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Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace construction and design (25 June / 14:00 - Room 17)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 17:

Hot blast system development: Technology, operations, campaign management

V. van Straaten
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

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Title: Hot blast system development: Technology, operations, campaign management


Author:
V. van Straaten

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Engel

Abstract:
The hot blast system is key ancillary plant equipment with respect to safe and stable operations during a long blast furnace campaign. Hot blast stove designs have been optimized to such an extent that in some cases, their lifetimes have surpassed the campaign lengths of the associated blast furnaces by a substantial margin, with the exception of the burner and a few critical areas. This article presents recent developments with respect to designing, building new and operating existing hot blast systems for a long lifetime and at optimized performance. These developments include fundamental improvements such as dome combustion designs as well as increasingly comprehensive packages for inspection, assessment and maintenance techniques. Examples of such techniques are burner replacement with the hot blast system at operating temperature, improved double shell approaches and TOFD measurement applications.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 17:

One of the largest blast furnaces in India has started operation

E. Capra
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: One of the largest blast furnaces in India has started operation


Author:
E. Capra

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
P. Ghosh , D. Srivastava, A. Chatterjee , A. Bajaj, R. Ghosh , A. Garg, F. Garbugino, M. Bassetti, L. Spadoni, K. Dutta

Abstract:
In 2010, within the frame of their long-term development strategy for own steel supplies for growing India, the country’s state-owned Steel Authority of India, Ltd. (SAIL) awarded to Paul Wurth and Larsen & Toubro an order for the construction of a brand new blast furnace ironmaking plant for additional 2.8 million tons of hot metal capacity. At Bhilai Steel Plant where the existing BF plant consists of seven mid-size furnaces of Soviet design (built in the 1950-1980ies), this new unit was to become Blast Furnace No. 8. The paper will highlight the latest technological solutions adopted and the main challenges met during the project, in particular all the required plant units had to be arranged within the allocated area for this brownfield installation and especially the layouts of the main charging conveyor, of the racks for utilities pipes and cable and of the railway tracks had to be finalized with unconventional solutions. This was to ensure the maintainability and accessibility of the surrounding areas during construction and for the future operations of the plant. With an inner volume of 4,060 m3, a hearth diameter of 13.4 meters, 4 tapholes and 36 tuyeres blast furnace No. 8 is one of the largest blast furnaces in India with a nominal daily production of 8,030 tons of hot metal.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 17:

Effects of change in blast furnace inner profile on furnace performance and measures to restore it, a case study at JSPL BF-II

H. Upadhyay
(Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India)

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Title: Effects of change in blast furnace inner profile on furnace performance and measures to restore it, a case study at JSPL BF-II


Author:
H. Upadhyay

Company:
Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India

Co-Authors:
H. Upadhyay

Abstract:
A stable & productive blast furnace operation greatly depends not only on its design, operator skill or input material but on the profile & shape of its refractory lining also. The blast furnace inner wall profile exerts a large influence on the descent velocity distribution of the burden, the layer structure of the burden and the gas flow across the furnace. Furnace wall brick erosion and the scaffolding make the solid and gas flow unstable in the upper part of the shaft; it also changes the shape of cohesive zone greatly in the lower part of the furnace, thus affecting the heat transfer and melting rates. Conditions within the blast furnace vary widely by region and the refractories used in BF lining, particularly in the stack, belly & bosh are highly susceptible to a variety of wear mechanisms. Due to the very nature of its geometry and the pyro metallurgical process occurring at different stages there are diverse physical and chemical wear mechanisms in play at the different regions of the blast furnace and they are complex in nature but ultimately alter the blast furnace’s inner profile by means of eroding / damaging the refractory lining. Here the impact of change in BF inner profile on furnace operations and its performance is studied in context of 1681 m3 Blast Furnace-II at JSPL, India, after ~10 years of operation and producing ~12.5 million tons of Hot Metal. The extent of erosion, various factors contributing to that and operational actions taken to avoid it are also discussed giving focus on measures to restore the original profile, without necessity of taking long capital shutdowns, and their effect on performance parameters.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 17:

Compact blast furnace technology, plant engineering and modernization

R. van Laar
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

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Title: Compact blast furnace technology, plant engineering and modernization


Author:
R. van Laar

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Engel

Abstract:
Traditional routes for large scale steelmaking include either BF – BOF or EAF technology. Compact blast furnaces are of particular interest for new plants given their relatively low CAPEX costs and low operational risks. This paper addresses modern compact blast furnace ironmaking plant engineering and technology, which ensures lowest cost of hot metal at a high efficiency, high availability and a long campaign life. This includes a reliable reactor and hot blast system design, pulverized coal injection system, top charging unit and dry gas cleaning plant. A comprehensive process instrumentation and monitoring system is a pre-requisite for efficient operations and may be extended with a level 2 system. Additionally, recent experiences in modernizing existing compact blast furnace plants are presented.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Fundamentals in blast furnace ironmaking I (25 June / 15:40 - Room 17)

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25 June / 15:40 - Room 17:

Influence of high temperature interaction between iron ores on the softening and melting behaviors

Y. Lu
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Title: Influence of high temperature interaction between iron ores on the softening and melting behaviors


Author:
Y. Lu

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:
S. Wu

Abstract:
The shape and position of the cohesive zone in blast furnace has a pronounce effect on the gas flow pattern, which in turn alters the efficiency and productivity of the blast furnace process. The high temperature properties of ferrous burden largely control the shape, width, and position of cohesive zone. The visual high temperature method has been employed, in present work, to explore the softening and melting behavior of sinter, three different types of lump ores, and one acid pellet. In addition to this, the softening and melting behavior of mixed burdens (consist of sinter and other acid materials) have also been studied. Results display that the softening and melting behavior of all materials are improved. This observation is more dominant for lump ore A. It is attributed to high temperature interactions between sinter and acid iron bearing materials. The high temperature interactivity is largely influenced by the chemical compositions, pore structure, and contact condition. Experimental results of three groups of integrated burdens verify the importance of high temperature interaction for improving the softening and melting characteristics of iron bearing materials.

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25 June / 16:00 - Room 17:

Carburisation and melting behaviour of iron ore pellet bed under nut coke mixed charge conditions

D. Gavel
(Technische Universiteit Delft, The Netherlands)

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Title: Carburisation and melting behaviour of iron ore pellet bed under nut coke mixed charge conditions


Author:
D. Gavel

Company:
Technische Universiteit Delft, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
Y. Yang, R. Boom, J. Sietsma, J. Stel, A. Adema, C. Kwakernaak

Abstract:
Carburisation and melting behaviour of iron ore pellet bed under nut coke mixed charge conditions Dharm Jeet Gavel1, Cees Kwakernaak1 Jilt Sietsma1, Rob Boom1 and Yongxiang Yang1 1 Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Allert Adema2, Jan van der Stel2 2 Research and Development, Tata Steel Europe, IJmuiden, The Netherlands The carburisation and melting behaviour of an iron ore pellet bed were examined under simulated blast furnace conditions. The effect of nut coke addition with iron ore pellet was investigated through a series of quenching and dripping experiments. The iron carburisation level of the pellet shell was found to control the melting temperature of the bed. Simultaneous and layer-wise melting were observed for the pellet bed with and without mixed nut coke charging, respectively. In the case of the pellet bed mixed with nut coke, the liquid dripping starts at a lower temperature (1500 oC) compared to the case without nut coke (1518 oC). A steady rate of liquid dripping was observed for the pellet bed mixed with nut coke. However, in the case of the pellet bed without nut coke, most of the liquid drips at a higher temperature of ~1550 oC. The difference in carbon content of the quenched pellets and the dripped metal reveals that a substantial iron carburisation occurs when liquid iron flows over the regular coke particles. Due to the presence of a thicker regular coke layer, a higher carburisation was detected for the case of the pellet bed without mixed nut coke. These results give support for more extensive use of nut coke as a replacement of the regular coke in the ironmaking blast furnace.

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25 June / 16:20 - Room 17:

Evaluation technique of gas permeability in granulated slag particle bed using softening and melting simulator with micro CT scanning

K. OHNO
(Kyushu University, Japan)

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Title: Evaluation technique of gas permeability in granulated slag particle bed using softening and melting simulator with micro CT scanning


Author:
K. OHNO

Company:
Kyushu University, Japan

Co-Authors:
S. Natsui, S. Sukenaga, K. Kunitomo, T. Maeda

Abstract:
Low carbon operation of blast furnace is demanding from environmental point of view in all over the world. Low carbon operation could be thought as equal to low coke ratio operation. This situation changes gas permeability condition in blast furnace to severe situation because coke layer performs as gas slit in cohesive zone. In other words, correct knowledge about gas permeability of iron burden layer with softening and melting behavior is necessary. Newly developed softening and melting simulator is applied for understanding about gas permeability behavior. The simulator can operate with rapid heating and quenching in 1000-degree C/min. This ability can allow to focus on only softening and melting temperature range of sample layer. In order to simplify complex situation around cohesive zone, gas permeability in granulated slag particle bed layer without iron oxide was investigated in softening and melting temperature range. The about 5 mm slag particles were packed into graphite crucible. The crucible has 3mm holes for gas flow from bottom part, and their inner diameter and height are 35mm and 35mm, respectively. The packed slag samples were heated up to 1200 degree C with 1000 degree C/min, then gradually heated up to 1500 degree C with 10 degree C/min. Inert atmosphere was kept by N2 flow, and 0.1MPa load was added during experiment. Pressure drop and shrinkage degree were measured during the softening and melting test, and quenched sample was made at maximum pressure drop point. The quenched sample was provided as sample for micro CT scanning observation. The CT observation provided 3D shape information of gas path in fusing slag sample layer. From this shape's information, gas pressure drop could be estimated with fanning's equation without Ergun’s equation. The estimation values were well consistent with measured maximum pressure drop.

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25 June / 16:40 - Room 17:

Reduction of iron ore pellets, sinter and lump ore under simulated blast furnace conditions

A. Heikkilä
(University of Oulu, Finland)

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Title: Reduction of iron ore pellets, sinter and lump ore under simulated blast furnace conditions


Author:
A. Heikkilä

Company:
University of Oulu, Finland

Co-Authors:
H. Bartusch, T. Fabritius, M. Iljana

Abstract:
A blast furnace (BF) is the dominant process for making iron in the world. The blast furnace is charged with coke and ferrous materials including iron ore pellets, sinter and lump ore. While descending in the blast furnace the charge materials reduce. The ferrous burden should reduce fast and remain in solid form until as high temperatures as possible. This research focuses on the reducibility of iron ore pellet, sinter and lump ore in the blast furnace shaft. The experiments were carried out isothermally with the Blast Furnace Simulator (BFS) high-temperature furnace at four different temperatures (700 oC, 800 oC, 900 oC and 1000 oC) with a holding time of 300 minutes. The experimental gas consisted of CO, CO2, H2, H2O and N2 simulating the conditions in a blast furnace shaft. It was found out that lump ore is the slowest to reduce at all temperatures. The reduction degree of sinter and iron ore pellets converges in the terms of reduction behavior the higher the temperature gets.

Cokemaking: Coal blending practise; Fundamentals in coke making I (25 June / 14:00 - Room 18)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 18:

A novel approach to quantify the effect of oxidized high fluidity coal on coke strength after reaction(CSR)

K. Ko
(Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea)

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Title: A novel approach to quantify the effect of oxidized high fluidity coal on coke strength after reaction(CSR)


Author:
K. Ko

Company:
Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., South Korea

Co-Authors:
K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Seo, S. Shin, K. Kim

Abstract:
Coal is highly susceptible to oxidation if exposed to a normal atmosphere for prolonged period even at room temperature. The oxidation is the major heat source responsible for the self-heating leading to spontaneous combustion of coal. The oxidation of coal is also considered as one of major causes to worsen coke properties and working condition by toxic gas emission. In order to quantify the effect of oxidized coal on the coke properties, a new prediction method with a combination of two indices, which are reflectance and blendability between coals in blend was used. Based on new indices, CSR linearly increases with an increase in new reflectance index up to a critical point, and then subsequently is saturated beyond that point. In the case of the blendability of blend, chemical reaction is quantified based on a pair of reaction that occurring between the highest fluidity coal to others in the blend. The combination of indices originally works at a normal coking condition for prediction of coke properties(e.g. CSR), but it can be also adopted to quantify the effect of intensive coking condition as well as oxidized high fluidity coal on the coke properties. Coke at the intensive coking condition shows higher CSR by 1.3% on average as compared with normal condition. However, coal property more importantly plays a dominant role in determining coke properties. In the case of blends with oxidized high fluidity coal, it shows the same trend of CSR obtained from coke with low grade high fluidity coals. Therefore, it means that blending the oxidized coal is more than a decrease in fluidity of blend.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 18:

Findings of inter laboratory study on coal dilatation under ISO/TC27 and importance of correcting experimental dilatation results to a reference coal mass

T. Todoschuk
(ArcelorMittal Dofasco, Canada)

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Title: Findings of inter laboratory study on coal dilatation under ISO/TC27 and importance of correcting experimental dilatation results to a reference coal mass


