the coke plant, Zentral Kokerei Saar (ZKS), Germany 3)Director Technology, Steel Institute VDEh, Germany Despite intensive discussions about the CO2-mitigation in the steel industry in Germany, the blast furnace – converter route will remain the major process of the steel production for a transition period, since development and implementation of new break-through technologies will still need some more time. Consequently, the coke with high quality is required by blast furnace operators. An overview is given about the coke production and facilities in Germany. The both coke making technologies, gravity charging and stamp charging used are compared and discussed regarding their advantages and disadvantages. A lot of efforts have been made to improve the process monitoring and control systems, such as temperature measurement of the coke and the batteries, single chamber pressure control and inner gas pressure measurement, just as a few examples mentioned here. Sophisticated control methods are developed and applied, e.g. fuzzy control etc. Particular attention is also paid to the environmental protection and improvement to cope with increasing restrictions of the authorities. Furthermore, efforts are steadily undertaken to improve the coke quality, especially CSR value. Herewith, special attention is focused on selection of coking coals, monitoring and controlling the coal quality. The coke with high quality ensures the blast furnace operators to achieve high level of PCI injection and low coke consumption.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 18:

Journey of excellence of coke oven battery no 10&11 , a stamp charged recovery type coke oven by minimising the number of process incidence through COE journey at TATA STEEL Jamshedpur.

A. Sarkar
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 18 ( 11:40 )
Title: Journey of excellence of coke oven battery no 10&11 , a stamp charged recovery type coke oven by minimising the number of process incidence through COE journey at TATA STEEL Jamshedpur.


Author:
A. Sarkar

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The efforts are being made world wise to produce uninterrupted Quality coke to Improve the performance Blast furnace by reducing the number of process Incidences which ultimately affect the quantity & quality of coke .Apart from the impact of cost , this improves the Carbon footprint, Environment & fugitive emissions in the surroundings of coke plant .The Process Safety and Risk Management [ PSRM ] when applied robustly to coke plant Battery 10&11 it reduces the likelihood of any catastrophic events , located amidst a densely populated community , Tata Steel realised the importance of strong Process Safety and Risk Management (PSRM) in 2006 to address the process related risk and avoid any loss of containment. A firm foundation in Process Safety & Risk Management(PSRM) has been established across Tata Steel but in pursuit of making process safety a ‘way of life’, the Centre of Excellence (C0E) concept was undertaken in almost 50% of Department in Steel making and Iron Making Division . we undertook the CoE [ Center of Excellence ] journey, we used the following three simple questions at all levels of our organisation to test our strength: Do we know what can go wrong? Do we know what barriers we have to ensure that it doesn’t go wrong? Do we know that our barriers are effective and working properly? The major objectives of Centre of Excellence (CoE) were defined as System & Documentation: • To review and upgrade existing procedures and tools for Process Safety Information (PSI), Process Hazard Analysis (PHA), Management of Change (MoC) and Operating Procedure. • To incorporate best practices from industry leaders by benchmark activity • To ensure all process and instrumentation drawings are up to date and a system in place to ensure this Field Implementation: • Strengthen the Inspection & Maintenance system of PSRM critical equipment • Implementation of

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 18:

First top charging jumbo batteries erected in China designed by Paul Wurth

S. Tognozzi
(Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: First top charging jumbo batteries erected in China designed by Paul Wurth


Author:
S. Tognozzi

Company:
Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
L. Qingsheng , M. Bisogno, A. Mariscotti

Abstract:
Early 2016 Shandong Province Metallurgical Engineering Co., Ltd (SDM) - the engineering company associated to the Chinese Shandong Iron & Steel Group - and Paul Wurth signed the contract for engineering, supply and supervision services for the construction of four Paul Wurth jumbo oven batteries of top charging type, with 58 ovens each and an oven height of 7.3 m, in the new coke making plant of Shandong’s Rizhao Iron & Steel works on the Chinese eastern coast. This engineering contract ensues from the cooperation agreement signed in 2013 between Paul Wurth and SDM. Following the startup of COB No. 2 in November 2017, first coke was then pushed from coke oven battery No. 1 in January 2018 punctually meeting the milestone of the project schedule – exactly 2 years after the contract with Shandong Province Metallurgical Engineering Co. (SDM) coming into force. In 2019 with the startup of the remaining batteries No. 3 and No. 4, the entire new coke making plant of Shandong Steel Group Rizhao, part of a modern Greenfield steel plant, will eventually be in operation. Its total capacity is 3,392,000 tons of coke per year. All four coke oven batteries will be equipped with Paul Wurth’s SOPRECO® system and Cokexpert Level 2 automation system.

26 June / 13:40 - Cokemaking: Coke oven gas cleaning, use of coke oven gas and utilization of by-products

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 18:

Improving the efficiency of sulfur recovery unit using Aspen Plus Simulation

A. Roy
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Improving the efficiency of sulfur recovery unit using Aspen Plus Simulation


Author:
A. Roy

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Carbonization process is the elemental step of steel production which produces coke and other by-products. Coke oven gas (COG) is the gaseous by-product of carbonization consisting of impurities like hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), carbonyl sulfide (COS), tar, etc. Separation of sulfur compounds from the gas is strictly required to protect environment and human health from its adverse consequences. Separation of H2S is generally carried out using Claus process in industries. The present study was aimed to improve the efficiency of Claus Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU) located in Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur, India. Simulation model was developed for the process in Aspen Plus for maximizing the sulfur recovery, simultaneously keeping the tail gas ratio in desired range of 4-5 as per plant requirement. Model was validated with industrial data and optimum range of operating parameters were obtained using sensitivity analysis. Maximum amount of sulfur recovery was obtained for acid gas to air ratio (mol/mol) in the range of 0.754-0.759, H2S concentration in the range of 12.8-13.2 in inlet acid gas stream, Claus Kiln temperature of 1118-1125°C and gas inlet temperature to first Claus reactor in the range of 240-258°C under current operating conditions of SRU.

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 18:

Characterization of carbon deposits formed during targeted methane decomposition and their incorporation in the metallurgical coke structure

H. Liszio
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 18 ( 14:00 )
Title: Characterization of carbon deposits formed during targeted methane decomposition and their incorporation in the metallurgical coke structure


Author:
H. Liszio

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
P. Liszio, V. Stiskala, M. Schulten

Abstract:
A research consortium tried to develop a green and competitive basis for a large-scale use of the greenhouse gas methane. The project target was an alternative production of H2 with a low CO2-footprint as a feedstock for synthesis gas. Conventional processes used for synthesis gas production are typically employing the process of reforming in which the feedstock such as natural gas or petroleum reacts with steam or oxygen under a large energy supply. Within the framework of the project, an alternative approach has been taken to produce H2 without simultaneous production of CO2. Besides hydrogen, the new process generates elementary carbon. The pyrolysis of natural gas / methane delivers hydrogen yield of 25% together with 75% yield of carbon which can be used in several industrial processes. The utilization of such carbon feedstock in coking coal blends is one of many possibilities. This kind of pyrolytic carbon can be used as an additive or as a substitute for other fossil carbon resources. In the presented work the influence of pyrolytic carbon as well as other carbon-based products was tested in several test campaigns. Both laboratory scale tests of coal dilatation and pilot scale carbonization tests were carried out with up to 20% of the additives in the coal blend. Coke properties such as cold mechanical strength, reactivity to CO2 and strength after reaction (CSR) were determined from the produced cokes. Furthermore, the optical character of the additives was analyzed. Various types of additives showed various capabilities to get incorporated in the coke structure. The incorporation of these components has a huge influence of the quality of produced coke.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 18:

Reduction of quinoline insoluble from coal tar produced in coke by-product plant by viscosity modification and centrifugation

V. Chandaliya
(Tatasteel, India)

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Close26 June, Room 18 ( 14:20 )
Title: Reduction of quinoline insoluble from coal tar produced in coke by-product plant by viscosity modification and centrifugation


Author:
V. Chandaliya

Company:
Tatasteel, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In the steel industry, coke oven gas is produced by heating the coal cake in the slot type batteries. The coke oven gas contains coal tar. The coal tar is precipitated and separated by lowering the coke oven gas temperature. The coal tar thus produced can be used in many high-end applications but its high quinoline insoluble (QI) content makes it difficult to use. Hence, QI reduction becomes important. There are many techniques through which QI can be reduced. In this paper, combination of solvent addition for viscosity reduction and centrifugation technique for QI separation was used. Wash oils (fresh, recycle and spent) present in the coke by-product plant were used for coal tar viscosity reduction. The coal tar and wash oil was varied in the ratio of 2:1 to 20:1 and heated to 60-70 oC. The heated mixture of coal tar and solvent was centrifuged for 5 to 20 min at 4000-5000 rpm. Different parameters such as optimum temperature for viscosity reduction, coal tar to solvent ratio, wash oil type, centrifuge time and rpm were optimized. Spent wash oil was found to be better solvent. Centrifuge time of 5 min and 4500 rpm was optimum for the removal of QI. The reduction in QI for 6:1 and 10:1 blends of tar and spent wash oil were 87.9% and 70% respectively.

26 June / 15:00 - Briquetting: Briquettes

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 18:

Development of high strength carbon composite briquette(CC-BREX) as a third agglomerate for blast furnace

S. Hota
(TATA STEEL LIMITED, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 18 ( 15:00 )
Title: Development of high strength carbon composite briquette(CC-BREX) as a third agglomerate for blast furnace


Author:
S. Hota

Company:
TATA STEEL LIMITED, India

Co-Authors:
P. Mathur, A. Reddy

Abstract:
During the various stages of iron and steel production, many iron, as well as carbon bearing by-products, are generated. Since these by-products cannot be recycled back in fine form, they need to be agglomerated. The traditional way to recycle them back to blast furnace has been the sintering process. Cold bonding agglomeration process offers an alternative process for recycling these waste products. In this study, briquettes are made by stiff extrusion process from metallurgical wastes such as BF flue dust, gas cleaning plant sludge, and LD sludge with Portland cement and bentonite as a binder. Physical and high-temperature properties of the CC-BREX produced from this technique are evaluated, in comparison to sinter, pellet & lumpy iron ore. Based on the properties of these briquettes a trial was conducted at one of the blast furnaces that showed encouraging results.

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 18:

Potential of briquetting in residues recirculation and biomass implementation in ironmaking

E. Mousa
(Swerim AB, Sweden)

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Title: Potential of briquetting in residues recirculation and biomass implementation in ironmaking


Author:
E. Mousa

Company:
Swerim AB, Sweden

Co-Authors:
M. Lundgren, L. Sundqvist-Öqvist

Abstract:
In steel industry series of manufacturing processes are employed for production of steel involving use of various raw materials. Each unit inevitably generates types of residues which often contain valuable amount of iron, carbon and lime but have wide range of particle size, moisture content and chemical composition which make it unstable for direct recycling without sorting, preparation, and agglomeration to fulfill the specific requirements for charging back into the ironmaking blast furnace. Briquetting can play a vital role not only in promoting the residues recirculation in the integrated steel plant but it can provide a good opportunity to introduce biomass residues into the blast furnace for partial replacement of fossil reducing agents and consequently reduce fossil CO2 emission. The cross-sectorial collaboration between metallurgical industry and biomass based industry is a key to reduce the waste and maximize the resource efficiency. In the current work technical scale bio-briquettes have been prepared and investigated for blast furnace implementation. In addition, alternative binders have been investigated for partial replacement of cement in the briquettes. The technical scale briquettes are produced using vibro-press machine and the mechanical strength has been evaluated based on the drop test and tumbler index measurement. The impact of the developed briquettes on energy saving and CO2 emission will be discussed based on heat and mass balance mathematical model. The result could be of interest for other metallurgical sectors based on shaft furnace technology.

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26 June / 15:40 - Room 18:

Use of high strength carbon composite briquettes (CC-BREX) for lowering coke rate in blast furnaces

P. Mathur
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 18 ( 15:40 )
Title: Use of high strength carbon composite briquettes (CC-BREX) for lowering coke rate in blast furnaces


Author:
P. Mathur

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
By improving the reactivity of carbon with the associated iron oxides, it is possible to lower down the temperature of initiation of the solution loss reaction (C + CO2 = 2CO), which is strongly endothermic in nature. The above can be achieved by having carbon innately dispersed within the agglomerate, thereby increasing the contact area. This is not possible using conventional agglomerates that burn carbon as a heat source for creating slag bonds. Stiff vacuum extrusion briquetting process is a technique that allows producing high strength agglomerates, having a comparable strength to that of sinter and pellet, using plant reverts and binders at room temperature. In a trial at one of Tata Steel's blast furnaces, carbon composite BREX (CC-BREX) containing 18-20% carbon was tried out successfully at 3, 5 and 7% in the metallic burden. Lowering of coke rates were observed for all proportions of BREX in the burden. 5% CC-BREX was the optimum level for blast furnace operation as it delivered the highest coke replacement of 27kg/thm and overall carbon rate reduction of 6kg/thm. Beyond 5% residual carbon promoted solution loss reaction and did not help in lowering carbon rate further. CC-BREX, clearly appears to be a promising burden material that can help lower the carbon footprint of blast furnace iron making.

Room 19

26 June / 09:00 - Sintering: Fundamentals in sintering and chemical analysis and raw materials testing I

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 19:

Solid fuel pre-granulation with lime for sinter process and environmental improvement

A. Iosif
(ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 19 ( 09:00 )
Title: Solid fuel pre-granulation with lime for sinter process and environmental improvement


Author:
A. Iosif

Company:
ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Previous work dedicated to raw material and granulation have shown an impact on sintering performances such as an increase on productivity by sinter intensive mixing or by-product preprocessing. Preliminary project dealing with solid fuel selective preparation has also demonstrated interesting metallurgical and environmental results. Based on these works, a study on solid fuel pregranulation with lime, by intensive mixing, has been launched for process and environmental improvement. R&D experiments have been performed with a pot facility allowing the simulation of industrial sinter process: cooking and sinter cooling. Parameters of intensive mixer for the pregranulation, as well as the impact of by-product, type of solid fuel, lime quantity on environmental and metallurgical results have been investigated. For each series, productivity, solid fuel consumption, sinter quality (RDI, ISO T) on one hand and SOx, NOx and dust emissions one the other hand have been studied. The influence of the intensive mixer parameters has been investigated; the results have shown that the main parameters influencing the granulometry of the pregranulated mix are the direction and the speed of rotation for a given amount of lime. Best conditions obtained from the solid fuel intensive mixing with lime have been employed for all tests. The pregranulation of solid fuel with lime has shown an increase of productivity equal to 3 t sinter/m²/d, a gain of solid fuel of 1 kg/ts and constant sinter quality. Environmental results show a reduction of SO2 emissions by 15% and equally of dust.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 19:

Effect of magnetite on mineral phase formation

W. Ziming
(Kyushu University, Japan)

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Title: Effect of magnetite on mineral phase formation


Author:
W. Ziming

Company:
Kyushu University, Japan

Co-Authors:
T. Maeda, K. Ohno, K. Kunitomo

Abstract:
High grade hematite ore, one of the raw materials for iron ore sinter, is exhausted and the use of low grade hematite ore which is affected on the quality and productivity of sinter ore. One of the methods to solve this issue is the use of magnetite concentrate instead of hematite. Since magnetite concentrate contains large quantity of fine particles, there is concern about deterioration of granulation property and permeability in the sintering machine. But with the development of granulation technology, there is potential in employing magnetite. To improve the quality of sinter ore, it is important to know the mineral phases formation behavior. However, as compared with hematite, minimal study has been done on magnetite. Therefore, in this study, to clarify the effects of magnetite on mineral phases formation, sintering experiments using hematite and magnetite reagent were carried out. To research the effects of atmosphere and temperature samples were heated under oxidizing (Air) and reducing (CO-CO2) atmosphere at 1250℃ and 1350℃ respectively. The results can be concluded as follows. 1) Under both oxidizing (Air) and reducing (CO-CO2) atmosphere, after sintering of magnetite samples, the shapes of each phases are likely to the hematite samples respectively. 2) Under Air atmosphere, both hematite and magnetite samples formed more calcium ferrite phase when the sintering temperature was higher. 3) Under Air atmosphere, the calcium ferrite formation ratio of both hematite and magnetite samples was larger than that under CO-CO2 atmosphere. It can be considered that advanced oxidation of magnetite is necessary in the sinter process.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 19:

Effect of metallic iron on thermal processes in iron ore sintering bed

M. Zhang
(ArcelorMittal Global R&D, USA)

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Title: Effect of metallic iron on thermal processes in iron ore sintering bed


Author:
M. Zhang

Company:
ArcelorMittal Global R&D, USA

Co-Authors:
M. Andrade

Abstract:
Most sinter plants in the United States are facing challenges using more recycled materials. One of the most common recycled materials are steelmaking slag fines which contain high amount of metallic iron. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of metallic iron on thermal condition in sinter bed for better process control and sinter quality. Laboratory scale sintering pot tests have been carried out along with mineralogical analyses on sinter products using optical microscopy, SEM and XRD. The pot-grate sintering tests showed that propagation of combustion zone is faster in the case of using less amount of metallic feed than the case of using higher amount of metallic feed. Using higher metallic feed can significantly increase the maximum temperature in the lower part of sinter bed, as a result, sinter quality such as Tumbler index (TI) and low temperature degrade index (LTD) are better comparing to the sinter produced with less amount of metallic feed. However, the higher maximum temperature in the lower part of bed also result in longer cooling time. Thus, higher vacuum is recommended to improve the uneven distribution of heat and increase flame front speed for sintering higher metallic feed materials.

26 June / 10:20 - Sintering: Fundamentals in sintering and chemical analysis and raw materials testing II

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 19:

The influence of specularite on the sintering behavior of ore blend

Z. Xiano
(Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China)

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Close26 June, Room 19 ( 10:20 )
Title: The influence of specularite on the sintering behavior of ore blend


Author:
Z. Xiano

Company:
Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The fine iron ore particles are known to be liquid phase formers during sintering, affecting the structure, mineralogy, and properties of sinter. Specularite iron ores are typically fine and contain low gangue, therefore their use need to be optimized based on an investigation of the different effects on sinter. The assimilation with lime and melt fluidity of specularite ore were studied, also sinters were made from a mixture of 20 wt% specularite and 80 wt% base ore in a mini pot facility. The results show poor assimilation and low melt fluidity of specularite. These were attributed to the high density and weak self-fluxing ability of the ore. The amount of critical minerals of sinter namely silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) were quantified. It was found that SFCA formation is maximized for 2 min sintering at 1260 ℃. These conditions correspond well to those that lead to onset of sinter mix shrinkage. Higher temperatures or holding time result in decomposition of SFCA.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 19:

Influence of Operating Parameters and Raw Material Quality in Coke making Process

D. Kumar
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Close26 June, Room 19 ( 10:40 )
Title: Influence of Operating Parameters and Raw Material Quality in Coke making Process


Author:
D. Kumar

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
S. Bhattacharya, V. Tiwary, A. Rai, H. Tiwari, V. Saxena

Abstract:
Coke physical properties like coke M40 and arithmetic mean size are significant for blast furnace operation. Coke M40 and arithmetic mean size is known to impact blast furnace permeability to a large extent. The coke quality influences by operating parameters like charging temperature, coking rate, coking time and final coking temperature. These parameters control the coke quality especially coke CSR, coke M40 and coke mean size. This paper describes the effect of heating and process parameters which has influenced on mean size and hot strength of coke. Results show that low CSR regime has a higher mean size. It was also observed that change in coking properties of individual coal in a coal blend significantly affects the coke quality. Key Words Coal blend properties, operating parameters, recovery stamp charge coke making, coke CSR, Coke AMS

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 19:

Experience in applying online elemental analysis to steel- and ironmaking

A. Baryshnikov
(Lyncis, Lithuania)

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Close26 June, Room 19 ( 11:00 )
Title: Experience in applying online elemental analysis to steel- and ironmaking


Author:
A. Baryshnikov

Company:
Lyncis, Lithuania

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Operation managers are constantly assessing the productivity of their processes. Variations in mineralogy and the presence of impurities, not only influence on the effectiveness of the processes, but also increase production costs. Online chemical analysis of material flows directly on site is critical for timeous interventions to improve process performance and eliminate the need for laboratory analysis, often involving hours of delay and potential human error. Lyncis, using knowledge and experience accumulated in the industrial applications, offers the solution for stable accurate online measurements under production conditions, where many factors such as mineralogy, grain size, moisture, etc., influence results. Our analyzers use fully safe laser optical emission technology without hazardous radiation, provide long-term stable calibration, easy and low-cost maintenance.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 19:

Influence of ultra-fine iron ores on formation of macro and micro pores during the sintering process and the sinter reducibility

M. Fabry
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 19 ( 11:20 )
Title: Influence of ultra-fine iron ores on formation of macro and micro pores during the sintering process and the sinter reducibility


Author:
M. Fabry

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
D. Senk, M. Bläsing, G. Steindorf, A. Babich, V. Sadiku, M. Fabry

Abstract:
A recent study showed the possibility and an efficient way to produce sinter with high amount of ultra-fine ores without remarkable negative effect on the sinter productivity and fuel consumption. In this study, the formation of the sinter structure in the different sintering zones while using an increased amount of ultra-fine material as well as the reducibility of the produced sinter was examined. Three different sinter mixtures with a total amount of up to 50 wt.-% ultra-fines were tested. The tests were conducted by using a laboratory sinter pot. To examine the formation of the macro pores during the sintering, the tests were forced to stop by using liquid nitrogen. Afterwards the whole sinter cake of the interrupted and the completed tests were embedded in epoxy resin and cut in half. Then the surface was polished and macro pores were determined by imaging analysis section by section from top to bottom. Furthermore, sinter pieces where characterized by determination of micropores and phases, like Hematite, Magnetite and SFCA, using LOM and EPMA. The characterization was conducted not only for the virgin sinter but also for the reduced samples. The sinter reducibility was tested at 680°C, 880°C and 1080°C with two different gas compositions (40 vol.-% CO, 60 vol.-% N2, and 32 vol.-% CO, 8 vol.-% H2, 60 vol.-% N2). To give information in greater detail about the reducibility, the activation energy was determined, by using the recorded weight loss over the time.

26 June / 12:00 - Sintering: Sinter plant operation and automation

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 19:

Enhancement of yield by improvement of iron ore sinter strength of weak layer in sinter bed

C. Park
(POSCO, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Enhancement of yield by improvement of iron ore sinter strength of weak layer in sinter bed


Author:
C. Park

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The main goal of improvement of sinter strength in weak area which are surrounded on the both sides with pallet-car is to achieve a high productivity of uniform sinter quality. The most important factor to improve it is the size distribution in which influences strongly the sinter strength in the both sides. The DEM simulation was performed to optimize operation condition of the shuttle conveyor belt in feeding process, and the yield and productivity, in case of the plant test, increased 2.5 % and 2.6 t/m2/d each under the optimum condition. Also the average shutter index of sintered ore increased 0.4.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 19:

First installation of a fully automated Sinter Raw Mix Analyzer

J. Reidetschläger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: First installation of a fully automated Sinter Raw Mix Analyzer


Author:
J. Reidetschläger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
E. Fehringer, D. Seiler, S. Muenkel, S. Zeiler, D. Zirngast

Abstract:
In today’s competitive iron making environment the optimization and continuous supervision of the sintering process is of major importance. Currently, the quality control of sinter raw mixes mainly depends on the experience and expertise of the operating personnel. Developed by Primetals Technologies and the German manufacturer Eirich in close cooperation with the sinter specialists from voestalpine Stahl Donawitz a new Sinter Raw Mix Tester was installed to allow for the fully automatic sampling and analysis of granulated sinter feed. A robotic system automatically takes sinter raw mix samples from the entire material stream during conveyor discharge. This ensures fully standardized uniform and representative sample taking. Following sample preparation, the moisture content, permeability and bulk density of the sinter raw mix are measured. The benefits of sampling, sample preparation and analysis are even more important when they are combined with process models and expert systems. Only a comprehensive and detailed knowledge of the process parameters together with measurement of process variables enables corrective actions and an optimized operation of the plant. Direct action is taken via level2/expert system to change process parameters (e.g. moisture) according to the measurements. The fluctuation of the moisture content of the charged sinter raw mix could be reduced significantly resulting in a stabilized sintering process and improved sinter quality. Furthermore the moisture content is automatically optimized for best permeability enabling an increased production level. Continuous adjustments and design modifications result in a stable and robust measuring system including peripheral devices and a sophisticated control unit. This paper focuses on the operational results and achievements of the first installed fully automated sinter raw mix analyzer.