Author:
T. Todoschuk

Company:
ArcelorMittal Dofasco, Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Dilatation is a quality parameter used in coking coal product specifications and for predicting quality models for coal blending and coke strength. These models require dilatation to be determined in a standard manner under rigidly controlled test conditions. This paper focuses on the main findings of a recent Inter Laboratory Study (ILS) organised by Canada on coal dilatation under ISO/TC27, Solid Mineral Fuels under the sponsorship of the Canadian Carbonization Research Association. The study’s purpose was to demonstrate that reporting experimental dilatation results to a reference coal mass of 2.5 g, %SD2.5, is a robust means to reconcile the Audibert-Arnu and Ruhr coal dilatation methods, which by the nature of these tests and equipment used, yield different dilatation results. The ILS consisted in the preparation and distribution of eight different coal samples from Australia, Canada, China, Poland, South Africa and the USA having a wide range of rank (Ro 0.65-1.54) for testing by international laboratories using different dilatation methods. The Inter Laboratory Study and statistical evaluation of the data conclusively demonstrated that correcting experimental dilatation results to a fixed coal mass of 2.5 g dry-basis resolves differences between laboratories that fall outside the reproducibility (R) limit of ISO 23873. As dilatation is also an important index in supplier specification sheets and in coal marketing contracts, expressing dilatation results to a reference/normalised coal mass basis of 2.5 g, %SD2.5, will eliminate issues pertaining to uncertainty pertaining to the reporting of experimental dilatation data.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 18:

Characterization of coal blends using CGA, an optical image analysis system

P. Hapugoda
(CSIRO, Australia)

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Title: Characterization of coal blends using CGA, an optical image analysis system


Author:
P. Hapugoda

Company:
CSIRO, Australia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
For economic and operational considerations, coals of different ranks and petrographic compositions are often blended together to produce the feed to the coke ovens. These coals maybe sourced from different coal basins/coal measures from different countries and to optimise blends it is important to know the compositions and size distributions of each coal, and proportion of each coal in the blend including the proportion of each coal which will fuse during the coke making process. Generally coal petrography information is acquired manually or imaging system to determine the petrographic composition of the individual coals and to predict the characteristics of the blend. As any individual particle in a coal blend only come from a single coal, obtaining information on each individual particle is key to accurately analysing coal blends. CSIRO have developed an optical reflected light imaging system, Coal Grain Analysis (CGA), which provides reflectance and compositional information on each individual coal particle. This system collects a large number of high resolution contiguous images that are mosaicked together to enable detailed millimetre and micron scale information to be obtained on coke oven feed particles, which may be up to 4mm in size. This system has been enhanced to characterise inertinite components within each particle to establish a split between fusible and infusible inertinite based on a defined fusible inertinite reflectance range. This paper presents the capability of the recently modified CGA particle analysis system (ParIS) to cluster particles based on the reflectance fingerprint of each individual particle to enable the analysis of simple binary and tertiary blends. This capability allows the system to provide details on (a) maceral composition of each coal including breakdown of inertinite into fusible and infusible inertinite, (b) the blend proportions, (c) overall size distribution of the coals including size distributions of their individual grain types.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 18:

Coal rheology - a practical approach for industry

T. Todoschuk
(ArcelorMittal Dofasco, Canada)

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Title: Coal rheology - a practical approach for industry


Author:
T. Todoschuk

Company:
ArcelorMittal Dofasco, Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
For metallurgical coals, rheology is routinely measured to understand their respective caking ability during the coking process. Both fluidity and dilatation parameters can be used to establish coals freshness and is to monitor any aging phenomena when coals are stockpiled. At ArcelorMittal Dofasco, coal brands can be stockpiled up to 4 months when the shipping season is closed, so coal rheology is measured on a weekly basis to establish if any potential coal aging issues arise. This paper will propose a practical approach to the rheology data to help improve interpretation of these test results for coke plant operations.

Cokemaking: Latest developments in slot oven plant technology and design, coke oven repair techniques and life prolongation (25 June / 14:00 - Room 19)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 19:

IT base oven ranking & maintenance plan - a future centre of excellent coke plant in process safety

A. Sarkar
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: IT base oven ranking & maintenance plan - a future centre of excellent coke plant in process safety


Author:
A. Sarkar

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The oldest of Tata Steel’s Operational Coke Oven Batteries at Jamshedpur works is more than 29 years old . Its structure is growing decrepit, and this is more or less true of all the Ovens of Battery No 567 which was commissioned in the year of 1989, the first Stamp Charged Battery In India. Faces with this situation, the company has developed and applied a variety of coke oven repairing Technology, from simple repair methods such as gunning , special Pointing , ceramic welding , Liquid dusting and finally through wall repair. Since 2002 different Technologies are adopted to repaired the full wall without affecting the production The Oven Inspection procedure is quite complex and lots parameter is Inspected and overall ranking of the Ovens wall done based on 36 parameters and each observation as a certain weightage in determining the final ranking of the wall, In this process advance software is used in the assessment of Ranking & Repairing Priority and Next Inspection date and types of repair required and Life of the Oven and all past history of repair, ceramic welding materials used . cost incurred are generated in the report which is very useful in making the repair plan .This process helps us in the reducing the down ovens and increasing the coke production in tune of 25% This paper describes the latest software based oven Inspection & with the help of analysis how the decisions are being taken for preventive maintenance for increasing the oven all productivity and coke quality. The typical at a glance reports are shown below for Battery heath monitoring & Increase of average pushing /day from 105 to Max 166 reached in a span of 4 years .

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 19:

RPR SL application for the treatment of microcracks in the refractory lining of coke ovens

M. Leheut
(FIB-Services International S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: RPR SL application for the treatment of microcracks in the refractory lining of coke ovens


Author:
M. Leheut

Company:
FIB-Services International S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
O. Di Loreto, J. Tirlocq

Abstract:
Beyond all the operational considerations, coke plant managers have been forced to improve the environmental performance of their coke ovens during the last two decades: reduction of direct emissions to the air, treatment of waste water, treatment of waste, soil decontamination. Engineers, technicians and designers have quickly adapted the offer of the engineering companies to the actual demand for clean production technologies: filters, hoods, dry quenching, individual control of the pressure in the ovens, sealing of the doors, bigger coking chambers, charging car with telescopic filling tube, among others are a part of the most recent improvements in the cokemaking sector. Most of the above listed technologies have allowed to better control the fugitive emissions linked to the coking process such as the emissions during the charging operation, the pushing operations, the quenching operations and the handling operation, as well as the leakages at the doors, at the ascension pipes and at the charging holes. Nevertheless, another kind of emissions focuses all the attention: the emissions at the stack due to the leakage of raw gas and fine particles from the coking chamber to the heating flues of the coke ovens. Usually, presence of such leakages will result to a dark / black smoke emission at the stack. Even though such emissions used to have a negative impact on the environmental performance of the battery, their visible presence is simply definitional of disorder in the battery: refractory lining in bad conditions, disturbance in the heating regulation, problem with pressure, small cracks and open joints in the heating wall can be considered as the origin of such emission, among others. A new technology have been developped to seal these microcracks quickl and efficiently. This paper will provide detail of the technology and industrial assemssements

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 19:

Reconstruction of Kurashiki No.2 coke oven battery

D. Imai
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

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Title: Reconstruction of Kurashiki No.2 coke oven battery


Author:
D. Imai

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Most coke oven batteries in JFE Steel Corporation have worked for more than 40 years, and they are degrading with age. Therefore, JFE Steel has rebuilt deteriorated coke oven batteries in a planned way. At JFE Steel West Japan Works (Kurashiki), No.2 coke oven battery was rebuilt and it has been working since March 2017. There are three functional improvements: ⅰ)the coke oven’s stiffness improvement due to the support structure design at the top of flue chamber. ⅱ)fastening structure improvement due to equipped springs and cross tie rods protected against heat. ⅲ)NOx reduction due to two stage combustion and exhaust gas recirculation. To verify the combustion condition, an analytic model was developed and it shows the temperature is equivalent to the past data of the other reconstructed coke oven (Kurashiki No.1A coke oven battery). Kurashiki No.2 coke oven battery achieved the following goals: ・Working ratio: 143% ・NOx emission under coke oven gas combustion≦170ppm This paper describes contents about the reconstruction of No.2 coke oven battery and its operational result.

Cokemaking: Measurement of wall displacement and pressure of coke oven (25 June / 15:30 - Room 19)

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25 June / 15:30 - Room 19:

Control methods to reduce cokes oven pressure variations

J. Schuurmans
(DotX Control Solutions B.V., The Netherlands)

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Title: Control methods to reduce cokes oven pressure variations


Author:
J. Schuurmans

Company:
DotX Control Solutions B.V., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. ten Napel, J. Dekker, A. Besseling, P. de Jong

Abstract:
This paper presents a novel approach to the control of coke oven pressure control, applied to cokes plant 2 at Tata Steel, IJmuiden. The coke pressures used to be controlled by PI controllers. We applied a systematic model based tuning method using the PID Tuning tool. This tool obtains its model from a simple black-box open loop identification method, during production. Better PID tuning led to a considerable reduction in pressure variations of 30%. In addition, we added self-learning feedforward control to the PID loops that output their feedforward actions when ovens are charged. Measurements of the controlled pressures in the cokes ovens of Tata Steel, before and after application show that pressure variations reduced by 50%.

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25 June / 15:50 - Room 19:

INternal gas pressure in coke ovens

M. Landreau
(CRM Group, France)

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Title: INternal gas pressure in coke ovens


Author:
M. Landreau

Company:
CRM Group, France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Internal Gas Pressure and its consequences on swelling pressure are not a new problem and have already been investigated in the past by most research centres, especially in Europe. The reason is that Europe has been importing, for many years, coking coals from overseas as a number of big steel plants are located on seashore and seaborne imports are cheaper than inland transport for big tonnages. American, Canadian and Australian coals are representing the majority of coking coals imports. Among coking coals, low volatile coals are interesting because they can potentially produce good coke (mechanical strength and reactivity) with a high coke yield. But low volatile coking coals can develop high pressure during coking. The measurement of Internal Gas Pressure (IGP) in industrial coke ovens is necessary to obtain experimental data on the expansion behavior of the coal charge and the risk of potential oven wall damage. So, the present study aims at increasing coke plant service life by controlling Internal Gas Pressure in industrial ovens. In the frame of a RFCS project, different solutions were studied to improve the measurements in terms of safety, installation of the probes and accuracy of the measurements. The new solution was implemented in coke plant with the assistance of CPM team to evaluate their efficiency.

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25 June / 16:10 - Room 19:

Comparison between industrial and laboratory IGP measurements

M. Schulten
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: Comparison between industrial and laboratory IGP measurements


Author:
M. Schulten

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
V. Stiskala, M. Grimm

Abstract:
Reducing raw materials costs due to their crucial impact on production costs in combination with fulfilling both quality targets and operational requirements is one of the essential responsibilities of coke plant operators. Cost saving measures typically lead to enlarging the portfolio of coals in use. Simple adoption of a new coal for industrial use can give rise to critical situations in the operations. Besides quality issues the use of untested coals in industrial blends may cause significant damage to battery brickworks due to development of excessive internal gas pressure in particular. Therefore, the integration of new coals into standard coal portfolio calls for implementation of comprehensive test programs in order to avoid the occurrence of undesired events. Test programs developed for the adoption of a new coal should include routine lab analysis as well as quality investigations using small scale test facilities. Though a complete test program can only be supportive if the employed test ovens produce reproducible data and test results. Hence, the results generated by the test facilities in use should be benchmarked with industrial ones on regular basis. To address this particular topic concerning industrial and laboratory IGP measurements thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG (tkSE) is participating in the European research project BINGO in order to gain additional knowledge on factors influencing IGP development and the results as measured both in the lab and the operations. The paper outlines the steps that have been taken in the project to broaden the knowledge base in the area of factors having remarkable influence on IGP. It is not only focusing on industrial process parameters but it is also covering studies benchmarking the results achieved within tkSE testing capacities and the results delivered by industrial operations as much as other small scale facilities participating in the project. The paper also describes measures which have been adopted in order to optimize correlations between industrial and laboratory IGP measurements.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Injection of auxiliary reductants (coal, oil, gas, plastics) and oxygen 1 (25 June / 14:00 - Room 20)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 20:

Safety interlocks for PCI injection into blow pipes

R. Nadur Motta
(CSP, Brazil)

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Title: Safety interlocks for PCI injection into blow pipes


Author:
R. Nadur Motta

Company:
CSP, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
This work aims to increase the sefaty interlocks for PCI injection into blast furnaces´ blow pipes. To develop this work were observed and analyzed critical conditions or unsafe, as the blowing hot air furnace, and if it has the aim of continuous improvement of the system studied. With the completion of work, we solved several problems in the past, reducing the risk, the safety of the procedure, reduced wear of the valves of pulverized coal and drain valves, specific identification in case of alarm a logical flow and contemplated for the injection system for doble or oxi coal lances in the same blow pipe. Increasing the safety of equipment and people involved in the cast house.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 20:

Shift in BF process and performance with oxygen enrichment and coal injection

G. Raut
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Shift in BF process and performance with oxygen enrichment and coal injection


Author:
G. Raut

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
S. Dalder, A. Reddy

Abstract:
The injection of reducing agents via tuyeres in blast furnace operation is now a common practice worldwide for lowering coke rates. The benefits of reduced coke consumption and increased production rates due to the removal of nitrogen from the blast with increasing oxygen enrichment have been recognised by the industry. Tata Steel Indian blast furnaces are operating at 310-330 kg/thm coke rate and coal injection rates in the excess of 200 kg/thm. Coal injection rates as high as 240 kg/thm have been attained with 9.5% blast oxygen enrichment. There have also been periods when furnace production had to be throttled due to inadequate oxygen availability. Such phases affected the process performance in terms of lower production levels, higher coke rate and lower coal rates. This work is an attempt to investigate the process shifts at different coal injection and oxygen enrichment levels during one such period of limited oxygen availability at Tata Steel blast furnaces.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 20:

Intensifying the PC conversion by means of coke oven gas

A. Babich
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Intensifying the PC conversion by means of coke oven gas


Author:
A. Babich

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Simoes, R. Lin, F. Hippe, D. Senk

Abstract:
Among numerous measures to accelerate the PC conversion within the blast furnace (BF) raceway, local increase of oxygen concentration is the most common one. On the other hand, the presence of cold media (oxygen) in the vicinity of the coal stream might affect its ignition and combustion negatively. A minor amount of coke oven gas (COG) may increase the temperature and hence improve the coal conversion. To examine this effect, laboratory trials were performed using the Multifunctional Injection Rig for Ironmaking (MIRI) under blast furnace simulating conditions. The results testified an improved conversion degree of coal while adding the COG. The temperature increase is measurable in the reaction chamber and the off-gas stream. Optical microscopy of the original PC particles and residues after reaction confirm the findings of the off-gas analysis and the increase in temperature during the experiments with addition of COG. The thermogravimetric analysis was applied to determine and to compare the behavior of coal in different atmospheres including an atmosphere with COG. Furthermore, a stand at one tuyere at a modern BF was erected and tests were performed targeting the observation of the ignition behavior of coal at different COG rates, using a camera image analysis system.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 20:

Simulation of lance design and combustion behavior of pulverized coal in the blast furnace

R. Santos Ferreira
(ArcelorMittal Global R&D Maizières, France)

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Title: Simulation of lance design and combustion behavior of pulverized coal in the blast furnace


Author:
R. Santos Ferreira

Company:
ArcelorMittal Global R&D Maizières, France

Co-Authors:
P. de Seta Cosentino , A. Daelman, P. Negro

Abstract:
Auxiliary fuel injection is an established practice in the blast furnace process. Through the use of auxiliary fuels, part of the coke can be replaced. As result it can lead to better financial and environmental performance. Many initiatives led to the improvement of the Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) practice in the furnaces throughout the world. Other fuels as natural gas, coke oven gas and biomass have also been used. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the behavior of these fuels in the blast furnace raceway. Looking to overcome that, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the combustion mechanisms of pulverized coal in the raceway. With the model it is possible to evaluate how the modification of design parameters in the injection system can impact on the inner conditions of the raceway. It gives access to data like temperature profiles, fluid velocity, particles trajectories and combustion behavior. Due to that, insights about the phenomena which happen in the raceway become possible.