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26 June / 12:40 - Room 19:

Novel technique in digitally sinter return fines control at sinter plant #4 Tata Steel Jamshedpur

B. Chatterjee
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 19 ( 12:40 )
Title: Novel technique in digitally sinter return fines control at sinter plant #4 Tata Steel Jamshedpur


Author:
B. Chatterjee

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract Sinter return fines (Internal and external) are productivity loss to sinter plant and blast furnace. With the help of data analytics important process parameters are identified, based on the key process parameters a Return fined control model prepared which not only generates predicted vs actual return fines data also generates recommendation to control room operator. By using this model operator could improve return fines by 1% and increase in Net productivity by 1.0 t/m2/day. This novel technique gives many insights to the plant operator Keywords: Data Analytics, Coke rate, Return fines model, Net Productivity

26 June / 14:00 - Sintering: Sinter quality

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 19:

Characterisation of iron ore sinter phases by optical microscopy and Epma

S. Hapugoda
(CSIRO, Australia)

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Title: Characterisation of iron ore sinter phases by optical microscopy and Epma


Author:
S. Hapugoda

Company:
CSIRO, Australia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
ABSTRACT The mineralogy and texture of sinter play an important role in determining the physical and metallurgical properties of iron ore sinter. Identification and characterization of sinter phases is, therefore, a cost-effective and complementary tool to conventional physical and metallurgical testing of iron ore sinter in evaluating and predicting sinter quality. Over the years, CSIRO has developed a scheme for characterizing iron ore sinter which classifies primary and secondary sinter phases including various types of SFCA, secondary hematite and magnetite, glass, larnite and remnant fluxes. Correct identification of these sinter phases under optical microscopy is crucial for quantification of these phases by manual point counting under a petrographic microscope, automated optical image analysis, quantitative XRD and SEM techniques. Analysis of sinter phases by EPMA has helped to identify minor chemical differences in major sinter phases particularly various SFCA types. Sinters were prepared from sinter blends of varying chemistry and characterized using Optical microscope and EPMA. Distribution of sinter phases and abundance of mineralogical-textural sinter types can be used as an additional tool to explain metallurgical properties of sinter. Keywords: iron ore, sinter, mineralogy, phase quantification, EPMA

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 19:

The use of dunite mini-lumps in the sintering process

A. Elorriaga
(Pasek Minerales, Spain)

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Title: The use of dunite mini-lumps in the sintering process


Author:
A. Elorriaga

Company:
Pasek Minerales, Spain

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In this paper we will discuss the benefits of a very innovative way of introducing MgO in the blast furnace operation through the sinter, using mini lumps of dunite. By changing the traditional way of using an MgO bearing material in fines form (particle smaller than 5 mm), most of the MgO inserted material behaves as inert during the sintering process, with the effect of having the following parameters (among others) improved: productivity at the sintering bed, permeability inside the blast furnace, energy consumption, stability of the operation.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 19:

Optimization of sintering process with deteriorating quality of iron ore fines

C. Verma
(Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India)

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Title: Optimization of sintering process with deteriorating quality of iron ore fines


Author:
C. Verma

Company:
Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Blast Furnace performance mainly depends on quality of sinter as major portion of iron bearing material occupies by it hence its quality w.r.t. Tumbler Index (TI), Reducibility Index (RI) and Reduction Degradation Index (RDI) are the key performance indicators of sinter plant. Now it became very tough to maintain the desired quality with the increasing Al2O3 content in iron fines and study is focused on it. Alumina is a refractory material and required more heat input to fuse thereby affecting the desired sintering temperature i.e. 1300°C. It goes in between the grain boundaries of the bond and makes weaker. Sinter strength decreases with increasing alumina content and weak sinter generates more fines thereby reduces the net sinter production as well as plant productivity. Presence of impurities beyond acceptable norm: such as LOI, Al2O3, MnO, TiO2, K2O, Na2O, Hydrates, SiO2, phosphorous and zinc, has led to greater challenges in the thrust areas such as productivity, quality and cost. The ultimate aim of this study is maintaining the sinter strength even with high Al2O without hampering the plant productivity. Study includes mineralogy test of iron fines to analysis the phases present in ore and phase analysis of product sinter to know the distribution of different phases. Corrections were done focusing majorly on varying Al2O3/SiO2 ratio, basicity: B2 (CaO/SiO2), B3 (CaO+MgO/SiO2) and B4 (CaO+MgO/SiO2+Al2O3). Concept of Alumina / Silica ratio, B3 & B4 found to be useful. We used to vary MgO, Al2O3/SiO2, B2, B3 and B4 to get the desired sinter strength even at high alumina (4.2 - 4.5%) in sinter. Study concludes with the establishment of B4 and Al2O3/SiO2 ratio in between 1.53-1.60 and 0.63- 0.70 respectively and have achieved tumbler index (Drum Index) 76 plus with the plant productivity of 1.60-1.63 t/m2/hr. at JSPL, Raigarh. Keywords: Sinter, B2, B3, B4,

26 June / 15:20 - Sintering: Sinter cooling and waste gas cleaning

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 19:

New off-gas cleaning system at the POSCO Sintering Plant

S. Jin
(POSCO, Republic of Korea)

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Title: New off-gas cleaning system at the POSCO Sintering Plant


Author:
S. Jin

Company:
POSCO, Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Recently, the Korean government announced the world's highest level of dust emission strengthen policy to improve the atmospheric environment. New environmental regulations mainly require emission reduction of SOX and NOX. In addition, both real-time emission levels and total annual emissions will be regulated and will be strengthened gradually from 2020 to 2024. In response, countermeasures must be taken to drastically reduce SOx and NOx emissions at steel mills and power plants that use large amounts of coal. The regulation of total amount regulation is set in consideration of emission standards and operation results for all combustion and power generation facilities in steelworks. However, gas-cleaning facilities must be installed in all facilities in order to comply with the total amount regulation, which requires huge investment. To solve these problems, POSCO needed to intensive investment in the sinter plant for further reducing the excess amount of other plants at the sinter plant. Sinter plant of Gwangyang works is capable of complying with the government's environmental regulations because of the installation of sodium hydrogen carbonate injection and SCR facility before. However, Pohang Works has only activated carbon facilities, so it is impossible to comply with NOx regulations. As a result, POSCO has made the world's first attempt to install SCR equipment in existing activated carbon facilities and is currently making investments. The biggest risk of this new process is the risk of fire due to SCR inflow of activated carbon. We conducted various tests and technical review to prevent such fire. In this paper, I will explain the government 's environmental regulation status and major technology of activated carbon & SCR combination.

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26 June / 15:40 - Room 19:

Dust emission reduction at sinter-cooler process

C. Polato
(ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France)

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Title: Dust emission reduction at sinter-cooler process


Author:
C. Polato

Company:
ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France

Co-Authors:
E. Izard, M. Moreau

Abstract:
Dust emitted by Sinter-Coolers are contributing to global emissions of sinter plants as well as diffuse dust emission around the process. Clean operation of this process is a key feature in the context of process environmental footprint reduction and to ensure safe working conditions. A global study including numerical modeling was conducted to further understand the mechanisms responsible for these emissions. Pilot tests were carried out to investigate the dynamics of dust emissions through sinter beds. In addition, several numerical models and characterization methodology were developed to identify the different dust sources around sinter-cooler, quantify their impact on global dust concentration at cooler stack and finally propose solutions to decrease the emissions. A two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to assess dust emissions coming from the sinter bed. This model allows to quantify the impact of different cooler configurations such as bed charging quality, sinter-bed segregation, production and fan numbers on dust emissions. A tridimensional CFD model was also used in different process conditions (high wind velocity – low wind velocity – cooler hood leakages) to determine all necessary inputs to perform global dust emission balance such as cooler hood, stack and leakages flow-rates. Diffuse dust emissions measurements around cooler, sinter-cooler stack flow-rate measurements and dust emissions measurements under cooler hood were also carried out to feed the global balance. Thanks to this study, several designs and process modifications were proposed to decrease dust emissions. Particularly a Discrete Element Method (DEM) model was used to propose implementation of a new charging chute system to limit dust emissions coming from the bed. As well, the cooler zone responsible for more than 95% of emissions was identified and the optimized flow-rate to be treated was calculated in case of fumes treatment implementation.

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26 June / 16:00 - Room 19:

A successful industrial application of selective waste gas recirculation for NOx mitigation without detrimental impact on productivity

L. Beirao do Valle
(CRM Group, Belgium)

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Close26 June, Room 19 ( 16:00 )
Title: A successful industrial application of selective waste gas recirculation for NOx mitigation without detrimental impact on productivity


Author:
L. Beirao do Valle

Company:
CRM Group, Belgium

Co-Authors:
S. Serre, C. Mathy, O. Havelange

Abstract:
ArcelorMittal Fos has invested in a Selective Waste Gas Recirculation (SWGR) aiming at NOX and dust mitigation while avoiding any detrimental impact on productivity. The layout was designed with the support of CRM Group and the full engineering and implementation at industrial scale was carried out by ArcelorMittal Fos itself. The installation was built by Azur Industries. WGR layouts have to be optimised in terms of many targets and constraints (reduced emission of specific pollutants, reduced off-gas flow rate, energy savings, productivity and sinter quality, limited available space…) which may widely differ from one plant to another. Furthermore, the performances vs costs to be expected for one given WGR layout may depend on local conditions (raw materials used, energy costs…). CRM has therefore developed a complete set of tools (its sinter model, a flexible sintering pilot station and industrial measurement capacities) in order to help its affiliated steel companies to make the best choice and optimise layouts in terms of local objectives and payback time. The model assesses the impact of any possible WGR layouts on sintering time, energy consumption and emissions (CO, CO2, NOx and SOx). For the specific case of Fos, CRM model predictions confirmed by pot trials showed promising results in terms of using an original SWGR layout for reducing the NOx emission. The selected final layout could even allow a productivity increase. Simulations results supported also the pre-engineering and economical assessment. First industrial results (2017-18) confirmed the reduction of NOx emissions and showed also a significant improvement in terms of dust emission.

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26 June / 16:20 - Room 19:

Optimization of sinter cooler and development of raw material drying process

Y. Imai
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

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Close26 June, Room 19 ( 16:20 )
Title: Optimization of sinter cooler and development of raw material drying process


Author:
Y. Imai

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:
M. Nakamoto, M. Yakabe, M. Kawarata

Abstract:
For the ordinary sinter cooler, air leakage at rubber seal is a big issue from the view point of cooling and exhaust heat recovery efficiency. Rubber seal of sinter cooler is placed between cooler trough and air chamber to prevent air leakage. However, this rubber seal is very easy to wear, because friction against the cooler trough is inevitable. Accordingly, we have replaced the rubber-seal cooler with water-seal cooler. This enabled us to improve cooling efficiency and expand exhaust heat recovery amount. Air leakage ratio of water-seal cooler is about 5%, which is much lower than that of rubber-seal cooler. We have accomplished this construction project in 2017 and operating smoothly. By the way, in the case of round shape cooler, exhaust gas temperature decrease with progression of cooling process. Therefore in the high temperature gas zone, installation of exhaust heat recovery system, such as boiler, is prevailing. On the other hand, in the low temperature gas zone, conventional heat recovery system is not suitable, because heat recovery efficiency is bad. So the low temperature gas is diffused into the air. In order to utilize the exhaust gas, we have developed the blast furnace raw material drying process using the low temperature exhaust gas from sinter cooler. In our factory, a lot of yard (wet) sinter are supplying to blast furnace on a daily basis, so we tried to dry it. Improvement of permeability and decrease of coke ratio has been achieved by drying the yard sinter. Development of this drying process is also completed in 2017 and operating smoothly. In my presentation, more details about water-seal cooler and raw material drying process will be mentioned.

Room 20

26 June / 09:00 - Casting: Flow control in the tundish, mold and strand

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 20:

Level control - improvement at first sight

R. Wilmes
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 20 ( 09:00 )
Title: Level control - improvement at first sight


Author:
R. Wilmes

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
R. Heidemann, T. Wrobel, R. Wilmes, L. Schaps

Abstract:
Level Control – Improvement at First Sight The ever-increasing quality requirements for the slab quality, in particular for the level control in the mold, require a maximum of flexibility in setting the parameters. Fluctuations in the mold level have a negative effect on the surface quality and lead to devaluations of the product. The mold level control system of the SMS group consists of a modular hardware platform that supports different drive concepts (electromechanical / hydraulic) as well as various measuring systems (radiometric, electromagnetic). Furthermore, the system consists of flexible, parameterizable software, which is equipped with extensive control and technological functions and offers additional observer functions. The integration of this mold level control in an existing system is possible in short stoppages. Commissioning, parameter setting and optimization take place during the ongoing production process. The consistent application of the various control and technological functions, such as Waver Eraser, Power Stabilizer and Dynamic Rod, provides significant improvement in the mold level accuracy and stability. By optimizing an existing system, control technical and technological features have improved the apparent level accuracy from >3mm to <± 1mm (2σ standard deviation). The most significant improvement in this case was the suppression of transient bulging and the reduction to <± 0.5mm.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 20:

Reduction in tundish loss in multistrand billet caster

D. Kumar
(JSW Steel Ltd, India)

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Close26 June, Room 20 ( 09:20 )
Title: Reduction in tundish loss in multistrand billet caster


Author:
D. Kumar

Company:
JSW Steel Ltd, India

Co-Authors:
S. Manjini, R. K., R. K., T. Hosahali, P. Tripathi, M. Manish

Abstract:
Flow behaviour in multistrand tundish is different from the single strand tundish. Draining out the metal at the end of the cast is far more complex in multistrand tundish, specially the billet casters. This tundish loss often called as skull loss is always reported higher in multistrand billet casters compared to single strand casters. In the present work water modelling studies were carried out in 0.25 scale perspex model to design a new tundish bottom for reducing the skull loss in a 8 strand billet caster. Based on the actual skull profile measured after casting an existing design, different bottom configuration (wedge, trough, slope) were studied under the steady and unsteady state conditions for their metallurgical performance. Raised bottom design, reduce the metal loss but initiates the vortex formation. Hence the vortexing studies were carried out using flow visualization in water model. Vortex initiation heights were compared in different configurations during drain out. Change in flow characteristics, specifically, short circuiting time, in the central and end strand was studied using electrical conductivity measurement. Results show that there was no change in vortex initiation height but flow characteristics changed between 3 configurations. Based on the water modelling studies and considering fabrication difficulties, use of wedge at turbo stopper region was found to be most optimized design for reducing the skull loss and improving the yield. Plant trials confirmed that the new wedge reduced the skull loss by 40% and had no adverse effect on the cleanliness of the steel. Keyword: steel making, continuous casting, water model, tundish loss.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 20:

Analysis of fluid flow of liquid steel through clogged nozzles: thermodynamic analyses and flow simulations

R. Morales
(University of Toronto, Canada)

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Close26 June, Room 20 ( 09:40 )
Title: Analysis of fluid flow of liquid steel through clogged nozzles: thermodynamic analyses and flow simulations


Author:
R. Morales

Company:
University of Toronto, Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
R.D. Morales 1), Javier Guarneros G. 2) K. Chattopadhyay3), Bikram Konar 4) 1) Professor, IPN-ESIQIE, Department of Metallurgy, Ed. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico City 07738, rmorales@ipn.mx, currently visiting Professor at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, Canada, M5S 3E4. 2) Research Engineer, K&E Technologies, Manizales 88, San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico City 07369. 3) Dean’s Catalyst Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cross Appointed to Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, Canada, M5S3E4 4) Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, Canada, M5S3E4 Abstract Continuous casting of ultra-low carbon steels (ULC) for the automotive industry always leads to clogging of SEN’s due to the intensive use of aluminum to deoxidize the melt. Although clogging phenomena are, in principle, related to the metallurgical reactions, it has been proved that fluid mechanics has an important role as the distribution of internal pressure in the nozzle changes with the nozzle design. In the present study firstly, a thermodynamic analysis is carried out to predict the mineralogy of the inclusions precipitated during the processing of Ti-stabilized ULC steels. The amount and nature of the inclusions leads to feasible hypothesis of clogging mechanisms in these steels. In the second part, the design of a new nozzle based on novel water modeling techniques and CFD simulations lead to a condition where there is no clogging in the internal bore wall of the nozzle. Regular clogging is only observed in both ports of the nozzle leading to area reductions which improve the flow patterns. Future development will include anti-clogging nozzles developed using physical & chemical principles.

26 June / 10:20 - Casting: Process development and optimization

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 20:

Thermodynamic modeling of refractory/mold slag/steel interactions concerning slag crawling

E. Moosavi-Khoonsari
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

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Close26 June, Room 20 ( 10:20 )
Title: Thermodynamic modeling of refractory/mold slag/steel interactions concerning slag crawling


Author:
E. Moosavi-Khoonsari

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Moosavi-Khoonsari, E. Zinngrebe, S. van der Laan, R. Kalter, F. Mensonides

Abstract:
Slag crawling down the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) may occur during continuous casting of steel affecting SEN port geometry and steel flow patterns in the mold, and leading to defect formation in the final product due to slag accumulations shearing off from the SEN body. There are two possible mechanisms contributing to slag crawling, (a) refractory wetting together with chemical reactions at the refractory/mold slag/steel interface, and (b) liquid steel flow induced drag forces displacing slag down the SEN. In this work, we applied thermodynamic modeling to study extent of chemical reactions at the refractory/slag/steel interface using FactSage 7.2 thermochemical software. The modeling was validated by industrial and experimental observations of slag crawling. A finite number of reaction zones was identified at the interface, and it was assumed chemical reactions reach equilibrium in the designated effective reaction zone volumes. Refractory/slag carbothermic reactions, slag/steel exchange reactions, gas back-infiltration into the refractory body, and deposit formation on the SEN, observed in steel continuous casting, were investigated in detail. Thermodynamic insight into interfacial chemical reactions form the basis for successful development of a kinetic model of the process.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 20:

Control of solidification structure in continuous casting of ferritic stainless steel

J. Kim
(POSCO, South Korea)

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Close26 June, Room 20 ( 10:40 )
Title: Control of solidification structure in continuous casting of ferritic stainless steel


Author:
J. Kim

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In this study, we discussed the control of casting structure to improve the forming and ridging quality of ferritic stainless steels of which the casting structure in the continuous casting process directly affects the final product's qualty. For refining the casting structure of ferritic stainless steel, EMS optimization was developed in continuous casting process and heterogeneous nucleation technology was developed through oxide control in deoxidation process. As a result, the forming and ridging quality of final product could be improved through the refinement of the casting structure, moreover, the low temperture ductility of welding region was improved by refining the solidification structure of that through the oxide control technology.

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 20:

Prevention of transverse corner cracks in continuous casting steel slabs by structural modification of secondary cooling nozzles

E. Lee
(Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea)

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Close26 June, Room 20 ( 11:00 )
Title: Prevention of transverse corner cracks in continuous casting steel slabs by structural modification of secondary cooling nozzles


Author:
E. Lee

Company:
Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea

Co-Authors:
S. Lim, T. Park, W. Cho

Abstract:
During the continuous casting of high alloy steel slabs in a vertical-bending type slab caster, transverse corner cracks were occurred due to the deformation at the bending and unbending area. Especially for Nb, Ti containing peri and medium carbon grade steels are sensitive to transverse corner cracks because of wide embrittlement temperature range. In this study, to ensure that the temperature of the slab surface was uniformly above the embrittlement temperature range during the bending and unbending area, structure changed secondary cooling nozzles were implemented on the caster. As a result of non spraying at the slab corner by 90º rotating the cooling nozzles of the bender, the temperature of the slab surface was increased to above 250℃ and the incidence of transverse corner cracks was greatly reduced. On the contrary, center segregation was worse due to uneven cooling in width direction of the slab.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 20:

Breakout prevention for billets and blooms through contactless mould thermal mapping: A new tool for metallurgists, quality control and productivity improvement

S. Miani
(Ergolines Lab s.r.l., Italy)

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Close26 June, Room 20 ( 11:20 )
Title: Breakout prevention for billets and blooms through contactless mould thermal mapping: A new tool for metallurgists, quality control and productivity improvement


Author:
S. Miani

Company:
Ergolines Lab s.r.l., Italy

Co-Authors:
G. Schiavon, S. Miani, S. Spagnul

Abstract:
The evolution of sensors makes now possible what until some years ago was not feasible. Sensors integration in very small dimensions enables their installation in narrow spaces, without interfering with the consolidated mechanical design of the equipment. Furthermore, contactless technologies based on ultrasound can be applied to obtain temperature information related to the metal casting process reliably and in real time. Ergolines developed a technology able to provide in real time the thermal mapping of continuous casting copper moulds. This is achieved without interfering with the mechanical structure of the mould thanks to the installation on the external side of the water jacket: The copper tube is not machined at all, in contrast to the typical installation of thermocouples or optical fibers, providing a remarkable installation advantage. Being fully contactless and compact, Ergolines’ system can be easily installed in small moulds such as the ones used for billets, extending the thermal mapping concept, today prerogative only of slabs and big blooms, also to small sections. Ergolines’ system is able to provide in real-time an accurate temperature mapping of the first part of the mould. Thanks to this information, the first solidification process of the billet can be monitored and fruitfully used to improve the casting practice: By the metallurgists, to understand the solidification behaviour; by the quality control, to track effectively the 100% of the billets; by the production team, using the breakouts prevention tool to increase the plant availability. This paper describes Ergolines’ system for real-time mould thermal mapping and presents the results of field-testing.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 20:

Secondary cooling in continuous casting: heat transfer measurement - comparison of different methods

M. Javurek
(Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)

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Close26 June, Room 20 ( 11:40 )
Title: Secondary cooling in continuous casting: heat transfer measurement - comparison of different methods


Author:
M. Javurek

Company:
Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Mittermair

Abstract:
In secondary cooling it is very important to know the cooling heat-flux for the actual spray cooling situation with respect to various parameters like the local position, the nozzle types and distances, and the water and air flow rates, in order to be able to control the cooling conditions precisely. Since heat-flux measurements on a casting machine are too challenging, experimental laboratory test rigs have been designed and used for measurements by different research groups. In these experiments, metal probes of different dimensions and materials are heated up to the desired temperature (around 900 to 1200 °C) and then exposed to spray nozzles. The heat-flux is usually measured by temperature sensors immersed in the probe body, and the heat flux is then determined from the measured temperature by using inverse modelling methods. In this contribution, the differences between the real and laboratory conditions are focused using a mathematical heat transfer simulation model. The influence of strand surface temperature, nozzle spray water flow conditions and Leidenfrost effect are pointed out. The effect of the temperature sensor immersion depth and the sampling rate on the accuracy of the inverse modelling process under different cooling situations will be shown. A procedure to use heat-flux data measured on a test rig for the cooling control on a real caster despite of the different conditions is proposed.

26 June / 13:40 - Casting: Refractory materials and tundish lining

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 20:

New corrosion test method for purging refractory ceramic

Q. Robinson
(Vesuvius plc, United States)

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Close26 June, Room 20 ( 13:40 )
Title: New corrosion test method for purging refractory ceramic


Author:
Q. Robinson

Company:
Vesuvius plc, United States

Co-Authors:
M. Snyder, P. Hunger

Abstract:
A new method was developed for corrosion testing of refractory materials used for argon purging in steel ladles, including the next generation OptiClean* and OptiFlow* purge plugs. The OptiClean*, and other purge plugs of this design type, incorporate a porous element to deliver argon to the ladle. “Directional” purge plugs, like OptiFlow™, use slots formed within a castable refractory to deliver argon to the ladle. A significantly improved erosion resistance was measured for the OptiClean* purge plugs compared to other commercially available purge plugs. This new test uses a purge plug, which is inserted into the bottom of a “pony ladle” with a capacity of 250 kg. Argon, or other gases, is purged through this plug into a bath of molten metal within the ladle. After gas purging, the ladle is emptied of molten metal. In some variations of the corrosion test the hot face of the purge plug is cleaned with an oxygen lance. The process of purging and lancing is repeated multiple times to mimic how a purge plug is used in steel mills or foundries. Conditions during the purging and lancing procedure are kept as constant as possible and molten metal temperature and quantity as well as argon gas flow and pressure are tightly controlled. After evaluating various purge plugs and test conditions, the purge plugs were analyzed for rates of corrosion and steel penetration. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms of erosion and steel penetration, these findings were correlated with the specific boundary conditions during the test. The results of this study and the potential of this new test method will be presented in this paper.