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25 June / 15:20 - Room 20:

PCI upgrades from static to dynamic distribution in dilute phase by Paul Wurth IHI

D. Michels
(Paul Wurth IHI Co., Ltd., Japan)

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Title: PCI upgrades from static to dynamic distribution in dilute phase by Paul Wurth IHI


Author:
D. Michels

Company:
Paul Wurth IHI Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:
P. Mahowald, E. Censi, S. Edamura, Y. Ueki

Abstract:
Paul Wurth IHI (PWIHI) was founded as an equal joint venture between IHI Corporation (Japan) and Paul Wurth S.A. (Luxembourg) in 2012 with the goal of combining the two companies’ technical competences for servicing the Japanese and South East Asian market. One major focus for PWIHI has been to adapt Paul Wurth’s pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology for local customers, with a specific challenge in the Japanese market being the high prevalence of dilute phase PCI plants with low equal distribution accuracy between the injection lines. In order to test the applicability of dynamic distribution to existing dilute phase plants, PWIHI performed extensive CFD tests and built a pulverized coal conveying test plant in the IHI laboratory located in Yokohama, Japan. This test plant features two independent DN25 conveying lines equipped with Paul Wurth GRITZKO® flow rate control valves and capacitive flow meters. The coal flow rate can be set independently from the nitrogen flow rate in order to achieve exactly the same flow conditions encountered in a full scale PCI plant. Two different Armco type distributors were designed, built and installed in the test plant specifically for studying the applicability of coal flow rate control directly downstream of these distributors. The test results were positive and several dilute phase upgrade projects have subsequently been successfully executed by PWIHI in Japan. In these projects the installation of Paul Wurth GRITZKO® flow rate control valves downstream of the existing distributors lead to excellent distribution accuracy well within the contractual guarantee values. This paper will present the concept of dynamic distribution and show the background as well as the results from the extensive test series which have been performed by PWIHI specifically for adopting dynamic distribution to existing Armco type dilute phase PCI plants.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Fundamentals in blast furnace ironmaking II (26 June / 09:00 - Room 1)

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 1:

Chemistry of alkalis under blast furnace conditions

G. Harp
(Harp Process Chemistry Consulting, Germany)

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Title: Chemistry of alkalis under blast furnace conditions


Author:
G. Harp

Company:
Harp Process Chemistry Consulting, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Alkalis (esp. potassium and sodium) are transferred into the blast furnace as minor compounds of the burden, the coke as well as the injection coal. They leave the blast furnace mainly via slag at the bottom and dust at the top. As alkalis have negative effects on the blast furnace operation due to catalyzing the Boudouard reaction of the coke as well as the weir of carbon refractory materials related to its chemistry it is necessary to get a detailed view on alkalis chemistry under blast furnace conditions. The alkalis are circulating in the blast furnace due to the different process conditions between top and tap hole and the countercurrent operation. The solid alkali compounds are transported downwards with burden and coke. In the lower shaft the alkali compounds are converted to alkali cyanide, volatilized and transported upwards with the gas. There it is converted to carbonate almost entirely via hydrolysis. Although sodium and potassium are similar chemical elements, they behave different within the blast furnace process due to thermochemistry. Analysis of dead man’s coke samples has shown an enrichment of potassium and a stoichiometry to kalsilite KAlSiO4. Its melting point is above 1600°C and its K2O vapor pressure is much lower than above the simple silicate indicating a positive effect of the Al2O3 and SiO2 ash compounds in coke as long as the alkali saturation is not reached. Potassium is known also for its damaging effect on especially carbon refractory materials under strong reducing conditions. That is related to the formation of so called intercalation of potassium between the graphene planes of graphitic molecular structures leading to a significant volume expansion. Information about mechanism and critical conditions are given.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 1:

In-burden measurements for investigation of alkali compounds in the blast furnace

A. Spatzker
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: In-burden measurements for investigation of alkali compounds in the blast furnace


Author:
A. Spatzker

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Mittelstädt, A. Hirsch, J. Schenk, U. Jahnsen, R. Deike, V. van Outvorst, M. Peters

Abstract:
Potassium and sodium compounds are known as harmful elements for the blast furnace process. To assure a stable reduction and melting process it is necessary to understand the behavior of alkali compounds in different zones of the blast furnace. In this work the concentration and the composition of alkali compounds above and 4.5 m below the burden surface was measured. The samples were taken with-burden dust extraction via horizontal mess lance. The results are discussed with stability diagrams made by FACTSAGE® considering the local temperature and gas atmosphere. Several primary compounds and compounds are created by secondary reactions. Their origin and formation are discussed. It can be shown that cyanides are present in the high temperature zone of a blast furnace with central flow. First attempts to correlate the results of in-burden measurements with blast furnace state parameters are done.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 1:

Blast furnace operation: on melting of the ferrous burden and prevention of upsets

M. Geerdes
(Geerdes Advies, Nederland)

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Title: Blast furnace operation: on melting of the ferrous burden and prevention of upsets


Author:
M. Geerdes

Company:
Geerdes Advies, Nederland

Co-Authors:
P. Warren, R. van Opbergen, O. Lingiardi, R. Chaigneau

Abstract:
Comparing the blast furnace (BF) processwith direct reduction (DR) processes shows, that the permeability in the BF is much poorer than in the DR process and that upsets are much more frequent in BF’s. The reason of the differences is the fact, that in the BF-process the burden is melting. In the present paper it is shown, 1. That major part of the heat (80-90%), generated at the BF tuyeres, is required for direct reduction of ironoxide. This is based on a heat and mass balance of the lower furnace. 2. That the amount of the direct reduction depends on the type of injectants used. This is demonstrated on the basis of BF operation with different levels of natural gas injection. 3. That there exists a radial variation in direct reduction. This is based on the radial gas composition in three different blast furnaces. Variation in direct reduction is ± 15-20%. 4. That the contact between the bosh gas and the cohesive material depends on the coke voidage available in between the ferrous layers. Coke from tuyere raking was analysed. 5. That the primary slag fills the available voidage when melting. Slag volume is an important factor determining the minimum (metallurgical) coke rate and the highest productivity. In the discussion a working hypothesis is presented, indicating, that upsets in blast furnaces can be caused by local heat shortage, generating relatively large areas with poor permeability for gas. Operational conclusions of the paper will involve: - Optimization of coke screening and nut coke rate. - Measures with respect to production level and tuyere conditions in case of deteriorating process. - Optimization of primary slag chemistry with respect to liquidus temperatures and viscosity.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Overview on blast furnace operation (26 June / 10:40 - Room 1)

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 1:

Iron making in Russia

D. Tikhonov
(DDG Technologies, LLC, Russia)

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Title: Iron making in Russia


Author:
D. Tikhonov

Company:
DDG Technologies, LLC, Russia

Co-Authors:
A. Tretyak, Y. Gordon

Abstract:
This paper is focused on the evolution of iron making practice in Russia and highlights some technological aspects of blast furnace operation. The development of hot metal production, changes in structure of reductants and iron ore burden materials, evaluation of design features of the blast furnaces proper and accompanied equipment, presentation of the largest Russian hot metal producing companies and further outlook for the Russia steel industry progress are characterized and discussed. Key words: Blast furnace, hot metal production, ore burden materials, coke rate, BF technologies

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 1:

Development of strategy for sustaining, enhancement and cost reduction at Severstal's primary end

E. Vinogradov
(CherMK, Russia)

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Title: Development of strategy for sustaining, enhancement and cost reduction at Severstal's primary end


Author:
E. Vinogradov

Company:
CherMK, Russia

Co-Authors:
A. Kalko, S. Chikinov, A. Ivashov, D. Balahonov, M. Gurkin, E. Karunova, Y. Gordon

Abstract:
CherMK – Severstal is one of the largest Iron & Steel Works in Russian Federation, producing 12 million ton of steel products and 9,3 million ton of hot metal. To sustain this operation Severstal also produces 4,6 million of coke in 8 coke batteries and 9,5 million ton of sinter in 2 sinter plants. Blast furnaces also consume 4,6 million tone of Kostamuksha pellets. Severstal developed a strategy of I & SX Wrks development, which includes delay of reline of largest in Europe blast furnace #5, reconstruction of new blast furnace #3 with increased volume and construction of new coke oven #11 with pressure regulated ovens. Non-destructive testing of blast furnaces lining conditions are performed on the regular semi-annual basis to apply necessary measures to extend furnace life. Coal blend stamp charging is in implementation stage to improve coke quality and testing of waste extrusion briquetting is an ongoing project to improve sinter quality and increase sinter production maintaining healthy environmental at the plant and city of Cherepovets. All of these allow Severstal to increase hot metal production and reduce production cost

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 1:

Blast furnace fuels & oxygen consumption mapping

M. Grant
(Air Liquide Global Management Services GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Blast furnace fuels & oxygen consumption mapping


Author:
M. Grant

Company:
Air Liquide Global Management Services GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
P. Blostein

Abstract:
The Blast Furnace/BOF steelmaking route produced ~72% of the steel worldwide in 2017. The largest oxygen consuming facilities are integrated steelmaking plants consisting of Basic Oxygen Furnaces (BOF) and Blast Furnaces (BF). The BOF takes liquid hot metal from the blast furnace and refines it to steel, normally consuming between 50 and 60 Nm3 O2/ton of steel. The blast furnace on the other hand can consume between 0 and 140 Nm3 O2/ton of hot metal and often consumes more oxygen than the BOF. Much of the variable oxygen consumption observed in various blast furnaces depends on the type and quantity of fuels injected at the tuyeres as well as the individual technical limitations of each blast furnace. The productivity of each blast furnace, the philosophy of its operation and its raw material qualities further contribute to the variability amongst different blast furnaces. The blast furnace is currently the most cost effective process for producing hot metal (iron) in the large quantities. However its large CO2 footprint is threatening its future. Blast furnace operators are studying alternative tuyere injectants to replace PCI in order to reduce this CO2 footprint. This paper uses a mapping technique to explain graphically the variability between different blast furnaces and their relationship between oxygen consumption and tuyere injection rates of various fuels. The inclusion of blast furnace technical limitations provide each blast furnace operator a convenient means to quickly assess its operating possibilities for injecting specific fuels. The scenarios presented were calculated using the Air Liquide Blast Furnace model that has been validated at numerous blast furnaces worldwide.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 1:

Blast furnace modernisation technologies

R. Harvey
(Primetals Technologies Ltd., United Kingdom)

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Title: Blast furnace modernisation technologies


Author:
R. Harvey

Company:
Primetals Technologies Ltd., United Kingdom

Co-Authors:
D. Osborne

Abstract:
Blast Furnace operators must address the external pressures to meet the quality, productivity and environmental challenges in the modern world. Within the Primetals portfolio are a range of mechanical and digital technology solutions available for the modernization of a blast furnace – these are targeted at economic campaign life extension, production and furnace stability, and eco-economic solutions. In the current climate of lower-cost furnace repairs these solutions provide steelmakers with the confidence of reliable blast furnace operation with optimised capital and production costs. Considering economic campaign life extension, the paper will update on the latest technology for copper staves, where Primetals are leading in novel anti-wear solutions and already have the only anti-bending solution. Hearth repair options recently implemented by Primetals will also be discussed. Considering eco-economic solutions, the Primetals Cyclone and DustClone technologies will be described, included the modelling capability through CFD/DEM which can accurately assess existing and proposed designs for efficiency and possible wear issues. Considering production and furnace stability, the Primetals solutions for instrumentation and automation of the blast furnace, in conjunction with robust mechanical solutions, will be described. With data evaluation and self-learning, these systems support both process stability and longevity of the staves and hearth, maximising the value of the modernisation investment.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 1:

Large blast furnace technologies by NIPPON STEEL ENGINEERING

S. Tashima
(Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan)

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Title: Large blast furnace technologies by NIPPON STEEL ENGINEERING