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 20:

Development of CaO-TiO2-ZrO2 anti-clogging material for submerged entry nozzle and its application

J. Kim
(Chosun Refractories Co., Ltd., South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 20 ( 14:00 )
Title: Development of CaO-TiO2-ZrO2 anti-clogging material for submerged entry nozzle and its application


Author:
J. Kim

Company:
Chosun Refractories Co., Ltd., South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Preventing the alumina clogging of submerged entry nozzle(SEN) is greatly important not only for proloning service life of SEN but also improving steel quality. Calcium Zirconate(CZ) nozzle lining material has been used with advantage by many steel makers to reduce SEN clogging so far. However, it is still a target to extend sevice life and improving steel quality. In this work, we have developed new CaO-TiO2-ZrO2(CTZ) lining material on the basis of conventional CZ material to prevent alumina clogging for submerged entry nozzle. We tested new CTZ lining material and it performed very well at POSCO Slab Caster.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 20:

Optimizing tundish lining refractory by steel grade in continuous casting

Y. Park
(Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 20 ( 14:20 )
Title: Optimizing tundish lining refractory by steel grade in continuous casting


Author:
Y. Park

Company:
Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea

Co-Authors:
T. Ha, W. Ki, S. Ryu

Abstract:
Refractories used in tundish during continuous casting have diverse and important role like flow control, the floating separation of inclusion and the prevention of reoxidation. However, these refractories may cause problems such as erosion, large inclusion and clogging when the refractory is not suitable material for each type of steel grade. Those problems of refractory will effect degrading the productivity and product quality, and these also can be leaded to stop the casting process. Especially tundish lining cause these problems more than other refractories, because the contact area of molten steel with lining refractory of tundish sidewalls and bottom is much larger than others. So, there should be more interactions exist. Therefore, suitable materials of tundish lining refractory were selected by each type of steel grade through the lab. test to improve these problems. And finally, the materials for optimizing refractories were selected based on product quality and operation condition.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 20:

Microstructures of mould slag crawling at the SEN during thin slab casting

E. Zinngrebe
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 20 ( 14:40 )
Title: Microstructures of mould slag crawling at the SEN during thin slab casting


Author:
E. Zinngrebe

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
M. van Wijngaarden, F. Mensonides, R. Kalter, S. van der Laan, M. Rijnders

Abstract:
Microstructures of Mould Slag Crawling at the SEN during Thin Slab Casting: Observations and Experiments Enno Zinngrebe, Marco Rijnders, Sieger van der Laan, Rudi Kalter, Fokko Mensonides, Mary van Wijngaarden Tata Steel, the Netherlands Mould slag crawling down the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) has been observed in post mortem studies of SENs after thin slab casting of Ca-treated steel at Ijmuiden Works, the Netherlands. A thin film of slag is observed to exist coating the outer SEN surface that can be distinguished from post-casting mould slag painting. The slag layer reaches at least to submersion depths corresponding to the lower bound of the zirconia anticorrosion wear band and sometimes also reaching the upper outflow ports of the four port SEN. The composition of this slag film is a combined product of mould slag, reaction product of slag with the underlying refractory, and deposition of the steel’s NMI (calcium aluminates). To help understand the formation and stability of this slag film, laboratory experiments were conducted with steel, slag and refractory in a 1 atm gas mixing furnace at 1570 oC. In the experiments crucibles were used that are made of alumina-carbon refractory as used in the actual SENs. A combined charge of pre-fused mould flux encapsulated in steel was used to prevent premature slag-refractory reaction on the experimental heating trajectory. Interaction times ranged from 1 to 10 min and the development of the morphology and composition of the resultant slag film between refractory and molten steel were studied. A slag film is established rapidly enveloping the entire steel charge (no direct steel to refractory contact) and its composition changed to an Al2O3 rich composition close to alumina saturation. In this state, which is compositionally comparable to the slag films observed close to the SEN in practice, the slag can spread along

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 20:

Long steel casting with flexible system for open and shrouded stream

F. Fabri
(Vesuvius plc, Brazil)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 20 ( 15:00 )
Title: Long steel casting with flexible system for open and shrouded stream


Author:
F. Fabri

Company:
Vesuvius plc, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The CNC Shrouded* is a tundish flow control system that allows the cast of long products in both open or shrouded stream from tundish to the mold. This allows steel of higher quality to be cast by protecting the stream from the re-oxidation from atmosphere as well as the usage of flux powder as lubricant, which also improves quality in terms of surface and thermal exchange with the mold. The trials were conducted to validate the proposition and evaluate the differences in terms of quality, considering surface of the billet, and as a second step, chemical analysis of samples. The preliminary results have proven the system improves significantly the quality, by having a much better surface quality as well as no re-oxidation, while being of simple usage operationally and of lower cost compared to other systems where there is flow control, such as tundish slide gate or stopper and submerged entry nozzle. *trademarks of the Vesuvius plc group of companies, unregistered or registered in certain countries

Room 21

26 June / 09:00 - Electric steelmaking: matallurgy and operation of electric arc furnaces and new plants

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 21:

Modifying the EAF voltage tap profile for lowering electrode tip consumption and increased energy efficiency

M. Aula
(Luxmet Oy, Finland)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: Modifying the EAF voltage tap profile for lowering electrode tip consumption and increased energy efficiency


Author:
M. Aula

Company:
Luxmet Oy, Finland

Co-Authors:
T. Fabritius, M. Jokinen, V. Visuri, N. Hyttinen, T. Veijola

Abstract:
Decreasing the electrode wear in electric arc furnace has become an important topic due to current high electrode prices. One way to reduce electrode wear is to lower the average current used in the electric arc furnace (EAF) processing, which leads to lower electrode tip surface temperatures. This effect is prominent in stainless steelmaking, where the electrode is not submerged in foaming slag. Lowering the arc current also decreases reactive power and transmission losses. However, with constant arc power, lowering the arc current increases the arc voltage, thus increasing the energy loss to the sides. To protect the furnace lining and side panels, the energy loss to the sides need to be controlled. A possible scenario to use the electrode saving profile is when an EAF is not a production bottleneck. When the EAF must wait for subsequent process steps, more efficient voltage tap profile can be employed. The aim of this work was to formulate an EAF voltage tap profile for minimum electrode consumption. To control the loss of energy to the sides, a control system based on the on-line optical emission measurement was proposed. The profile was made according to the EAF specifications of EAF 1 at Outokumpu Stainless Oy in Tornio, Finland. The difference between current voltage tap profile was analyzed. Calculations with empirical correlations for electrode tip sublimation suggest that the efficiency profile reduces the electrode wear by 40% and increased power-on-time by 11.4%. The industrial trials at Outokumpu Stainless demonstrated that increasing impedance by 15% decreased the arc current by 8.2%, which decreased the calculated electrode tip consumption by 18.2%. The savings obtained at the site depend on how often the maximum efficiency profile can be employed compared to the current profile, which emphasizes productivity.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 21:

The minimill flat of the future - EAF and Arvedi ESP based best practice

M. Fleischer
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 09:20 )
Title: The minimill flat of the future - EAF and Arvedi ESP based best practice


Author:
M. Fleischer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Viehböck, G. Arvedi

Abstract:
New targets for CO2 emissions and lowest energy consumption are dominating the daily news with the target to keep global warming under control. In parallel the steelmaking raw materials industry is changing structurally as Chinese obsolete scrap will increase substantially. Over the long-term, this means usage of more the electric arc furnace route for flat products. Investors in steel industry are requested to keep this in mind when applying for production approvals and new investments. In steel production melting and rolling are the process steps with the highest energy consumption and therefore the lever to be investigated. EAF combined with Arvedi ESP are the couple perfectly addressing significant energy and emission reductions as well as using local raw material sources. Based on scrap input this energy-saving flat mini mill allows for premium products at lowest energy input thus drastically reduced the cost basis. Details on plant setup, parameters and reference projects will be discussed in this paper.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 21:

Comparative study and computer analysis of slag foaming in electric arc furnaces

T. Durante
(Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo, Brazil)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 09:40 )
Title: Comparative study and computer analysis of slag foaming in electric arc furnaces


Author:
T. Durante

Company:
Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo, Brazil

Co-Authors:
J. Oliveira, A. Berger, T. Avelar

Abstract:
The current industrial steelmaking process needs of competitiveness and cost reduction are based in consolidated techniques that must be guaranteed to be followed by a good performance. To electric arc furnace (EAF) the use of foaming slags was developed to guarantee a decrease in consumption of electric energy, electrodes and refractories. From this point of view this paper carried out a comparative study in which six laboratory produced slags and seven industrial slags were analyzed based on its compositions and FactSage 7.0 results, in order to measure the most advantageous conditions both in relation to the properties and the composition of the foaming slags. From the laboratory slags one ideal foaming condition was achieved with a composition of 8% FeO, 22% MgO, 12% of precipitated phases, a ternary basicity of 1.2 to 1.4 and viscosity at about 0.5 Poise. The industrial runs slags did not showed values within these parameters, however, with the analyses, it was possible to identify that there are vast compositions combinations that will provide an optimized process, and all related to the following improvements: reducing the FeO levels, aiming at superior race yields and higher viscosity of foaming slags; Increase of MgO contents pursuing saturation and to provide precipitated second phases, essential for the quality of the foaming; Increase the yield of the carbon reactions, reducing its additions and reaching a greater generation of gases to be sustained by the slag, consolidating the foaming.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 21:

Quantitative evaluation of solid or gas phase in molten slag characterized under alternative current field

N. Saito
(Kyushu University, Japan)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 10:00 )
Title: Quantitative evaluation of solid or gas phase in molten slag characterized under alternative current field


Author:
N. Saito

Company:
Kyushu University, Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Crystallization behavior of supercooled calcium silicate-based slags were systematically investigated by the measurement of their electrical capacitance. It is well known that the electrical capacitance of liquids is generally much higher than that of solids owing to the differences in their dielectric constant. These differences were exploited as a sensitive indicator of the crystallization of molten slags. As expected, at a particular temperature, the electrical capacitance of the molten slags underwent a precipitous decrease by roughly three orders of magnitude, which was dependent on the chemical composition. This indicated the presence of crystallization and this was confirmed by corresponding microstructural characterization. It was also found that, for the measurements acquired with rotating agitation, the temperatures at which the capacitance underwent the sharp decrease were higher than that identified without the agitation. Moreover, a novel- and in situ- quantifying method for the crystallinity of super-cooled slags was proposed by the measurement of their electrical capacitance. For the calibration of electrode configuration employed, a theoretical capacitance model based on the dimensions of electrodes was proposed, which can provide crystallinity of silicate melt at elevated temperature. Additionally, a simulated foaming slag was produced by dispersing inert gas bubbles in various liquids. The effect of varying the volume fraction of the dispersed gas phase on the impedance was then systematically investigated with cylindrical configurations of electrodes. The following equivalent circuit analyses on the semicircular Nyquist plots indicated that electrodes with foaming slag consisted of a series circuit of the solution resistance, a parallel junction of the double layer capacitance, and the resistance of the electric charge transfer. The charge transfer resistances revealed a good linear relationship against the gas phase fraction in glycerol solutions. This suggests a possible approach to quantitatively evaluating the gas phase fraction of a foaming slag by measuring the impedance.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 21:

Development of melting process by optimizing the blowing pattern in the electric arc furnace

M. Tseng
(Dragon Steel Corporation, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 10:20 )
Title: Development of melting process by optimizing the blowing pattern in the electric arc furnace


Author:
M. Tseng

Company:
Dragon Steel Corporation, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Dragon Steel Corporation is committed to recover the recycled steelmaking slag in the electric arc furnace for environmental protection, which can reduce the slag production. However, recovering the recycled slag shows lower efficiency, such as lower iron recovery and higher energy consumption. A modified steelmaking process has been developed to improve the melting efficiency of the recycled slag immersed in the liquid steelmaking slag, and the result also shows higher efficiency of dephosphorization. Not only the process is more friendly to the environment, but the cost is also less for manufacturing.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 21:

Production of NO and GO electrical steels at Big River Steel

J. Kempken
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 10:40 )
Title: Production of NO and GO electrical steels at Big River Steel


Author:
J. Kempken

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Eichert, J. Schlüter, T. Hill, D. Hennessy, A. Beasley , J. Youngblood, R. Garrison, P. Padlan

Abstract:
The new steel mill complex at Big River Steel LLC in Osceola in the U.S. State of Arkansas is now in operation nearly two years. The major amount of production at Big River Steel consists of Low carbon and HSLA grades as well as pipe grades. The first trial heats for non-grain oriented (NGO) and grain oriented (GO) silicon steel have been executed in June 2018 and the results are promising. Applying a production route with RH and subsequent LF process is able to fulfil the targets with regard to ultra-low carbon and sulphur contents. Nitrogen contents are to be controlled during tapping and LF processing. This paper will describe the process route consisting of EAF – LF – RH – CSP caster and the results of the first trial heats going from aggregate to aggregate with a special focus on the development of the carbon, sulphur and nitrogen contents during melting and casting operation. It will also describe the different measures and process parameters which had been applied during the trial heats. Keywords: Silicon steel grades; undesired trace elements; EAF; RH; LF; trial heats

26 June / 11:20 - Casting: Product quality (surface defects, internal quality) I

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 21:

Reveal CAST surface inspection system - Surface quality monitoring for cast and grinded semis

H. Suopajärvi
(Sapotech Oy, Finland)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 11:20 )
Title: Reveal CAST surface inspection system - Surface quality monitoring for cast and grinded semis


Author:
H. Suopajärvi

Company:
Sapotech Oy, Finland

Co-Authors:
S. Kaukonen, I. Salmela, P. Hooli

Abstract:
The quality of continuous cast steel semi-products (e.g. slabs, billets, blooms) is the basis for efficient production of high-quality steel products to demanding markets. Continuous casting technology has developed significantly to increase the production rate. Several control and monitoring technologies have been successfully developed to allow fast casting speeds even with difficult steel grades. The missing link from the quality point of view has been a shortage of reliable surface inspection system to inspect the quality of hot glowing semi-products in real-time. The on-line quality monitoring of semi-product surface quality would allow fast response not only for the decisions concerning the required operations down-stream, but also to close the loop to the caster operations. In order to justify the investment on semi-product surface inspection system, it has to fulfill several requirements. The main requirement is naturally the reliable detection of surface defects that may inhibit the production of high-quality steel products after subsequent processing. One of the key things is the flexibility of the system to be adopted in variety of installation locations. Continuous casting lines may have shortage of space, which calls for system with small footprint. Due to the nature of continuous casting process, the installation of the equipment should be as fast as possible with minimized production disturbances. Reliable operation in harsh conditions, easy maintenance and user-friendliness are of importance too. The Reveal CAST surface inspection system fulfills all the above-mentioned requirements and more. This paper describes the technical features of the system and the benefits that this flexible quality monitoring solution can bring to the quality-driven steel production from the viewpoint of cast and grinded products. In addition, the data management and product traceability issues are discussed in a light of digitalization of the metals industry and Industry 4.0.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 21:

Slab inspection

T. Marx
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 11:40 )
Title: Slab inspection


Author:
T. Marx

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Surface treatment of slabs using fully automatic in-line inspection In the context of advancing digitalization, certifications become increasingly important. They often are a prerequisite for steel producers to be able to sell their slabs to automotive manufacturers. To obtain such certification, a continuous process for the production of high-quality slabs and their subsequent treatment must be established. Usually, the different processing steps take place at different locations within the mill. With the fully automatic in-line slab inspection system, SMS group has developed a new concept for this treatment process and brought the different processing steps together in one line. Thanks to the new in-line system, the slabs now pass through a consistent process, which essentially includes the steps of scarfing, descaling, three-dimensional inspection and grinding of specific areas of the slab surfaces. In the scarfing process, all four surfaces – the two broad faces and the two narrow faces – are treated. This is made possible by turning the slab by 180°. Subsequently, the top and bottom faces of the slab are automatically inspected by two- and three-dimensional systems. Any defects detected in the process are eliminated by grinding the two broad faces, which is also possible thanks to a 180°-turn. In a final step, the slabs are provided with an identification mark and transported to the slab yard by means of a crane. By means of an interface to Level 2 of the X-Pact ® electrical and automation systems, feedback can be given on each slab leaving the line after treatment. This allows for continuous documentation of the entire process.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 21:

The role of grain boundary oxidation on surface crack formation under continuous casting conditions

R. Krobath
(Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 12:00 )
Title: The role of grain boundary oxidation on surface crack formation under continuous casting conditions


Author:
R. Krobath

Company:
Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:
P. Pennerstorfer, S. Hahn, J. Six, S. Ilie, P. Presoly, C. Bernhard

Abstract:
The most common macroscopic surface defects - like transversal cracks and longitudinal cracks along the broad face or the corner region - seem to be well controllable by newly developed process control systems of cc machines. Today, frequently observed quality issues result from microscopic cracks, nearly undetectable on the as-cast surface and apparently formed along prior grain boundaries. The morphology of these defects makes an interaction with subsurface defects but also with selective oxidation of grain boundaries plausible. The classical mechanisms for defect formation in cc as derived from hot-tensile experiments (ferrite films, precipitations, austenite grain coarsening) do not sufficiently contribute to the prevention of this kind of defects, as they reduce the relatively complex topic to the definition of “critical temperature ranges”. A recently developed in-situ bending experiment (IMC-B test) provides new perspectives on the role of the thermal history immediately after solidification and during secondary cooling: Grain coarsening and selective oxidation along grain boundaries at temperatures above 1100 °C show a significant effect on the crack sensitivity of steel in the subsequent bending experiment. For certain steel grades, the effect of the thermal history dominates over the effect of precipitations. For certain thermal cycles and cooling rates even bending at a strain of less than 2% is sufficient to nucleate numerous defects in the temperature range of 850 to 1000 °C whereas the same steel grade is rather insensitive in case of other previous thermal histories. The present paper deals with a comparison of experimental results for sensitive and less sensitive steel grades, shows the influence of different cooling strategies on number of formed defects, gives examples for the morphology of the nucleated defects and explains the role of the previous thermal history by means of controlled, high-temperature oxidation experiments.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 21:

Real-time mould temperature control for the purpose of consistent slab quality

M. Mul
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 12:20 )
Title: Real-time mould temperature control for the purpose of consistent slab quality


Author:
M. Mul

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In a continuous slab casting installation, trials have been conducted using fiber bragg gratings to measure temperatures inside the copper mould plates. This enormous amount of temperature data enables quantification of casting process characteristics. Product quality data can be obtained from surface inspection systems of the hot strip mill and galvanizing lines. The expected result is that the behaviour of these casting process characteristics show a causal relation with product quality. Argon settings and electromagnetic flow control parameters may be based on this information, with regards to set-up values or control systems. Fiber bragg gratings will be the method of temperature measurement in all four mould plates in Tata Steel’s Continuous Caster Machine 23 in IJmuiden, which is at the moment of writing still under construction. This unlocks great potential for an increased consistency of slab quality and a more accurate slab grading method.

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26 June / 12:40 - Room 21:

A study on a prediction model of hot ductility in steel using machine learning method

D. Hong
(GIFT POSTECH, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

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Title: A study on a prediction model of hot ductility in steel using machine learning method


Author:
D. Hong

Company:
GIFT POSTECH, South Korea

Co-Authors:
S. Kwon, C. Yim

Abstract:
Surface cracking in continuous casting is one of the most serious problems in the steel production process. Steels for marine structure, shipbuilding, and pressure vessel are especially more vulnerable to cracks. In order to reduce the cracks of the cast steel, the hot ductility is measured in consideration of the operating conditions, and the secondary cooling conditions in the casting facility are set based on the measurements. However, it is impossible to examine all commercially produced steel grades with the conditions of casting and facility setting to avoid the region of low RA value on bending/unbending area, so a more efficient hot ductility prediction method is required. In this study, we propose an automatic prediction system for the experimental value of RA (reduction of area), which can predict the hot ductile embrittlement period reflecting conditions such as composition and thermal history for steel. The proposed system predicts hot ductility values by using machine learning and experimental data based on the multi-layer networks model. The database structure for learning the hot ductility consists of three components: composition, experimental environmental variables and ductility values according to temperature. To validate the consistency of the proposed machine learning model, a high temperature tensile test is performed on the steels as a case study. In case of steel with V or U shape-trough, the predicted value agrees well with the experimental value. Therefore, this study makes it possible to derive operating conditions that minimize the cracking cracks by making the temperature range with the RA value inconsistent with the bending/unbending area of the continuous casting facilities.

26 June / 13:30 - Casting: Product quality (surface defects, internal quality) II

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26 June / 13:30 - Room 21:

From slab to tinplate - metallurgical and process engineering requirements and measures to ensure an excellent degree of purity for packaging steel

C. Schwanke
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 13:30 )
Title: From slab to tinplate - metallurgical and process engineering requirements and measures to ensure an excellent degree of purity for packaging steel


Author:
C. Schwanke

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
W. Schulte, S. Schiester, S. Karrasch, C. Toulouse, A. Ploch, C. Schwanke

Abstract:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe produces 1.7 million tonnes of slabs at the Duisburg site as a raw material for the production of packaging steel (tinplate). The slabs are rolled in the hot strip mills 1, 2 & 3 to hot strips with the typical dimensions 1240 mm wide and 3.0 mm thick. The hot-rolled strip is being processed at thyssenkrupp Packaging Steel in Andernach to form tinned or special chrome-plated thin sheet. The highest standards of purity and surface quality of the raw steel produced are in particular the DWI (Drawn and Ironed can) cans for the beverage and food packaging industry. The initial thickness of the tinplate before DWI production has been reduced since 1990 from 0.29 mm to 0.21 mm. Simultaneous increase in productivity with concomitant increase in process speed during deep drawing and ironing of cans to reduce sidewalls to 0.060 mm thickness prohibits the existence of coarse inclusions and non-metallic contaminants. To accompany these customer requirements, continuous optimization of the metallurgical process route must be carried out. In this context, the influence of [S] and [O] on the occurrence of slag inclusions is investigated. Slag management, primary and secondary metallurgy will be examined for the mechanism of generation of olivine periclasis inclusions. The influence of the casting througput is examined in detail. Reduced casting througput to improve the degree of purity is tested and evaluated on the final product. An industrial continuous caster is being converted from online longitudinal slitting to single-strand width. The results are mirrored with modified magnetic test procedures and also on the final product.

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26 June / 13:50 - Room 21:

Comparison and utilization of evaluation method for internal quality of slab

W. Choi
(POSCO, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 13:50 )
Title: Comparison and utilization of evaluation method for internal quality of slab


Author:
W. Choi

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Comparison and utilization of evaluation method for internal quality of slab. When the automotive steel sheet (S-EDDQ) is pressed under extreme conditions, a crack occurs at a position where the decrease in thickness is large. Non-metallic inclusions are observed at the position where cracks occur. In order to prevent defects, it is important to improve the press condition and to reduce the number of non-metallic inclusions. In the past, the level (size, number, type) of inclusions inside the slab has not been evaluated and quantified. In this study, we tried to adopt and utilize the optimal method to evaluate the internal quality of Slab. We compared the strengths and weaknesses of the various evaluation methods in use at POSCO, selected the best proposals and used them to quantify quality.

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26 June / 14:10 - Room 21:

Improvement of hot ductility of low carbon alloy steel by thermal history

S. Kwon
(GIFT POSTECH, South Korea)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 14:10 )
Title: Improvement of hot ductility of low carbon alloy steel by thermal history


Author:
S. Kwon

Company:
GIFT POSTECH, South Korea

Co-Authors:
C. Yim, S. Moon, J. Min, J. Lee, Y. Heo, D. Kim

Abstract:
Recently, various alloying elements have been added to get higher mechanical properties. However, due to the increase of alloying elements, surface cracks of casting steel continuously occur during the continuous casting process. These surface cracks cause an economic loss by lowering the quality of slab and an additional method for preventing such defects is needed. In general, the hot ductility of steel is measured, and using the results the continuous casting conditions are set so that the temperature region which have lower ductility is not matched where deformation is applied in continuous casting. However, a steel grade containing various alloying elements has lower ductility in wide temperature range, so it is difficult to control that the temperature which has low ductility and slab deformed region do not match with each other during continuous casting process. In this study, the change of hot ductility was observed with various thermal history and the mechanism was investigated. The specimen was reheated to tensile temperature after cooled down to various cooling target temperatures (500~700˚C) from 1400˚C. The cooling rate at that time was 1˚C/sec. As a result, it was confirmed that the RA (Reduction of Area) value of the steel could be increased about 40~50%. Especially, the degree of increasing the ductility depends on the cooling target temperature. RA values increase with decreasing cooling target temperature and it is caused by not changed of grain size but formation of sulfide precipitation. To be specific, formation of sulfide in a grain seem to decrease the sulfur segregation on a grain boundary and then it reduce grain boundary embrittlement. And further studies are conducting to clarify grain boundary segregation.