Author:
S. Tashima

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The large blast furnace enlarging of blast furnace can lead to reduce initial cost and higher labor productivity. Therefore blast furnaces in Japan have been enlarged. And blast furnaces in world are also enlarged. In general, stable operation is difficult for large blast furnace, productivity and gas utilization falls as inner volume becomes larger. The large blast furnace has following issue. 1) Circumferential distribution in the furnace is easy to become non-uniform. 2) When the profiles in the furnace changed by some factors, it has a profound effect on operation. 3) Easy to become inertness because deadman is large. 4) Equipment trouble have a profound effect on production and difficult to recover operation. NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING (NSENGI) has newly installing and relining 80 or more blast furnaces. Since delivering a large blast furnace exceeding 5,000 m 3 for the first time in the world in 1976, we have continued to provide solutions to the aforementioned issue. Our large blast furnace keeps the stable operation and high production, low reduction agent ratio due to our technology. This paper introduces equipment technology for stable operation of large blast furnace which NSENGI has accumulated in many years of experience.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 1:

Comparison of blast furnace operation modes

H. Lüngen
(Steel Institute VDEh , Germany)

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Title: Comparison of blast furnace operation modes


Author:
H. Lüngen

Company:
Steel Institute VDEh , Germany

Co-Authors:
P. Prof. Dr. Schmöle

Abstract:
The blast furnace is worldwide the dominant metallic product supplier for crude steel production. It has reached an extreme high technological standard with large efficiency and low reductant rates. Independently from the fact that the blast furnace has nearly reached its theoretical minimum in energy consumption it enables the operators a wide range of operation modes with a high flexibility. This varies depending on regional and other circumstances in manifold possibilities regarding ferrous burden structure, reductant rates like use and amount of auxiliary reductants and coke rates, productivity levels and oxygen injection rates and the durability in blast furnace campaigns. One aspect are the requirements on the quality of ferrous burden materials and blast furnace coke.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace process optimization and automation (26 June / 13:40 - Room 1)

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 1:

Reduction in heat loss through modified design tuyeres at blast furnace # 4, Rourkela Steel Plant, India

A. Mallick
(Research & Development Centre for Iron & Steel, India)

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Close26 June, Room 1 ( 13:40 )
Title: Reduction in heat loss through modified design tuyeres at blast furnace # 4, Rourkela Steel Plant, India


Author:
A. Mallick

Company:
Research & Development Centre for Iron & Steel, India

Co-Authors:
T. Mohanty, A. Arora, S. Sudhir, R. Kumar, R. Singh

Abstract:
Blast Furnace uses highly pure copper, water-cooled tuyeres as the injection point for high velocity, pre-heated air mixture to the blast furnace for iron oxide reduction. The tuyere is the device that allows heated air to be blown into the combustion raceway of the blast furnace. Tuyere region is dynamic and complex, containing combustion gases, slags, molten iron, coke, pulverized coal and temperatures frequently exceeding 2,200°C. These tuyeres periodically fails and failure introduces furnace instability, increased costs and fuel rate, lost productivity, and increased safety & environmental exposure. Hard facing from outside and refractory lining from inside of tuyere, will help to protect erosion from coal and falling scab. It also helps to reduce heat flux through tuyere. The improved process efficiency in Blast Furnace combined with Blast Furnace enlargement has increased the heat flux with consequent requirement for greater levels of cooling to ensure the long life of the shell. Heat flux has greater influence on blast furnace operation. Optimum heat flux is required for smooth Blast Furnace operation. In general total heat Loss in Blast Furnace through Cooling is around 7-10%. This paper depicts introduction of an innovative design of blast furnace tuyere in Blast Furnace # 4, Rourkela Steel Plant to ensure reduction in heat loss through tuyeres. Blast Furnace # 4 of Rourkela Steel Plant has a useful volume of 1658 m3 and is equipped with 21 tuyers with open loop cooling arrangement. These newly introduced unique coated tuyeres having 3 mm Ni-Cr hard facing outside the surface and having 10 mm refractory coating from inside. Benefits of the innovation in real terms can be summarised as follows: 1. Reduction in heat loss through tuyeres by 10% 2. Reduction in coke rate by 1 Kg/THM Keywords: Blast Furnace, Coated Tuyere, Heat Flux, Hard Facing, Cooling System

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 1:

Operational assistance and process support: How to secure know-how and experience regarding special situations in blast furnace ironmaking?

R. van Opbergen
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

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Close26 June, Room 1 ( 14:00 )
Title: Operational assistance and process support: How to secure know-how and experience regarding special situations in blast furnace ironmaking?


Author:
R. van Opbergen

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Engel

Abstract:
The highly dynamic economic climate of recent years has tightened the operating envelope for steel producers world-wide. Steel producers continue to experience immense pressure to respond quickly to changing circumstances and focus has shifted towards efficiency improvement and maximizing flexibility in operations. The ability to safely stop, restart and ramp-up production facilities has become essential. Establishing this level of flexibility without sacrificing efficiency requires sufficient process control, fit-for-purpose process management practices and solid know-how and experience regarding special situations in blast furnace ironmaking operations. That same business environment that demands this increased flexibility has made it increasingly difficult for steel producers to sustain sufficient knowledge about these situations. While much of the experienced, senior operational staff has retired, a new generation of ironmaking specialists has accrued their experiences over decades, during which these process situations have been much more infrequent than before. Over the past 10-15 years, the requirement in the industry for external operational support during e.g. blast furnace blow–downs, salamander tapping and restarts after planned and especially unplanned stops, has become increasingly frequent. This article presents a number of these cases from a process management perspective as well as with regard to project organization and optimized cooperation between internal and external teams of experts.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 1:

Benefits of big data evaluation from casthouse machines and BF-probes

M. Moser
(TMT Tapping Measuring Technology GmbH, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 1 ( 14:20 )
Title: Benefits of big data evaluation from casthouse machines and BF-probes


Author:
M. Moser

Company:
TMT Tapping Measuring Technology GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Benefits of big data evaluation from casthouse machines and BF-probes The latest generation of probes and casthouse machines provide a wealth of data that has not been available a few years ago. The evaluation of this data provides direct feedback to improve the blast furnace efficiency, the equipment maintenance and design, and it allows the early detection of critical or deviating process situations. A stable operation with lower operation and maintenance costs are the final customer benefits. Keywords: • charging • casthouse • tapping • blast furnace probes • big data • Industry 4.0

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 1:

Optimization and production cost estimation for upstream of I & S Works

Y. Gordon
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Optimization and production cost estimation for upstream of I & S Works


Author:
Y. Gordon

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
O. Vyshinskaya, N. Izumskiy, G. Matvienko, O. Chaika, V. Lebid

Abstract:
Hierarchy of mathematical models and sub-systems to control blast furnace operation are described and results of their application for blast furnaces of NLMK, CherMK, Tulachermet, Azovstal, Alchevsk I & S works, Zaporozhstal in Russia and Ukraine are presented and discussed. The algorithm for estimation of the production cost of coke – sinter -hot metal through process is developed and applied. The rules of thumb from technological instructions of various Iron & Steel Works are generalized and utilized in the developed value-in-use model and dynamic control system. Techno-economic benefits of the developed models, algorithms and systems utilization for optimization, planning and control modes are presented.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 1:

Major challenges and improvement in process, hot metal production and fuel rate reduction in JSW- blast furnace 2

M. Nagarajan
(JSW Steel Ltd, India)

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Title: Major challenges and improvement in process, hot metal production and fuel rate reduction in JSW- blast furnace 2


Author:
M. Nagarajan

Company:
JSW Steel Ltd, India

Co-Authors:
M. Nagarajan , L. Singh

Abstract:
At JSW Vijayanagar-Bellary, Blast Furnace 2 is in operation since Aug-2006 (Working Volume: 1462 m3) and contributed 13.5 MMT of Hot Metal Production so far with the slag rate of about 400 Kg/THM. After commissioning of rebuild Blast Furnace 1 (Working Volume enhanced from 1147 m3 to 2000 m3) in Feb-2016, BF2 has led to operate with purchased coke (CSR < 63, CRI > 27 & Moisture >8.0 %), low agglomerates (< 78 %) and large variance of Lump Ore quality (TI: 68-90 %, DI: 21-38 %). Operation of furnace with such adverse raw material has become a major challenge. Frequent process upsets, hanging and slipping due to disturbances in Gas Utilization and Heat flux were letting down the Hot Metal Production by 400 TPD and increase of Coke Rate by 40 Kg/THM. One of Taphole cold face temperature found increased upto 500 deg C along with subsequent raise in hearth wall temperature at same elevation. The Team has explored various change management processes and new technology improvement to normalize HM Production and to improve techno-economics. This paper explains following Improvements to normalize HM Production and Techno-economics: (1) Installation of Coke Drying Unit for drying moist coke in Stock house bunker through utilization of waste gas from Sinter Plant lead to reduction of coke moisture by 4.0 %. (2) Casting Practice improvement to increase taphole length from 2.2 m to 2.6 m. (3) Ilmenite injection through tuyeres to reduce hearth and taphole refractory temperature < 300 deg C. (4) Process parameter improvements to reduce Coke rate by 30 Kg/thm by optimizing Burden Distribution, Heat Flux and Centre chimney. (5) Shotcreting of upper and upper middle stack to improve burden distribution. Key Word: Coke Moisture, Coke Drying Unit, Hearth Temperature, Taphole, Process Parameter

Blast furnace ironmaking: Injection of auxiliary reductants (coal, oil, gas, plastics) and oxygen II (26 June / 09:00 - Room 2)

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 2:

Formation of char by coal injection and its behaviour outside the blast furnace raceway

A. Babich
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Formation of char by coal injection and its behaviour outside the blast furnace raceway


Author:
A. Babich

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
C. Plancq , O. Ansseau , D. Sert, H. Ho, J. van der Stel , S. Born, V. Pridhivi , D. Senk, R. Geyer

Abstract:
There is meanwhile a consensus that complete conversion of injected via tuyères coals within the raceway zone is hardly possible, particularly at very high injection rates. Therefore, formation, transportation and possible consumption of coal residues or char outside the raceway, as well its interaction with other material is vital for the efficient blast furnace (BF) operation. In this work done in scope of a common European RFCS project, several coals were used to produce char, to characterise its chemical, physical, petrographic and further properties, and to examine its behaviour and effect on coke and iron burden under different BF simulating conditions. Analytical, laboratory and pilot scale facilities were applied. Coals were used in two different grain size types: pulverised and granular ones. Experimental results were used for the mathematical modelling. Thus, char behaviour in BF shaft was implemented into the MOGADOR model. Effect of char on the cohesive zone thickness and permeability could be simulated. Next, industrial trials were performed to evaluate the extent of char transfer within the BF shaft and of the raceway characteristics at high PCI rates. Several techniques for shaft and raceway measurements were applied for these studies at two blast furnaces. The results of gas and temperature measurements gave new insights regarding the impact of high coal injection rates on the BF inner state and showed that fine dust was actually carried out with the gas, but was condensed in the gas sampling pipe. In addition, several measurement techniques were developed and applied for raceway monitoring. Measurements of temperature distribution in the raceway were done under various blast furnace conditions including changing coal injection rate at an industrial BF.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 2:

Pulverized coal flow variability reduction at CSP

R. Nadur Motta
(CSP, Brazil)

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Title: Pulverized coal flow variability reduction at CSP


Author:
R. Nadur Motta

Company:
CSP, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system of the Companhia Siderúrgica do Pecém (CSP) at the state of Ceará, Brazil, began its construction at 2014 and started operation at June, 2016. The CSP’s PCI have two coal milling plants of 36 t/h of capacity each and two injection stations with three injection vases of 36 m³ each. The injection stations feed the even and odd routes of the injection lances, totalizing a 72 t/h capacity with PCR of until 200 kg/t pig iron. The variability is mainly divided in three kinds: instantaneous coal outflow variability, long term variability and variability between injection lances. All of them have influence over the thermal stability of the high oven and consequently over the standard deviation of silicon and over the pig iron quality delivered to the steel mill. This work shows the actions taken in the process control and in the equipment involved in the PCI process to mitigate these three kinds of variabilities. The obtained results were measured through statistic tools and were verified by the achieved thermal stability of the high oven, besides providing constant PCR of the order of 180 kg/t pig iron, with 200 kg/t pig iron peaks, demonstrating that the PCI stability is a preponderant factor to high rates of coal injection.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 2:

Optimizing steel ladle logistics by predicting and understanding refractory wear

W. Tesselaar
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

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Close26 June, Room 2 ( 09:40 )
Title: Optimizing steel ladle logistics by predicting and understanding refractory wear


Author:
W. Tesselaar

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Steelmaking is a dynamic process, which leads to variations in steel ladle life. Optimal planning and use of steel ladles in service becomes a logistical nightmare when ladle life and capacity are unpredictable, resulting in increased costs. To make ladle life predictable, correlations between refractory wear on one side and process conditions and refractory properties on the other need to be known. Better understanding of these correlations also enables optimisation of process conditions and refractory properties to get higher value in use of ladles, e.g. through higher life or higher capacity. Advanced data processing and modelling techniques have been applied to model the interaction between refractory linings and the steelmaking process. Laser scan data is being used to quantify wear of refractories on a per heat basis. A correction algorithm has been developed to deal with measurement errors in the laser scans, leading to high quality input data. Advanced models have been applied to establish correlations between refractory wear, process conditions and refractory properties. The resulting data has been integrated in plant systems, leading to better planning of ladles in service. Furthermore refractory materials and process conditions will be optimised to achieve higher value in use, based on insights gained from this analysis.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 2:

Effect of coal properties on combustion behavior in pulverized coal injection

K. Ng
(Natural Resources Canada, Canada)

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Title: Effect of coal properties on combustion behavior in pulverized coal injection


Author:
K. Ng

Company:
Natural Resources Canada, Canada

Co-Authors:
L. Jia, L. Giroux, K. NG, T. Todoschuk

Abstract:
Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is a common practice in blast furnace ironmaking to reduce coke consumption. An important consideration in selecting coal for direct injection is its combustion behavior as its residence time in oxygen rich environment in the blast furnace is extremely short. Once in the raceway, injected coal is competing for oxygen with surrounding hot coke to progress combustion. Coal with slow combustion kinetics results in incomplete gasification and leads to significant reduction in its coke replacement capability. The uncombusted residues may also block gas passages and reduce efficiency of blast furnace. When pulverized coal is introduced into the hot blast, the coal particle undergoes extremely rapid heating. This condition is difficult to reproduce by conventional bench-scale analytical equipment. A pulverized coal experimental injection simulation rig is set up at CanmetENERGY-Ottawa to reproduce the rapid heating of coal particle. Using this rig, the combustion behavior of pulverized coal has been examined. Besides measuring the total burnout of injected coal in air blast enriched with different levels of O2, the combustion residues collected were analyzed by a novel TGA technique. This technique enables the quantification of different type of carbonaceous materials in the combustion residues. By applying this technique, it becomes possible to relate the carbonaceous materials transformation to origin coal properties. This valuable information assists in the selection of coal for direct injection and optimizes PCI to further enhance energy efficiency of blast furnace ironmaking.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 2:

Reactive pulverized coal injection

R. Schott
(Küttner GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

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Title: Reactive pulverized coal injection


Author:
R. Schott

Company:
Küttner GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Reactive Pulverized Coal Injection Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is a very effective way to improve total fuel cost of the blast furnace. Hence the optimization of PCI technology has still a significant impact on the profitability. In this regard Küttner has developed a new technology called Reactive PCI and Reactive Oxycoal which will be presented and discussed within this contribution. The idea behind Reactive PCI/Oxycoal is quite simple but very effective. A small amount of a reactive gas will be added to the transport gas of pulverized coal conveyed and injected under dense phase conditions. After being injected into the tyuere of the blast furnace the reactive gas causes an acceleration of PC-gasification immediately. A possible increase of PCI-rate associated with a decrease of coke rate are the results of this process which gives the blast furnace operator the boost on the profitability. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are most effective reactive gases but practically coke oven gas, converter off gas and blast furnace gas can be used. The first step to verify this new process was to simulate Reactive PCI/ Reactive Oxycoal with our own CFD-raceway-model. These simulations show an early ignition of injected PC already within the tyuere of the blast furnace using Reactive PCI. Thus an increase of PCI-rate of approx. 10 % due to improvement of PC-gasification is possible. The second step of verification was to perform industrial trials testing Reactive PCI/Oxycoal at one tyuere of BF No.1 at ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe. These trials confirm the early ignition of PC already within the tyuere of the blast furnace using Reactive PCI. Additional evaluations of these trials using a thermovision camera show the thermal footprint of accelerated PC-gasification reactions. The next step will be the installation of Reactive PCI/Oxycoal at all tyueres of a blast furnace.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 2:

Improvement in blast furnace operation with co-injection injection of natural gas and PCI

S. Myasoedov
(NLMK, Russia)

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Title: Improvement in blast furnace operation with co-injection injection of natural gas and PCI


Author:
S. Myasoedov

Company:
NLMK, Russia

Co-Authors:
S. Filatov, V. Titov, Y. Gordon, S. Zagainov, L. Gileva

Abstract:
Theoretical analysis shows that high intensity of blast furnace operation and minimum coke consumption could be simultaneously achieved. With substitution of coke and natural gas by PCI two contradicting factors are observed: reduction in gas flow and as a consequence reduction in upper and bottom pressure drop and reduction in voidage of slag forming zone. These determines the extreme relationship between PCI and blast furnace productivity. It is shown that increase in ratio between PCI and natural gas (co-injection injection) reduces coke and total carbon rate and furnace productivity. The highest blast furnace intensity is observed with this ratio in the range of 2-2.5. Results are implemented at blast furnaces of NLMK’ blast furnace shop #1, Russia.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace refractories and cooling I (26 June / 11:20 - Room 2)

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 2:

Remarkable innovations for blast furnace lining improvements, based on unformed refractory materials

F. Ferber
(OXYD-Keramik GmbH & Co.KG, Germany)

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Title: Remarkable innovations for blast furnace lining improvements, based on unformed refractory materials


Author:
F. Ferber

Company:
OXYD-Keramik GmbH & Co.KG, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Woznitza

Abstract:
Remarkable Innovations for Blast Furnace Lining Improvements, Based on unformed Refractory Materials Content: Since more than 30 years the company Oxyd Keramik works on durable solutions for Blast Furnace lining improvements with unformed refractory materials. A number of sustainable refractory solutions were developed for the BF-linings in the past; like high heat thermal conductivity mixes to improve the BF-bottom and BF-spool cooling system one hand and to reduce significantly the necessary water amount in the new copper cooling plate generation on the other. Dense, self-flowing back pouring mixes between the copper cooling staves and the BF-shell avoid degassing and BF-shell “hot spots”. Self-flowing, explosion resistant sol-gel bonded pumpables, especially developed for BF-hearth “reprofilings” or BF-replenishments with an artificial skull design, like a ceramic cup, are ready for BF-installations and / or intermediate BF-relinings. Further on, Oxyd Keramik has developed a number of unformed refractory mixes and mortar improvements for applications, like torpedo cars, converter vessels and cupola melting furnaces on the liquid pig iron route. The paper will highlight the significant and sustainable innovations in the field of unformed refractory materials to improve or extend the running lining lifetime of the liquid pig iron melting vessels and Shaft Furnaces, like Blast Furnaces. Primary author: Frank Ferber Co-author (s): Tobias Woznitza Presenter (s): Frank Ferber, Tobias Woznitza Track Classification: Blast Furnace Ironmaking

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 2:

Thermal cycling effects in blast furnace copper staves

H. Ghorbani
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Thermal cycling effects in blast furnace copper staves


Author:
H. Ghorbani

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
M. Al-Dojayli

Abstract:
Copper staves are used in blast furnaces to protect the steel shell and refractory system from high process heat loads. These staves undergo significant thermal cycling loads which may lead to premature failures of staves due to cracks, water leakage, bending abrasion and resultant wear. In this paper, an assessment methodology is presented to estimate the thermal cyclic effect in copper staves including bending, fatigue and thermal ratcheting. This approach incorporates temperature-dependent copper properties including creep and plasticity to more accurately capture inelastic deformations, damage and fatigue in staves under transient and cyclic thermal loading conditions. Failure root cause assessment and improvements to copper stave design can be assessed using the presented methodology.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 2:

Fully armoring of row 1 copper staves at BF 5A of ArcelorMittal Eisenhüttenstadt, Germany

C. Dratner
(KME Germany GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

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Title: Fully armoring of row 1 copper staves at BF 5A of ArcelorMittal Eisenhüttenstadt, Germany


Author:
C. Dratner

Company:
KME Germany GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Hunger, T. Freude, F. Böert

Abstract:
After 11 years of operation at AM Eisenhüttenstadt BF 5A the inclined copper staves of row 1 opened a new chapter in blast furnace bosh design. During this campaign the inclined staves protected the bosh shell as well as the tuyeres and reduced their consumption by approximate 50%. The harsh furnace environment and the inclination of the staves with an angle of ca. 16° resulted in a uniform wear of the hot face of the copper staves. To protect the copper stave hot face AM Eisenhüttenstadt and KME evaluated several design alternatives in the last years. The outcome resulted in a second generation copper stave with a fully armoring of the grooves. This armoring is expected to take the lifetime of the copper staves to new dimensions. Keywords: Copper Stave protection / Life time extension / Wear protection / armoring / tuyere protection / inclined bosh stave design

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 2:

Reduction of cooling members failure with open recirculating water system at E BF of Tata Steel Ltd.

B. Seal
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Reduction of cooling members failure with open recirculating water system at E BF of Tata Steel Ltd.


Author:
B. Seal

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
R. Kumar, S. Joshi, M. Tiwari, M. Patra, D. Kumar

Abstract:
Cooling water system plays a crucial role for improvement of blast furnace campaign life. Blast furnace cooling members are cooled mainly by two ways like open recirculating clarified water system and closed loop soft water cooling system. Although there are several disadvantages of open loop recirculating water system over closed loop soft water system but still open loop cooling water system can be found in many blast furnaces in world. Open loop recirculating water system having problem like deposition, corrosion and accumulation of microbiological organism in cooling members & its accessories along with less leak detection capability of cooling members compared to soft water closed loop system. E BF of Tata Steel Ltd(Working Volume 595 m3) started its 20th campaign in Aug’2017 with refurbishment of all old equipment but cooling system remained same because of some basic infrastructure issue. To strengthen reliability of open loop clarified recirculating water system, E BF adopted certain measures like installation of advanced designed magnetic flow meters in inlet & outlet pipe line of cooling members, proper treatment of cooling water, addition of fresh make up water in cold water sump etc. In previous campaign of E BF, frequency of cooling members failure were high and early detection of failure were quite difficult. By adopting these above said measures, failure of cooling members became very less in running campaign compared to last campaign and early leak detection capability of cooling members failure helped to avoid any major unwanted shutdown. This paper will describe measures taken by E BF for improvement of open recirculating clarified cooling water system performance along with early leak detection capability of furnace cooling members.

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26 June / 12:40 - Room 2:

Smart staves - a continuous and precise monitoring of Bf stave wear

C. de Gruiter
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: Smart staves - a continuous and precise monitoring of Bf stave wear


Author:
C. de Gruiter

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
J. Simoes, Y. Heinen, S. Czarnuch, F. Hansen, R. Lin, N. Maggioli, P. Tockert

Abstract:
On many Blast Furnaces, copper staves have provided excellent protection of the shell in areas subject to elevated heat loads. This has resulted in the Blast Furnace operators achieving high performance in terms of productivity as well as campaigns of more than 15 years. However in recent years, some Blast Furnaces have experienced premature wear of copper staves leading to complex replacements or relines. In operation, the status of the hot face is difficult to observe, but an early detection of wear would be the key to an efficient reline planning. Furthermore, a continuous monitoring can establish a correlation between wear and process parameters. The technologies available today are either limited to a time consuming measurement during relines (i.e. transitory) or a continuous measurement with a questionable precision. To solve this issue, Paul Wurth has developed a new sensor to measure and monitor the stave wear in a precise and continuous way. This sensor is based on a simple and reliable measurement principle making it an affordable solution. In order to avoid significant cabling costs, all data are transmitted via wireless network to Paul Wurth cloud and the individual sensors are powered by batteries. The operators then visualises the wear measurements on a dashboard designed by Paul Wurth. The sensors can be installed on new staves or as a retrofit during a BF stoppage. In August 2018, in collaboration with Dillinger Hütte, twenty sensors have been installed on four rows of stave of HO4. This installation has been successfully executed in less than three shifts. Once in operation, these sensors have sent consistent signals allowing an efficient wear monitoring.

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26 June / 13:00 - Room 2:

Blast furnace leak detection

J. Janzen
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Blast furnace leak detection


Author:
J. Janzen

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Blast furnace staves cooling water leaks impede the iron making process and can result in substantial downtime in locating the failing components. Depending on the operation of the blast furnace and the process conditions, staves would wear at different rates, which then exposes the cooling water pipes, which results in their failures. The water pipe failures generally start as very small cracks. Therefore the leaks start as seepage or drips and are usually undetected until they expand into significant leaks and get noticed by the damage they create. Finding small leaks by maintenance personnel is very unsafe, difficult and expensive due to significant asset downtime. The difficulty and consequences of missing the detection are significantly increased if the leak location is inaccessible for visual inspection, like inside the stave or behind other equipment. Early detection of very small leaks is extremely valuable because it prevents permanent damage and extends the campaign life of the furnace. Traditional instrumented methods of leak detection using flow meters have the advantage of continuous monitoring but are unreliable and ineffective for this kind of asset because they can only sense leaks in the order of 1L per minute or higher. Hatch uses an alternative water leak detection system by automatically testing the change in static pressure on each circuit. This system and method senses leaks starting from drips per minute. Taking advantage of the staves redundant cooling circuits configuration, intermittent and very short duration test sequences are used safely and accurately to detect mL per minute magnitude leaks. The detection method identifies the leaking circuit and stave level when multiple vertical staves are connected together. The components used are robust and of high quality, requiring only minimum maintenance over a long life span. The system and method are mature and cost effective.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace refractories and cooling II (26 June / 14:20 - Room 2)

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 2:

Technological parameters and blast furnace practice to achieve long blast furnace campaign

V. Listopadov
(NLMK, Russia)

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Title: Technological parameters and blast furnace practice to achieve long blast furnace campaign


Author:
V. Listopadov

Company:
NLMK, Russia

Co-Authors:
N. Izumskiy, R. McNally, S. Shalimov, Y. Gordon, O. Chaika, G. Matveienko

Abstract:
Modern criteria for estimation of influence of blast furnace operating parameters and blast furnace practice on furnace refractory lining life are established and studied. The concept of optimal blast furnace refractory lining and selection of refractories for various blast furnace zones is developed based on the analysis of numerous completed and planned blast furnace relines. Audits of several blast furnace’ modernization projects and refractory lining conditions of operating blast furnaces allowed development of the methodology to estimate reserves of blast furnace with respect to the reduction in fuel rate and production cost of hot metal. The records of ceramic and carbon lining campaigns are confirmed by comparison of experience of operating blast furnaces in Europe and other countries.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 2:

Stave replacement technology in Pohang 4BF

S. Lee
(POSCO, South Korea)

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Title: Stave replacement technology in Pohang 4BF


Author:
S. Lee

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Pohang #4 BF was blown in Oct. 2010 and has been in operation for 9 years. As we increased productivity up to 15,719t/d in 2011. staves at the belly part began wearing, which happened 3.5 years later after its blow-in. In 2015, we completed replacing 11 sheets of belly staves, and until 2017, we've finished 4 replacements of staves from Belly to lower part of shaft. 11 Sheets of belly staves were replaced only in 68 hrs. And it took 97 hrs for the 61 sheets of lower shaft staves. Currently staves at middle shaft are also being in the process of wearing, and they are scheduled to be replaced next year. For the newly installed staves, our own design has been applied to prevent both mechanical and thermal wear. We've confirmed that the remaining of newly installed staves was 100%, when we lowered burden to the tuyere level in 2017. In advance of replacing staves, we took off scaffolds on the furnace wall by increasing gas flows in the periphery area of the furnace by adding more cokes. We lowered the burden down to 24.6m from stock line. And we achieved a normal production within five days after stave replacement I want to share technologies of Pohang #4 BF stave replacement.