26 June / 15:20 - Electric steelmaking: Energy efficiency and energy recovery, Ladle metallurgy

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 21:

Reduction of liquid EAF slag - a milestone to NoWASTE electric steel melting

H. Schliephake
(Georgsmarienhütte GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 15:20 )
Title: Reduction of liquid EAF slag - a milestone to NoWASTE electric steel melting


Author:
H. Schliephake

Company:
Georgsmarienhütte GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Zehn, H. Rauen, R. Deike, D. Algermissen

Abstract:
With a crude steel production of nearly one million tons Georgsmarienhütte ranks among the bigger electric steel plants in Germany and is the first mover regarding energy management, environmental protection and slag utilization. Since many years the company has participated in various public and internal research projects relating to in-plant ways of recycling for by-products to close the recovered material cycle entirely and to create products with a higher intrinsic value from the slag. This comprises the provision of evidence for recovery of hot metal from EAF slag by partial reduction. In this regard, the production of a high-quality mineral material which meets the upcoming regulations in Germany must be mentioned, with simultaneous consideration of the quality of the recovered metal, e. g. low in phosphorous, for further valuable use in the industry. For this project, several tests in laboratory and in operational scale were performed by injecting a reducing-agent-mixture in liquid EAF slag. By thermochemical calculations, the optimum mixture of reducing and conditioning agents was found. The leaching of heavy metals was decreased significantly and a partly reduced slag with a good environmental and technical properties was produced. Also, the phosphorous content in the recovered metal, due to the reduction process, was suitable to bring this valuable metal to other industries. By implementing this procedure in operational practice, Georgsmarienhütte can close another recovered material cycle. This project belongs to the ongoing activities of Georgsmarienhütte GmbH to reconcile the economic and ecological challenges at the location Germany and underline our intention to be the first electric steel plant in Europe which has managed to implement the internal NoWASTE Strategy by comprehensive research and development activities.

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26 June / 15:40 - Room 21:

First results of Q-ONE, innovative technology applied in the electric energy transfer to Electric Arc Furnace.

M. Bianco
(Danieli Automation S.p.A., Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 15:40 )
Title: First results of Q-ONE, innovative technology applied in the electric energy transfer to Electric Arc Furnace.


Author:
M. Bianco

Company:
Danieli Automation S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
E. Gigante, S. Barbanti

Abstract:
Q-ONE is a completely new approach in terms of electric energy supply to EAF. Danieli Automation completely redesigned the feeding electric circuit: no more SVC, transformer and reactor, but a new solution that allows a control of voltage and current on EAF electrodes. For the same apparent power, the corresponding Active Power is increased and power transfer is much more stable, with reduction of tap-to-tap time, electric energy and electrode consumption. Considering the results obtained at FLAG and AFC plants (Gruppo Cividale, Italy) the article describes the breakthrough technological solution and summarizes achievements and future developments of this innovative technology.

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26 June / 16:00 - Room 21:

Consteerrer™ Technology: Getting the most out of the electric steelmaking process

P. Stagnoli
(Tenova, Italy)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 16:00 )
Title: Consteerrer™ Technology: Getting the most out of the electric steelmaking process


Author:
P. Stagnoli

Company:
Tenova, Italy

Co-Authors:
A. Grasselli

Abstract:
CONSTEERRER™ TECHNOLOGY: GETTING THE MOST OUT OF THE ELECTRIC STEELMAKING PROCESS A. Grasselli, S. Reali (Tenova S.p.A.), J. Andersson, A.F. Lehman, L. Teng (ABB) Taking into account their great history and experience in plant engineering, TENOVA and ABB have become partners creating an innovative technology to further enhance the efficiency of Consteel® furnaces. Thanks to a mutual technological effort and close collaboration, TENOVA and ABB have jointly developed CONSTEERRER™ with the aim of making liquid steel faster, in a safer manner and at lower cost. The CONSTEERRER™ technology is a new and original concept specifically designed for the Consteel® furnace. Integration of electromagnetic stirring within the EAF continuous charging process allows for control of the velocity given to the mass of the liquid steel (momentum), introducing a new parameter for more effective management of the melting process and overall performance improvement. The present study, complete with water modelling and fluid dynamic simulations, demonstrates the benefits of the CONSTEERER™ technology on the operation of the Consteel® EAF. Control is fully automated and relevant to the various EAF process steps such as scrap melting, heating and homogenization, de-carburization, deslagging and tapping. The flexibility given by the CONSTEERRER™ technology matches with any steelmaking scenario. Operation is characterized by low cost, consistent and reliable practice and high repeatability of results in the context of improved safety conditions.

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26 June / 16:20 - Room 21:

Mixing, ladle eye and shear stresses with a dual plug configuration using identical and non-identical bottom gas injection conditions in ladles

A. Conejo
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 16:20 )
Title: Mixing, ladle eye and shear stresses with a dual plug configuration using identical and non-identical bottom gas injection conditions in ladles


Author:
A. Conejo

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Mixing phenomena in argon stirred, dual plug fitted ladles have been studied through water and mathematical modeling. Mixing time in the model ladle system has been experimentally investigated by tracer dispersion method and two optimum gas injection configurations, depending on the gas flow rate, with identical as well as non-identical nozzle radial positions, were identified. Experiments were conducted with and without a top slag layer. The effect on mixing time and ladle eye using identical and non-identical gas flow rate with the two optimum nozzle radial positions was also investigated. Parallel to such, a RANS based turbulent three dimensional, coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (VOF-DPM) multiphase flow model has been developed to compute shear stresses on the wall. It has been found that the best arrangement of porous plugs with respect to mixing time, ladle eye and shear stresses, changes depending on the gas flow rate and also changes depending on the performance parameter of interest.

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26 June / 16:40 - Room 21:

Quantum goes brownfield: How to integrate shaft furnace in existing plants

H. Beile
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 16:40 )
Title: Quantum goes brownfield: How to integrate shaft furnace in existing plants


Author:
H. Beile

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Apfel

Abstract:
Since several months, the worldwide scrap availability is getting better and better. The prices for electrical energy are rising thus the efficiency of electric arc furnaces is getting more important. Possible upgrades to pre heating furnaces very often are limited due to scrap yard and meltshop logistics, meltshop heights above the EAF area, and crane heights as well as lifting capacities. The biggest challenge of a brownfield integration of shaft furnace technologies is to reduce the shaft height without losing the efficiency of the scrap pre heating. Existing meltshop bay as well as crane heights usually limit the possibilities for shaft furnace integrations. Furthermore, the scrap logistics and the shorter tap to tap times have to be considered. This paper will outline the available technical solutions, offered by PT, and will show the benefits in terms of OPEX and productivity increase by using latest shaft furnace technologies with minor changes to the existing meltshop.

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26 June / 17:00 - Room 21:

Research on inclusion control in high grade gear steel

Z. Chen
(Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 21 ( 17:00 )
Title: Research on inclusion control in high grade gear steel


Author:
Z. Chen

Company:
Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:
G. Yang, X. Liu

Abstract:
Ds inclusions have great influence on the fatigue life of case hardening gear steel, high grade case hardening gear steel for Japanese cars is used to limit calcium treatment during steelmaking process. Non-calcium treated case hardening gear steel contain mainly high-melting inclusions, which can easily clog the nozzles during continuous casting, resulting in a low number of continuous casting heats and large B-type inclusions in the finished products. On the basis of thermodynamic calculation and study on the evolution of inclusions in steelmaking process, through optimization of alloy types and addition methods, refining slag composition, VD vacuum treatment and protective casting, the number of continuous casting heats is increased from 2 to 6, and the rating of B-type inclusions in the finished products is reduced from the original ≥3.0 to 0.5.

Room 22

26 June / 09:00 - Pelletising: Fundamentals in pelletising

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 22:

Effects of Ca additive on the mineral structure and compressive strength of pellet

R. Wang
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 09:00 )
Title: Effects of Ca additive on the mineral structure and compressive strength of pellet


Author:
R. Wang

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
To neutralize the negative effect of adding magnesium olivine on the compressive strength of pellet, Ca additive was used in pellet. The effect of basicity on the compressive strength, phase composition and mineral structure of Mg-containing magnetite pellet was studied by changing the Ca additive content in pellet. Six groups of pellet were prepared the pellet was further subjected to the preheating and roasting processes in tube furnaces. Scanning electron microscopy-Energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fact-sage software were used to characterize the microstructure and phase composition of pellets. Results showed that five types of phases exist in pellets, which are hematite, (Mg,Fe)O–Fe2O3, silicate, calcium ferrite and incompletely mineralize magnesium olivine. With the addition of Ca additive, the compressive increased firstly and then decreased, the porosity tended an opposite trend, which indicated that Ca additive is conductive to the strength of Mg-containing pellet.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 22:

Importance of green pellet mixture properties - a new approach towards online monitoring and controlling

T. Stefan
(Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 09:20 )
Title: Importance of green pellet mixture properties - a new approach towards online monitoring and controlling


Author:
T. Stefan

Company:
Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Lang

Abstract:
The pelletizing industry is facing a permanent requirement for process optimization in regard to productivity, quality and energy consumption. Operators worldwide are aware that successful furnace operation is getting set much further up-stream the actual process route. Raw material properties, grinding, dewatering and none the less mixing has a decisive effect on green pellet quality and therefore on bed permeability. Controlling the respective green pellet features, especially plasticity, is the basis for good bed permeability and omitting of fines generation. Unfortunately the balling process is decoupled in time from the up-stream processes as the mixed material resides in bins, which makes accurate controlling of mixing nearly impossible. The research study presented here aims to clarify the question whether the most important green pellet properties can be predicted from a mixture evaluation. Automation of this analysis method opens up for controlling the mixing process and optimization of green pellet properties. A systematic investigation was performed using a laboratory pelletizing disc and testing methods known from the foundry sand industry in order to be able to correlate green pellet properties with cylindrical test specimens (Figure attached) directly made from mixture by ramming. The results are indicating that there is a strong correlation between mechanical properties of test specimens formed from the mixture and pellets that get balled from the same material. The automated analysis of test specimens enables the controlling of the mixture quality in order to optimize the mechanical green pellet features with all known positive effects on the induration process.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 22:

Effect of MgO on the oxidation properties of magnetite

Y. Wang
(University of science and technology beijing, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 09:40 )
Title: Effect of MgO on the oxidation properties of magnetite


Author:
Y. Wang

Company:
University of science and technology beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The magnetite-pellet is based on the consolidation of the Fe2O3 crystal. In general, the magnetite is oxidized during the heating process to form Fe2O3 crystallites. The ion migration of the newly formed Fe2O3 crystallites during the high-temperature roasting process. The microcrystals are grown to form a connecting bridge, and the particles in the green ball are bonded to each other. It can be seen that magnetite oxidation is the basis for the growth of high-quality pellets and the consolidation of roasting. However, due to differences in mineral composition and solid solution form of magnetite, there are inevitably differences in oxidation characteristics such as oxidation initiation temperature, oxidation rate, and conversion rate, and the relationship between mineral characteristics and oxidation characteristics is determined for determining appropriate conditions. The pellet production process parameters are of great significance. In this paper, the oxidation properties of the main typical magnetite and solid solution magnetite are studied comprehensively by thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques, and the differences in the oxidation properties of different magnetites are clarified.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 22:

Green ball plasticity - measurement, influences and downstream effects in iron ore pelletising

A. Firth
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 10:00 )
Title: Green ball plasticity - measurement, influences and downstream effects in iron ore pelletising


Author:
A. Firth

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
M. Buntsma, M. Martinez Pacheco, A. Morón Barrios

Abstract:
The plasticity and deformation under load of iron ore pellets before and during firing is an important factor in their processing. Greater deformation at a certain load can lead to less permeability in the pellet bed during firing and subsequently in the blast furnace or direct reduction module due to lower sphericity. Stresses or cracks induced by deformation of the green ball can also be amplified during firing, reducing the strength of the pellets and creating edges which can be chipped and generate dust. Historical strength measurement techniques for green balls focused only on the crushing strength of the green balls and their resistance to cracking when being dropped onto a conveyor. These measurement techniques persist despite neither of these being predictive of behaviour in firing. Further analysis of the force-deformation curve from the strength test has found that a viscoplastic-viscodamage model can model the material behaviour of iron ore green balls undergoing deformation. A series of small scale balling tests and some pilot scale balling and pot-grate firing tests have been performed with different ore blends and ore size distributions to demonstrate the variations in the material model parameters with moisture, bentonite and ore properties. These tests show that bed permeability can be related to the initial rate of increase in the force-deformation curve for green pellets, and that this is related to moisture and ore properties. The tests also show that a higher amount of “damage” below the crushing force of a pellet during loading into the pot can have a negative impact on pellet compressive strength. Correctly balancing the deformability of the green balls with their sensitivity to damage can lead to fuel and fan electricity savings of up to 5%.