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 2:

Long Life Copper Stave for Blast Furnace Developed by Nippon Steel Engineering

M. Goto
(Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan)

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Title: Long Life Copper Stave for Blast Furnace Developed by Nippon Steel Engineering


Author:
M. Goto

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Nippon Steel Engineering (NSE) has constructed 80 or more Blast Furnaces since 1974. This paper introduces technologies of new type copper stave which NSE performed improvement and development continuously. From around 1990, a lot of Blast furnaces have been using copper staves for cooling. Though, quite a few of them have faced with some troubles. They can be roughly divided into two types: wear of working surface and water leakage from the welded portion on the channels. In terms of water leakage, it can be resolved by NSE’s staves enabling weld-less structure. On the other hand, in these days more and more troubles of premature wear have been reported from all over the world. In the worst case, the lifetime was only 3 years after starting. As the failure of staves results in significant damage to stably operating, the measure against wear is a very important issue. Thus, NSE has put effort into the development of new type copper stave with wear resistant. Since the scab which can be piled up and stuck on the surface often fall off due to operation fluctuation, copper stave should be designed to be prevented from wear even without accretion. Generally, abrasion wear speed between two objects depends on “contact force” and “scratching speed”. Therefore, copper stave is assumed to be protected from wear by decreasing above two parameters. NSE achieves it by applying the special shape of stave inner surface by utilizing the unique manufacturing method of embedding steel pipes in a copper casting. As results of applying them to actual BF, the assurance of more than 15 years lifetime has been confirmed. The furnace profile is maintained for long time by applying above wear resistance copper stave, and the reduction of running cost with stably operating will be realized.

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 2:

Extending blast furnace hearth life: novel Sialon-bonded refractory material.

N. Boumahdi
(Saint-Gobain, France)

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Title: Extending blast furnace hearth life: novel Sialon-bonded refractory material.


Author:
N. Boumahdi

Company:
Saint-Gobain, France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Blast furnace hearth lifetime extension remains one of the biggest challenges within the whole integrated steelmaking system. Savings associated with a long hearth campaign are difficult to estimate but are huge. The eternal hearth goal may appear impossible today but our current path holds promise. Hearth lifetimes over recent decades have increased incrementally from around 5 years to over 20 years. We are now looking for stepwise improvements. Saint-Gobain Ceramic Cup technology has been one of the key factors in hearth lifetime extension especially following adoption of sialon bonded corundum in 1993. There is already very clear evidence that the first two sialon bonded corundum qualities have lasted 8 to 10 years before the self-protecting layer on carbon needs stabilising. Saint-Gobain announces the launch of a new quality for Ceramic Cup. This last generation of Alumina Sialon Bonded material was especially developed to withstand the severe and extreme conditions existing inside the hearth. This new enhanced quality exhibits outstanding properties, surpassing the good and proven performances of former products. Major optimizations were necessary to reach this result from recipe to reactive sintering process, making this material perfectly designed to protect the hearth carbon lining. The corrosion resistance to iron and slag has been significantly improved to reduce kinetic and chemical erosion of the refractory including the critical interface iron - slag - refractory. The β-Sialon microstructure has been reinforced for an excellent compromise between higher mechanical strength, excellent abrasion and thermal shock resistance. In addition, the excellent refractoriness of Al2O3 Sialon bonded materials is maintained with resistance to CO environment and high thermo-mechanical stability. Finally, the resistance to chemical attacks and oxidation has been improved. In this paper, this new material will be benchmarked against other materials, tested or currently used in the blast furnace to highlight the main technical advantages.

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26 June / 15:40 - Room 2:

Advancements in blast furnace cooling technology: redefining stave life

D. Rudge
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Advancements in blast furnace cooling technology: redefining stave life


Author:
D. Rudge

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
J. Bolen, D. Rudge

Abstract:
Blast furnace campaign life is often limited by the abrasive wear and subsequent failure of traditional copper stave coolers. Hatch blast furnace cooling services and technologies allow operators to extract more life out of their current traditional staves until eventually upgrading to Hatch’s revolutionary wear-resistant staves, which redefine blast furnace stave life. Hatch wear-resistant staves provide 66 times more protection than copper against abrasive wear through the integration of a metallurgically bonded abrasion-resistant hard surface. Unlike castables and refractory bricks, which often crack and overheat, Hatch’s hard surface is metallurgically bonded to the copper for optimal cooling. This maintains low temperature and high-strength of the hard surface, while promoting the formation and retention of protective accretions. For superior internal cooling and leak protection, Hatch staves use cast-in water pipes to eliminate all leak-prone copper-to-steel welds and offer the freedom to optimally design the internal water cooling, unlike common drilled-and-plugged varieties. Hatch’s new stave technology aims to redefine blast furnace life, as staves would no longer determine reline frequency. Recent advancements in Hatch’s blast furnace cooling services and technologies are presented herein, including: methods for wear diagnosis and immediate repair of currently owned traditional staves, and a robust stave technology that redefines blast furnace stave life.

Cokemaking: Coal blending practise; Fundamentals in coke making II (26 June / 09:00 - Room 18)

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 18:

Use of petrographic method and reflectogram analysis for composition determination of complex coal mixtures

D. Vorsina
(SIAMS Ltd, Russia)

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Title: Use of petrographic method and reflectogram analysis for composition determination of complex coal mixtures


Author:
D. Vorsina

Company:
SIAMS Ltd, Russia

Co-Authors:
R. Kadushnikov, V. Alievskiy, I. Kamenin

Abstract:
Coal processing plants produce concentrates - mixtures of coals with different ranks that vary in terms of composition and quality, complicating the process of coke burden preparation. Process optimization minimizes consumption of sintered components and improves quality of produced coke. Feed coal quality and stability have technological and economic consequences - degrading quality of furnace coke causes increase of coke consumption during cast iron production, and increase in factory costs. Authors propose using petrographic method and reflectogram analysis performed using SIAMS-620 coal analyzer for rational composition of coal mixtures. Analyzer is a microscope with image digitizer, and a computer with specialized software. Object of research is a cylindrical specimen with one polished face, made of milled coal and binder. Applied algorithms allow recognition of four coal maceral groups, and mineral impurities. If vitrinite is discovered, application computes reflectance. Results are presented as reflectograms. Operation modes include automated, manual, and expert one. Use of reflectogram, petrographic composition data, and data on raw material sources allow precise definition of coal mixture and burden composition. At early stages of analyzer implementation at coal and metallurgical plants, there were multiple facts of difference between the actual concentrate composition and data provided in attached documents. The discrepancies could mean both over– and understating the amounts of coal with ranks that are valuable or barely suitable for coking, that causes financial losses for suppliers and consumers. Implementation of unified quality standards and means of implementing these standards did allow changing negative trends, and resolving issues related to deficit of coking coals. Automation allowed speeding of concentrate quality control, processing concentrates immediately after delivery, and keep amount of coal stock at optimal level. Preparation of coal burden became a routine task performed as the base of raw materials change, while staying within the acceptable quality boundaries.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 18:

An application of coke microstructure and microtexture to indonesian coal briquette

Y. Chen
(China Steel Corporation, Taiwan)

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Title: An application of coke microstructure and microtexture to indonesian coal briquette


Author:
Y. Chen

Company:
China Steel Corporation, Taiwan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Taiwan is located at a compressive tectonic area and lack of natural resources; therefore most industrial feedstocks are imported. Metallurgical coal and iron ore are two main ingredients in steelmaking. It is necessary to be conversant with the characteristics from different resource areas. Indonesia is playing a major role in the coal market since Indonesian coal benefits from low ash and sulfur contents. Due to the ideal geographic position for Asian coal demand, it is time to engage in the study of Indonesian metallurgical coal. Basic coal and coke analysis are undertaken to generalize the chemical and physical properties. Nevertheless, the coke strength after a high temperature is unpredictable. Coal and coke petrographic methods are attempted to correlate the qualities of coke with coal. High vitrinite contents are found in most of Indonesian coals, and therefore the reactive maceral derived components are abundant in coke microtexture. The lack of inert maceral derived components and thin coke walls are discovered from the coke microstructure. The briquetting process was adopted to increase the bulk density, and the 15lb pilot coke oven test was undertaked to testify the quality impovement. Both microtexture and microstructure analysis of coal briquette and coke lump are used to clarify the coke reactive mechanism.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 18:

Comprehensive model of coking coal pyrolysis

B. Mertas
(Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Poland)

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Title: Comprehensive model of coking coal pyrolysis


Author:
B. Mertas

Company:
Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Poland

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Carbonisation is a basic available industrial process used for metallurgical coke production. The basic reaction is pyrolysis which consists in the decomposition of the original organic matter caused by the increasing of coal temperature in a coking chamber. The pyrolysis models which have been developed so far are limited either to general yields of gas, tar and coke or does not consider in details the basic gas components. The closure of mass balance is doubtful. Those which can deliver all necessary information are very complicated.The aim of the work was to develop and validate the comprehensive model of coal pyrolysis particularly suitable for high temperature carbonization. As a result of the work a pyrolysis model is proposed that reflects the chemical composition of coal. The obtained results were possible by solving the following research tasks: - Performing TGA experiments for the determination of general kinetic model of coal pyrolysis considering the effect of heating rate. - Determination of kinetic parameters of hard coals particularly energy of activation and preexponential factor - Development a standardized model of coal pyrolysis to take account of its properties for applications in both the processes of coking of coal. - Model validation for lab scale carbonization test in a 5 kg retort and determination of coke, tar, gas and BTE yields including specific coke oven gas composition. The model developed can be directly used for coking process modeling enabling simulation of time related progress of coal pyrolysis, heat of reaction, heat demand for a process, heat effects during the progress of pyrolysis, prediction of yield and compositions of products. The model is internally balanced i.e. the mass and substance balance is closed. The model was applied for the prediction of products yield and heat effects in full scale industrial oven.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 18:

Enlargement of the analysis output from a 10-kg carbonization retort

M. Grimm
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: Enlargement of the analysis output from a 10-kg carbonization retort


Author:
M. Grimm

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
V. Stiskala, M. Schulten

Abstract:
Since 2015 thyssenkrupp Steel Europe A.G. (tkSE) operates a pilot coke oven lab in Duisburg. Besides 60-kg movable wall oven another 10-kg carbonization retort is employed to determine coking properties of single coals and blends on a routine basis. The retort operates with short coking time and requires small quantity of coal for a single test run; both features rank among the advantages of such a small scale test facility. Compared to the movable wall oven the retort does not have capacity to measure oven wall pressure or the cold strength indices due to insufficient amount of coke produced. In order to enlarge the analysis output from carbonization tests carried out in the retort and to overcome the drawbacks resulting from its design the measurement of the formation of carbon deposits during carbonization process as well as determination of coke cold strength have been implemented. For developing requested cold strength parameters different procedures have been investigated to determine suiting method. Varieties of coals from different geographical regions have been tested and the obtained results aligned with maceral composition. To quantify the formation of carbon deposits a specimen of refractory material is placed into the free space above the coal and the gain in mass is measured after the coal has been carbonized. The goal is to investigate the driving forces behind the formation of carbon deposits with the aim of applying the project results in industrial scale of Schwelgern coke plant. For that reason numerous coals and carbon bearing material have been tested. The article gives an outline of both the results achieved and factors that need to be considered when comparing the quality of coke from conventional movable wall oven and the carbonization retort.

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 18:

Upgrading effect of aromatic amine on coal fluidity and coke strength

H. Otsuka
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

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Close26 June, Room 18 ( 10:20 )
Title: Upgrading effect of aromatic amine on coal fluidity and coke strength


Author:
H. Otsuka

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Coal fluidity is the important parameter in coal blending techniques for coke making because it strongly influences coke qualities. On the other hand, recently, the amount of high fluidity coals has been decreasing. To cope with this problem, caking additive method which improves fluidity of coal has been developed and commercialized. However, since tight supply of high fluidity coal is anticipated in the future, it is of great importance to develop more effective caking additive. Therefore, in this study, we investigated effect of 10 kinds of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons which include oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds on coal fluidity in order to search for more effective chemical substances. The additives were added to low fluidity coal, and fluidity analyses were carried out according to the Gieseler plastometer method. Addition of sulfur and oxygen containing compounds lowered fluidity of coal, whereas addition of aromatic amines enhanced fluidity of coal. Coal fluidity ameliorated with increasing the molecular weight of aromatic amine, and N,N'-di-2-naphthyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DNPD) was the most effective aromatic amine in this study. Carbonization tests in an electric furnace were conducted to investigate an effect of DNPD on coke strength. As a result of adding only 1wt% DNPD, fluidity of blended coal and coke strength (Drum Index) were highly improved. In conclusion, we gained the implications to search or design more effective caking additive.

Cokemaking: Coke plant operation (26 June / 11:00 - Room 18)

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 18:

New coke making complex in Russia

A. Filippov
(PAO Severstal, Russia)

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Title: New coke making complex in Russia


Author:
A. Filippov

Company:
PAO Severstal, Russia

Co-Authors:
O. Ryazanov , O. Vinogradov, E. Vinogradov , M. Hoffmann, F. Mura, A. Esposito, R. Loddo

Abstract:
Early 2018 Severstal and Paul Wurth signed a contract for the construction of a New Coke Making Complex at Severstal’s integrated steel works at Cherepovets in the North-West of Russia. The core of the new complex are two brand-new, stamp charged coke batteries. The two batteries (2 x 56 coke ovens of 6.25 m height) are designed for a total production of 1.4 million tons of coke. They will be the first coke batteries of stamp-charging type in Russia, allowing Severstal to use cheaper raw material while maintaining a high coke quality. Furthermore, the most innovative solutions for protecting the environment will be integrated. Along with the two Coke Oven Batteries (“Block 1” and “Block 2”), Paul Wurth’s technologies and engineering solutions will be applied in the three new Coke Dry Quenching Systems, in the Coke Oven Machines, in ancillaries for coal preparation and coke handling as well as in the Tar Decanting Plant. Paul Wurth’s hardware supplies will include key equipment and systems such as the coke oven doors, refractories, the complete set of Coke Oven Machines and the SOPRECO® system for single oven pressure control. As a first for Paul Wurth the project includes the design and supply of stamp charging machines, with in its center the combined Stamping Charging Pushing machine. The paper will highlight the technological challenges of the project as well as environmentally friendly solutions of the design. The new complex is foreseen to be commissioned by September 2021.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 18:

Advanced coke-making process to produce coke with high quality in Germany

R. Lin
(AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany)

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Title: Advanced coke-making process to produce coke with high quality in Germany


Author:
R. Lin

Company:
AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Advanced coke-making process to produce coke with high quality in Germany Rongshan Lin1), Frank Rullang2) and Hans Bodo Lüngen3) 1)Manager of R&D of coke and ironmaking, AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany 2)General manager of the coke plant, Zentral Kokerei Saar (ZKS), Germany 3)Director Technology, Steel Institute VDEh, Germany Despite intensive discussions about the CO2-mitigation in the steel industry in Germany, the blast furnace – converter route will remain the major process of the steel production for a transition period, since development and implementation of new break-through technologies will still need some more time. Consequently, the coke with high quality is required by blast furnace operators. An overview is given about the coke production and facilities in Germany. The both coke making technologies, gravity charging and stamp charging used are compared and discussed regarding their advantages and disadvantages. A lot of efforts have been made to improve the process monitoring and control systems, such as temperature measurement of the coke and the batteries, single chamber pressure control and inner gas pressure measurement, just as a few examples mentioned here. Sophisticated control methods are developed and applied, e.g. fuzzy control etc. Particular attention is also paid to the environmental protection and improvement to cope with increasing restrictions of the authorities. Furthermore, efforts are steadily undertaken to improve the coke quality, especially CSR value. Herewith, special attention is focused on selection of coking coals, monitoring and controlling the coal quality. The coke with high quality ensures the blast furnace operators to achieve high level of PCI injection and low coke consumption.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 18:

Journey of excellence of coke oven battery no 10&11 , a stamp charged recovery type coke oven by minimising the number of process incidence through COE journey at TATA STEEL Jamshedpur.

A. Sarkar
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Journey of excellence of coke oven battery no 10&11 , a stamp charged recovery type coke oven by minimising the number of process incidence through COE journey at TATA STEEL Jamshedpur.


Author:
A. Sarkar

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The efforts are being made world wise to produce uninterrupted Quality coke to Improve the performance Blast furnace by reducing the number of process Incidences which ultimately affect the quantity & quality of coke .Apart from the impact of cost , this improves the Carbon footprint, Environment & fugitive emissions in the surroundings of coke plant .The Process Safety and Risk Management [ PSRM ] when applied robustly to coke plant Battery 10&11 it reduces the likelihood of any catastrophic events , located amidst a densely populated community , Tata Steel realised the importance of strong Process Safety and Risk Management (PSRM) in 2006 to address the process related risk and avoid any loss of containment. A firm foundation in Process Safety & Risk Management(PSRM) has been established across Tata Steel but in pursuit of making process safety a ‘way of life’, the Centre of Excellence (C0E) concept was undertaken in almost 50% of Department in Steel making and Iron Making Division . we undertook the CoE [ Center of Excellence ] journey, we used the following three simple questions at all levels of our organisation to test our strength: Do we know what can go wrong? Do we know what barriers we have to ensure that it doesn’t go wrong? Do we know that our barriers are effective and working properly? The major objectives of Centre of Excellence (CoE) were defined as System & Documentation: • To review and upgrade existing procedures and tools for Process Safety Information (PSI), Process Hazard Analysis (PHA), Management of Change (MoC) and Operating Procedure. • To incorporate best practices from industry leaders by benchmark activity • To ensure all process and instrumentation drawings are up to date and a system in place to ensure this Field Implementation: • Strengthen the Inspection & Maintenance system of PSRM critical equipment • Implementation of

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 18:

First top charging jumbo batteries erected in China designed by Paul Wurth

S. Tognozzi
(Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy)

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Title: First top charging jumbo batteries erected in China designed by Paul Wurth


Author:
S. Tognozzi

Company:
Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
L. Qingsheng , M. Bisogno, A. Mariscotti

Abstract:
Early 2016 Shandong Province Metallurgical Engineering Co., Ltd (SDM) - the engineering company associated to the Chinese Shandong Iron & Steel Group - and Paul Wurth signed the contract for engineering, supply and supervision services for the construction of four Paul Wurth jumbo oven batteries of top charging type, with 58 ovens each and an oven height of 7.3 m, in the new coke making plant of Shandong’s Rizhao Iron & Steel works on the Chinese eastern coast. This engineering contract ensues from the cooperation agreement signed in 2013 between Paul Wurth and SDM. Following the startup of COB No. 2 in November 2017, first coke was then pushed from coke oven battery No. 1 in January 2018 punctually meeting the milestone of the project schedule – exactly 2 years after the contract with Shandong Province Metallurgical Engineering Co. (SDM) coming into force. In 2019 with the startup of the remaining batteries No. 3 and No. 4, the entire new coke making plant of Shandong Steel Group Rizhao, part of a modern Greenfield steel plant, will eventually be in operation. Its total capacity is 3,392,000 tons of coke per year. All four coke oven batteries will be equipped with Paul Wurth’s SOPRECO® system and Cokexpert Level 2 automation system.

Cokemaking: Coke oven gas cleaning, use of coke oven gas and utilization of by-products (26 June / 13:40 - Room 18)

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 18:

Improving the efficiency of sulfur recovery unit using Aspen Plus Simulation

A. Roy
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Improving the efficiency of sulfur recovery unit using Aspen Plus Simulation


Author:
A. Roy

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Carbonization process is the elemental step of steel production which produces coke and other by-products. Coke oven gas (COG) is the gaseous by-product of carbonization consisting of impurities like hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), carbonyl sulfide (COS), tar, etc. Separation of sulfur compounds from the gas is strictly required to protect environment and human health from its adverse consequences. Separation of H2S is generally carried out using Claus process in industries. The present study was aimed to improve the efficiency of Claus Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU) located in Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur, India. Simulation model was developed for the process in Aspen Plus for maximizing the sulfur recovery, simultaneously keeping the tail gas ratio in desired range of 4-5 as per plant requirement. Model was validated with industrial data and optimum range of operating parameters were obtained using sensitivity analysis. Maximum amount of sulfur recovery was obtained for acid gas to air ratio (mol/mol) in the range of 0.754-0.759, H2S concentration in the range of 12.8-13.2 in inlet acid gas stream, Claus Kiln temperature of 1118-1125°C and gas inlet temperature to first Claus reactor in the range of 240-258°C under current operating conditions of SRU.

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 18:

Characterization of carbon deposits formed during targeted methane decomposition and their incorporation in the metallurgical coke structure

H. Liszio
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: Characterization of carbon deposits formed during targeted methane decomposition and their incorporation in the metallurgical coke structure


Author:
H. Liszio

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
P. Liszio, V. Stiskala, M. Schulten

Abstract:
A research consortium tried to develop a green and competitive basis for a large-scale use of the greenhouse gas methane. The project target was an alternative production of H2 with a low CO2-footprint as a feedstock for synthesis gas. Conventional processes used for synthesis gas production are typically employing the process of reforming in which the feedstock such as natural gas or petroleum reacts with steam or oxygen under a large energy supply. Within the framework of the project, an alternative approach has been taken to produce H2 without simultaneous production of CO2. Besides hydrogen, the new process generates elementary carbon. The pyrolysis of natural gas / methane delivers hydrogen yield of 25% together with 75% yield of carbon which can be used in several industrial processes. The utilization of such carbon feedstock in coking coal blends is one of many possibilities. This kind of pyrolytic carbon can be used as an additive or as a substitute for other fossil carbon resources. In the presented work the influence of pyrolytic carbon as well as other carbon-based products was tested in several test campaigns. Both laboratory scale tests of coal dilatation and pilot scale carbonization tests were carried out with up to 20% of the additives in the coal blend. Coke properties such as cold mechanical strength, reactivity to CO2 and strength after reaction (CSR) were determined from the produced cokes. Furthermore, the optical character of the additives was analyzed. Various types of additives showed various capabilities to get incorporated in the coke structure. The incorporation of these components has a huge influence of the quality of produced coke.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 18:

Reduction of quinoline insoluble from coal tar produced in coke by-product plant by viscosity modification and centrifugation

V. Chandaliya
(Tatasteel, India)

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Title: Reduction of quinoline insoluble from coal tar produced in coke by-product plant by viscosity modification and centrifugation


Author:
V. Chandaliya

Company:
Tatasteel, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In the steel industry, coke oven gas is produced by heating the coal cake in the slot type batteries. The coke oven gas contains coal tar. The coal tar is precipitated and separated by lowering the coke oven gas temperature. The coal tar thus produced can be used in many high-end applications but its high quinoline insoluble (QI) content makes it difficult to use. Hence, QI reduction becomes important. There are many techniques through which QI can be reduced. In this paper, combination of solvent addition for viscosity reduction and centrifugation technique for QI separation was used. Wash oils (fresh, recycle and spent) present in the coke by-product plant were used for coal tar viscosity reduction. The coal tar and wash oil was varied in the ratio of 2:1 to 20:1 and heated to 60-70 oC. The heated mixture of coal tar and solvent was centrifuged for 5 to 20 min at 4000-5000 rpm. Different parameters such as optimum temperature for viscosity reduction, coal tar to solvent ratio, wash oil type, centrifuge time and rpm were optimized. Spent wash oil was found to be better solvent. Centrifuge time of 5 min and 4500 rpm was optimum for the removal of QI. The reduction in QI for 6:1 and 10:1 blends of tar and spent wash oil were 87.9% and 70% respectively.

Briquetting: Briquettes (26 June / 15:00 - Room 18)

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26 June / 15:00 - Room 18:

Development of high strength carbon composite briquette(CC-BREX) as a third agglomerate for blast furnace

S. Hota
(TATA STEEL LIMITED, India)

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Title: Development of high strength carbon composite briquette(CC-BREX) as a third agglomerate for blast furnace


Author:
S. Hota

Company:
TATA STEEL LIMITED, India

Co-Authors:
P. Mathur, A. Reddy

Abstract:
During the various stages of iron and steel production, many iron, as well as carbon bearing by-products, are generated. Since these by-products cannot be recycled back in fine form, they need to be agglomerated. The traditional way to recycle them back to blast furnace has been the sintering process. Cold bonding agglomeration process offers an alternative process for recycling these waste products. In this study, briquettes are made by stiff extrusion process from metallurgical wastes such as BF flue dust, gas cleaning plant sludge, and LD sludge with Portland cement and bentonite as a binder. Physical and high-temperature properties of the CC-BREX produced from this technique are evaluated, in comparison to sinter, pellet & lumpy iron ore. Based on the properties of these briquettes a trial was conducted at one of the blast furnaces that showed encouraging results.

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 18:

Potential of briquetting in residues recirculation and biomass implementation in ironmaking

E. Mousa
(Swerim AB, Sweden)

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Title: Potential of briquetting in residues recirculation and biomass implementation in ironmaking


Author:
E. Mousa

Company:
Swerim AB, Sweden

Co-Authors:
M. Lundgren, L. Sundqvist-Öqvist

Abstract:
In steel industry series of manufacturing processes are employed for production of steel involving use of various raw materials. Each unit inevitably generates types of residues which often contain valuable amount of iron, carbon and lime but have wide range of particle size, moisture content and chemical composition which make it unstable for direct recycling without sorting, preparation, and agglomeration to fulfill the specific requirements for charging back into the ironmaking blast furnace. Briquetting can play a vital role not only in promoting the residues recirculation in the integrated steel plant but it can provide a good opportunity to introduce biomass residues into the blast furnace for partial replacement of fossil reducing agents and consequently reduce fossil CO2 emission. The cross-sectorial collaboration between metallurgical industry and biomass based industry is a key to reduce the waste and maximize the resource efficiency. In the current work technical scale bio-briquettes have been prepared and investigated for blast furnace implementation. In addition, alternative binders have been investigated for partial replacement of cement in the briquettes. The technical scale briquettes are produced using vibro-press machine and the mechanical strength has been evaluated based on the drop test and tumbler index measurement. The impact of the developed briquettes on energy saving and CO2 emission will be discussed based on heat and mass balance mathematical model. The result could be of interest for other metallurgical sectors based on shaft furnace technology.