26 June / 10:40 - Pelletising: Pellet plant construction and operation

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 22:

Outotec Pelletizing Technology - Addressing today's challenges in production of high quality steel making feedstock

S. Lang
(Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 10:40 )
Title: Outotec Pelletizing Technology - Addressing today's challenges in production of high quality steel making feedstock


Author:
S. Lang

Company:
Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The iron and steel market has seen an unprecedented rise of high quality feed material prices. Premiums for lump ore, high quality fines and concentrate and foremost for iron ore pellets have increased for the last 18 months. The most prominent reason for these developments have been China’s demand for high quality feedstock in its attempt to curb steel related emissions. Iron and steel companies as well as mining companies have tried to adjust to this so called “flight to quality”. The demand to increase production capacity by expanding old plants or building new production lines is undeniable. However there is also a decline in very good raw materials for iron and steelmaking which is the challenge for both plant technology companies and operators. Outotec has been the market leader in iron ore pelletizing for over half a century. Its Travelling Grate Pelletizing technology is robust, reliable and allows production of high quality pellets from various and changing ore sources. It allows production at low emissions and low operating cost as it can be well customized to raw material characteristics. Although the main technological features have not changed over the past years, Outotec has pioneered certain innovations to help improve the process steadily. These processes include advanced automation for travelling grate plants, solutions for lower emissions and energy savings as well as solutions for better maintenability of the plants. Our customers benefit from Outotec’s own R&D centre for raw material testing and processing combined with vast experience from delivered projects and plant operations. This ensures the optimum solution for any specific raw materials for both new plants as well as the expansion of existing operations.

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 22:

Iron ore pelletizing technology in Sino-steel China

W. Gao
(Sinosteel Equipment & Engineering Co., Ltd., China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 11:00 )
Title: Iron ore pelletizing technology in Sino-steel China


Author:
W. Gao

Company:
Sinosteel Equipment & Engineering Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
With the increasing pressure from environment and the depletion of high-grade iron ore resources, iron ore pelletization has been paid extraordinary attention recent years in China. Sinosteel has been engaging in the development of iron ore pelletization technology, engineering design, equipment manufacturing and installation, and service. Sinosteel has delivered a number of iron ore pelleting projects, with their modern pelletization technology and integrated world class process equipment, to their domestic and international partners. This report will cover a brief introduction of the Sinosteel-engaged projects, the main iron ore pelletization technologies that have been used in the projects and a perspective for implementing intelligent processing and control of iron ore pelleting. The technologies include those for the preparation of iron ore concentrates, the proportioning and mixing of raw materials, the formation of green pellets, the drying and induration of green pellets, the transport of resultant pellets, and the control and management of pellet quality. Advanced computer modelling and artificial intelligent technologies have being applied in Sinosteel iron ore pelletization technology, which is expected to provide an environmental friendly, occupational health, economic and optimal iron ore pelleting process. The fundamental includes the modelling of drying, preheating, firing of green balls and the cooling of the fired pellets with numerical simulation technology and the prediction of pellet quality through metallurgical process analyzing models and data processing. The former provides the basis for the design of iron ore pelleting process and the determination of the parameters involved. The latter services for the selection of raw materials and the optimization and control of pelleting process for the materials by considering the effect of raw materials on swelling, melt formation and microstructure during induration. The features and performance of several Sinosteel’s iron ore pelleting processes are also introduced and discussed.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 22:

Improving pellet plant performance and increase capacity

B. Salagundi
(Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 11:20 )
Title: Improving pellet plant performance and increase capacity


Author:
B. Salagundi

Company:
Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The recent steep increase in demand for high quality input material into iron making particularly driven by China and prevailing environmental restrictions has triggered Pellet Plant operators all over the world to restart idle capacity or increase production from existing running plants to satisfy short term demand. There are operational, environmental and reliability challenges when considering these type of projects. Outotec has conceptualized and implemented an approach which allows customers to benefit from our process expertise and testing capabilities as well as from certain upgrade products which help operators to improve overall plant performance. The stepwise implementation also allows pellet plant operators to focus on modernisations and changes which can bring the highest return on investment for their specific case. A plant audit focusing on process and mechanical issues will give first, easy-to-implement improvement suggestions to stabilize operation and achieve the first increases in quality or capacity or a decrease in energy consumption. Together with pot grate tests new raw materials can be checked, the potential future plant capacity and required capital investments can be determined. A further engineering study can then be used to optimize the implantation concept and limit the required plant shutdown to a minimum.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 22:

An analysis of iron ore blending scheme in Zhanjiang pelletizing plant

L. Xiaobo
(Baosteel Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 11:40 )
Title: An analysis of iron ore blending scheme in Zhanjiang pelletizing plant


Author:
L. Xiaobo

Company:
Baosteel Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract: Zhanjiang pelletizing plant established its classical iron ore blending structure after a long term production experience. The rate of limestone should be limited to avoid excessive CO2 emission produced by limestone during the pre~heating stage. The suitable basicity(CaO/SiO2) is 0.8±0.1 by avoiding the basicity zone of malignant expansion. So the SiO2 content of the pellet is 2.8~3.3% and the rate of limestone is 4.1~4.8%. Under this iron ore structure, a suitable liquid content of the pellets as well as the cold compression strength are acquired easily when fired in the rotary kiln. On the other side the pellets mutual bonding phenomenon can be prevented in the cooler to make a stable operation processing

26 June / 13:00 - Pelletising: Pellet qualities and coating of pellets

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26 June / 13:00 - Room 22:

Evolution of pellet microstructure during reduction: a comparison between R180 and ISO DR90

G. Laforest
(COREM, Canada)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 13:00 )
Title: Evolution of pellet microstructure during reduction: a comparison between R180 and ISO DR90


Author:
G. Laforest

Company:
COREM, Canada

Co-Authors:
M. Dubé, O. Lacroix

Abstract:
EVOLUTION OF PELLET MICROSTRUCTURE DURING REDUCTION: A COMPARISON BETWEEN R180 AND ISO DR90 ABSTRACT Mathieu Dubé (1), Olivier Lacroix (1), Guylaine Laforest (1), (1)COREM (Québec, Canada) The reduction behavior of iron ore pellets in gas-based DR shaft processes has been studied at COREM since the late 80s. At that time, COREM, in collaboration with ArcelorMittal Mines Canada (former Quebec Cartier Mining) and ArcelorMittal Long Products Canada (former ISPAT Sidbec Inc.), developed a new DR characterization test called the R180. This test is a non-isothermal laboratory test which has been shown to be a better representation of gas-solid counter-current reactions occurring in industrial DR shaft than isothermal tests such as the DR90 test. This paper describes COREM’s approach to improve its understanding of the relations between iron ore pellets microstructure and pellets quality. The paper describes microstructural features developed from measurements made with automated optical microscopy on iron ore pellets to study the reduction behavior during the two different DR reduction tests (R180 and ISO DR90). The evolution of the microstructure during reduction is compared. The differences between the DR90 and the R180 tests are discussed. The reduction steps during the two tests are put forward as an important factor impacting the microstructural changes as well as the test results.

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26 June / 13:20 - Room 22:

Study on pre-heated and fired process of pellets of vanadium-titanium magnetite concentrate

X. Chenyang
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 13:20 )
Title: Study on pre-heated and fired process of pellets of vanadium-titanium magnetite concentrate


Author:
X. Chenyang

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The laboratory pelletization experiment was carried out with Panzhihua vanadium-titanium magnetite as raw material, and the micro-structure of pre-heated pellets and fired pellets was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that when the preheated time was 15 min, the compressive strength of pellets increases first and then decreases with the increase of pre-heaed temperature and when the pre-heated temperature is 900℃, the compressive strength of the pellets is higher than 400N. With the increase of fired temperature, the compressive strength of pellets increased first and then decreased, and when the fired temperature was 1300 °C, the compressive strength of pellets reached 2341.60N.

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 22:

Swelling of olivine potfurnace pellets - standard tests vs basket samples in the LKAB-Experimental Blast Furnace, EBF

P. Semberg
(LKAB AB, Sweden)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 13:40 )
Title: Swelling of olivine potfurnace pellets - standard tests vs basket samples in the LKAB-Experimental Blast Furnace, EBF


Author:
P. Semberg

Company:
LKAB AB, Sweden

Co-Authors:
J. Wikström

Abstract:
Efficient blast furnace operation requires good raw materials of low variability in the burden. This is normally ensured by a number of quality tests, each of them designed to highlight a certain quality parameter, for example cold compression strength, swelling and low temperature disintegration. However, the test environment is often simplified and designed for a tougher environment than that of a real blast furnace. In the present study, production pellets and pot furnace pellets with olivine ranging from very good to very poor in pressure and swelling behavior, as measured by the standard test ISO7992 and LKAB’s internal Swelling1000°C-test, were placed in baskets in the LKAB experimental blast furnace, EBF®, prior to the quench of campaign 31, autumn 2014. All pellets in the study swelled 8-13% during the first 15 minutes and began to shrink after around 50 minutes. The results indicate a tendency that pellets with a higher level of pressure drop and swelling in the metallurgical tests swell slightly more in the EBF. However, the difference between the different pellets is small, and the overall result is that the pellets swelled totally 8-13 % regardless of the result obtained in the metallurgical tests.

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 22:

Lab experimental studies of pellet induration and quality: A complementary tool to support optimisation of green pellet characteristics and induration scheme

J. Small
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 14:00 )
Title: Lab experimental studies of pellet induration and quality: A complementary tool to support optimisation of green pellet characteristics and induration scheme


Author:
J. Small

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
C. Kooij, M. Wijngaarden-Kroft, Y. Xiao

Abstract:
Optimisation of iron-ore pellet induration schemes has traditionally been based on pilot-scale (pellet pot) testing and trials in production itself. While it is an imperative last step before production trials, pilot-scale testing is laborious, requires large amounts of material and is intrinsically limited in the degree of control over the physical conditions. Examples are presented from a developed lab-scale ‘pellet route’, designed to complement pilot- and industrial-scale studies. The aim is to define what physical conditions pellets should see during induration to guarantee sufficient quality, as a function of changing blend characteristics – e.g. ore type, Blaine, carbon and flux type and amount – or to optimise blend characteristics for given production conditions. This is approached by indurating green pellets in small batches in experimental gas-mixing furnaces, with precisely controlled and measured thermal profiles and gas atmospheres. The resultant pellets are characterised in terms of their mineralogy and microstructure, their metallurgical quality (free swelling, measured by on-line camera), and mechanical properties (cold compressive strength). Results provide high-resolution trends of quality changes as a function of pellet induration conditions. The relationship between basicity (CaO/SiO2 0.1 – 1.0, varied by limestone addition), induration temperature and reduction swelling behaviour is presented. Pellets indurated at 1250 °C show a maximum, with respect to basicity, in swelling (900 °C, CO gas atmosphere) at CaO/SiO2 0.5, while the swelling mechanism for these pellets appears unrelated to metal formation. However, ‘under-fired’ pellets indurated at 1100 °C show a dramatic increase in swelling index over the studied range of basicity, driven by Fe-whisker formation. We conclude that the observed maximum of swelling at medium basicity in pilot-scale studies is unrelated to sensitivity to low induration temperature, which increases throughout the basicity range 0.1 - 1.0.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 22:

Smelting practice of adding metallized pellets in blast furnace

Z. Weiling
(Baosteel Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., China)

Abstracts/Papers: Download

Close26 June, Room 22 ( 14:20 )
Title: Smelting practice of adding metallized pellets in blast furnace


Author:
Z. Weiling

Company:
Baosteel Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The production process and some quality indexes, including the composition, particle size, compressive strength, softening and melting properties, of metallized pellets in Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co. were introduced. The behavior of metallized pellets in blast furnace and its influence on gas flow, fuel ratio and Zn load of blast furnace were analyzed. The mechanism study provided guidance for using metallized pellets stably and efficiently into blast furnace. According to the actual blast furnace production performance of using metallized pellets , it was concluded that metallized pellets were beneficial to increase the output of blast furnace and reduce the fuel ratio, but the usage of metallized pellets was limited because of the imbalance of Zn budget in the whole iron and steel smelting system. Based on the current use and the price of raw materials, the cost of raw materials and fuels could be saved by 23.02 million yuan annually within 250t metallized pellets were used to replace sinter into the blast furnace every day.