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26 June / 15:40 - Room 18:

Use of high strength carbon composite briquettes (CC-BREX) for lowering coke rate in blast furnaces

P. Mathur
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Use of high strength carbon composite briquettes (CC-BREX) for lowering coke rate in blast furnaces


Author:
P. Mathur

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
By improving the reactivity of carbon with the associated iron oxides, it is possible to lower down the temperature of initiation of the solution loss reaction (C + CO2 = 2CO), which is strongly endothermic in nature. The above can be achieved by having carbon innately dispersed within the agglomerate, thereby increasing the contact area. This is not possible using conventional agglomerates that burn carbon as a heat source for creating slag bonds. Stiff vacuum extrusion briquetting process is a technique that allows producing high strength agglomerates, having a comparable strength to that of sinter and pellet, using plant reverts and binders at room temperature. In a trial at one of Tata Steel's blast furnaces, carbon composite BREX (CC-BREX) containing 18-20% carbon was tried out successfully at 3, 5 and 7% in the metallic burden. Lowering of coke rates were observed for all proportions of BREX in the burden. 5% CC-BREX was the optimum level for blast furnace operation as it delivered the highest coke replacement of 27kg/thm and overall carbon rate reduction of 6kg/thm. Beyond 5% residual carbon promoted solution loss reaction and did not help in lowering carbon rate further. CC-BREX, clearly appears to be a promising burden material that can help lower the carbon footprint of blast furnace iron making.

Sintering: Fundamentals in sintering and chemical analysis and raw materials testing I (26 June / 09:00 - Room 19)

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 19:

Solid fuel pre-granulation with lime for sinter process and environmental improvement

A. Iosif
(ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France)

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Title: Solid fuel pre-granulation with lime for sinter process and environmental improvement


Author:
A. Iosif

Company:
ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Previous work dedicated to raw material and granulation have shown an impact on sintering performances such as an increase on productivity by sinter intensive mixing or by-product preprocessing. Preliminary project dealing with solid fuel selective preparation has also demonstrated interesting metallurgical and environmental results. Based on these works, a study on solid fuel pregranulation with lime, by intensive mixing, has been launched for process and environmental improvement. R&D experiments have been performed with a pot facility allowing the simulation of industrial sinter process: cooking and sinter cooling. Parameters of intensive mixer for the pregranulation, as well as the impact of by-product, type of solid fuel, lime quantity on environmental and metallurgical results have been investigated. For each series, productivity, solid fuel consumption, sinter quality (RDI, ISO T) on one hand and SOx, NOx and dust emissions one the other hand have been studied. The influence of the intensive mixer parameters has been investigated; the results have shown that the main parameters influencing the granulometry of the pregranulated mix are the direction and the speed of rotation for a given amount of lime. Best conditions obtained from the solid fuel intensive mixing with lime have been employed for all tests. The pregranulation of solid fuel with lime has shown an increase of productivity equal to 3 t sinter/m²/d, a gain of solid fuel of 1 kg/ts and constant sinter quality. Environmental results show a reduction of SO2 emissions by 15% and equally of dust.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 19:

Effect of magnetite on mineral phase formation

W. Ziming
(Kyushu University, Japan)

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Title: Effect of magnetite on mineral phase formation


Author:
W. Ziming

Company:
Kyushu University, Japan

Co-Authors:
T. Maeda, K. Ohno, K. Kunitomo

Abstract:
High grade hematite ore, one of the raw materials for iron ore sinter, is exhausted and the use of low grade hematite ore which is affected on the quality and productivity of sinter ore. One of the methods to solve this issue is the use of magnetite concentrate instead of hematite. Since magnetite concentrate contains large quantity of fine particles, there is concern about deterioration of granulation property and permeability in the sintering machine. But with the development of granulation technology, there is potential in employing magnetite. To improve the quality of sinter ore, it is important to know the mineral phases formation behavior. However, as compared with hematite, minimal study has been done on magnetite. Therefore, in this study, to clarify the effects of magnetite on mineral phases formation, sintering experiments using hematite and magnetite reagent were carried out. To research the effects of atmosphere and temperature samples were heated under oxidizing (Air) and reducing (CO-CO2) atmosphere at 1250℃ and 1350℃ respectively. The results can be concluded as follows. 1) Under both oxidizing (Air) and reducing (CO-CO2) atmosphere, after sintering of magnetite samples, the shapes of each phases are likely to the hematite samples respectively. 2) Under Air atmosphere, both hematite and magnetite samples formed more calcium ferrite phase when the sintering temperature was higher. 3) Under Air atmosphere, the calcium ferrite formation ratio of both hematite and magnetite samples was larger than that under CO-CO2 atmosphere. It can be considered that advanced oxidation of magnetite is necessary in the sinter process.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 19:

Effect of metallic iron on thermal processes in iron ore sintering bed

M. Zhang
(ArcelorMittal Global R&D, USA)

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Title: Effect of metallic iron on thermal processes in iron ore sintering bed


Author:
M. Zhang

Company:
ArcelorMittal Global R&D, USA

Co-Authors:
M. Andrade

Abstract:
Most sinter plants in the United States are facing challenges using more recycled materials. One of the most common recycled materials are steelmaking slag fines which contain high amount of metallic iron. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of metallic iron on thermal condition in sinter bed for better process control and sinter quality. Laboratory scale sintering pot tests have been carried out along with mineralogical analyses on sinter products using optical microscopy, SEM and XRD. The pot-grate sintering tests showed that propagation of combustion zone is faster in the case of using less amount of metallic feed than the case of using higher amount of metallic feed. Using higher metallic feed can significantly increase the maximum temperature in the lower part of sinter bed, as a result, sinter quality such as Tumbler index (TI) and low temperature degrade index (LTD) are better comparing to the sinter produced with less amount of metallic feed. However, the higher maximum temperature in the lower part of bed also result in longer cooling time. Thus, higher vacuum is recommended to improve the uneven distribution of heat and increase flame front speed for sintering higher metallic feed materials.

Sintering: Fundamentals in sintering and chemical analysis and raw materials testing II (26 June / 10:20 - Room 19)

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 19:

The influence of specularite on the sintering behavior of ore blend

Z. Xiano
(Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China)

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Title: The influence of specularite on the sintering behavior of ore blend


Author:
Z. Xiano

Company:
Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The fine iron ore particles are known to be liquid phase formers during sintering, affecting the structure, mineralogy, and properties of sinter. Specularite iron ores are typically fine and contain low gangue, therefore their use need to be optimized based on an investigation of the different effects on sinter. The assimilation with lime and melt fluidity of specularite ore were studied, also sinters were made from a mixture of 20 wt% specularite and 80 wt% base ore in a mini pot facility. The results show poor assimilation and low melt fluidity of specularite. These were attributed to the high density and weak self-fluxing ability of the ore. The amount of critical minerals of sinter namely silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) were quantified. It was found that SFCA formation is maximized for 2 min sintering at 1260 ℃. These conditions correspond well to those that lead to onset of sinter mix shrinkage. Higher temperatures or holding time result in decomposition of SFCA.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 19:

Influence of Operating Parameters and Raw Material Quality in Coke making Process

D. Kumar
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Influence of Operating Parameters and Raw Material Quality in Coke making Process


Author:
D. Kumar

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
S. Bhattacharya, V. Tiwary, A. Rai, H. Tiwari, V. Saxena

Abstract:
Coke physical properties like coke M40 and arithmetic mean size are significant for blast furnace operation. Coke M40 and arithmetic mean size is known to impact blast furnace permeability to a large extent. The coke quality influences by operating parameters like charging temperature, coking rate, coking time and final coking temperature. These parameters control the coke quality especially coke CSR, coke M40 and coke mean size. This paper describes the effect of heating and process parameters which has influenced on mean size and hot strength of coke. Results show that low CSR regime has a higher mean size. It was also observed that change in coking properties of individual coal in a coal blend significantly affects the coke quality. Key Words Coal blend properties, operating parameters, recovery stamp charge coke making, coke CSR, Coke AMS

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 19:

Experience in applying online elemental analysis to steel- and ironmaking

A. Baryshnikov
(Lyncis, Lithuania)

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Title: Experience in applying online elemental analysis to steel- and ironmaking


Author:
A. Baryshnikov

Company:
Lyncis, Lithuania

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Operation managers are constantly assessing the productivity of their processes. Variations in mineralogy and the presence of impurities, not only influence on the effectiveness of the processes, but also increase production costs. Online chemical analysis of material flows directly on site is critical for timeous interventions to improve process performance and eliminate the need for laboratory analysis, often involving hours of delay and potential human error. Lyncis, using knowledge and experience accumulated in the industrial applications, offers the solution for stable accurate online measurements under production conditions, where many factors such as mineralogy, grain size, moisture, etc., influence results. Our analyzers use fully safe laser optical emission technology without hazardous radiation, provide long-term stable calibration, easy and low-cost maintenance.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 19:

Influence of ultra-fine iron ores on formation of macro and micro pores during the sintering process and the sinter reducibility

M. Fabry
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Influence of ultra-fine iron ores on formation of macro and micro pores during the sintering process and the sinter reducibility


Author:
M. Fabry

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
D. Senk, M. Bläsing, G. Steindorf, A. Babich, V. Sadiku, M. Fabry

Abstract:
A recent study showed the possibility and an efficient way to produce sinter with high amount of ultra-fine ores without remarkable negative effect on the sinter productivity and fuel consumption. In this study, the formation of the sinter structure in the different sintering zones while using an increased amount of ultra-fine material as well as the reducibility of the produced sinter was examined. Three different sinter mixtures with a total amount of up to 50 wt.-% ultra-fines were tested. The tests were conducted by using a laboratory sinter pot. To examine the formation of the macro pores during the sintering, the tests were forced to stop by using liquid nitrogen. Afterwards the whole sinter cake of the interrupted and the completed tests were embedded in epoxy resin and cut in half. Then the surface was polished and macro pores were determined by imaging analysis section by section from top to bottom. Furthermore, sinter pieces where characterized by determination of micropores and phases, like Hematite, Magnetite and SFCA, using LOM and EPMA. The characterization was conducted not only for the virgin sinter but also for the reduced samples. The sinter reducibility was tested at 680°C, 880°C and 1080°C with two different gas compositions (40 vol.-% CO, 60 vol.-% N2, and 32 vol.-% CO, 8 vol.-% H2, 60 vol.-% N2). To give information in greater detail about the reducibility, the activation energy was determined, by using the recorded weight loss over the time.

Sintering: Sinter plant operation and automation (26 June / 12:00 - Room 19)

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 19:

Enhancement of yield by improvement of iron ore sinter strength of weak layer in sinter bed

C. Park
(POSCO, South Korea)

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Title: Enhancement of yield by improvement of iron ore sinter strength of weak layer in sinter bed


Author:
C. Park

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The main goal of improvement of sinter strength in weak area which are surrounded on the both sides with pallet-car is to achieve a high productivity of uniform sinter quality. The most important factor to improve it is the size distribution in which influences strongly the sinter strength in the both sides. The DEM simulation was performed to optimize operation condition of the shuttle conveyor belt in feeding process, and the yield and productivity, in case of the plant test, increased 2.5 % and 2.6 t/m2/d each under the optimum condition. Also the average shutter index of sintered ore increased 0.4.

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26 June / 12:20 - Room 19:

First installation of a fully automated Sinter Raw Mix Analyzer

J. Reidetschläger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: First installation of a fully automated Sinter Raw Mix Analyzer


Author:
J. Reidetschläger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
E. Fehringer, D. Seiler, S. Muenkel, S. Zeiler, D. Zirngast

Abstract:
In today’s competitive iron making environment the optimization and continuous supervision of the sintering process is of major importance. Currently, the quality control of sinter raw mixes mainly depends on the experience and expertise of the operating personnel. Developed by Primetals Technologies and the German manufacturer Eirich in close cooperation with the sinter specialists from voestalpine Stahl Donawitz a new Sinter Raw Mix Tester was installed to allow for the fully automatic sampling and analysis of granulated sinter feed. A robotic system automatically takes sinter raw mix samples from the entire material stream during conveyor discharge. This ensures fully standardized uniform and representative sample taking. Following sample preparation, the moisture content, permeability and bulk density of the sinter raw mix are measured. The benefits of sampling, sample preparation and analysis are even more important when they are combined with process models and expert systems. Only a comprehensive and detailed knowledge of the process parameters together with measurement of process variables enables corrective actions and an optimized operation of the plant. Direct action is taken via level2/expert system to change process parameters (e.g. moisture) according to the measurements. The fluctuation of the moisture content of the charged sinter raw mix could be reduced significantly resulting in a stabilized sintering process and improved sinter quality. Furthermore the moisture content is automatically optimized for best permeability enabling an increased production level. Continuous adjustments and design modifications result in a stable and robust measuring system including peripheral devices and a sophisticated control unit. This paper focuses on the operational results and achievements of the first installed fully automated sinter raw mix analyzer.

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26 June / 12:40 - Room 19:

Novel technique in digitally sinter return fines control at sinter plant #4 Tata Steel Jamshedpur

B. Chatterjee
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Novel technique in digitally sinter return fines control at sinter plant #4 Tata Steel Jamshedpur


Author:
B. Chatterjee

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract Sinter return fines (Internal and external) are productivity loss to sinter plant and blast furnace. With the help of data analytics important process parameters are identified, based on the key process parameters a Return fined control model prepared which not only generates predicted vs actual return fines data also generates recommendation to control room operator. By using this model operator could improve return fines by 1% and increase in Net productivity by 1.0 t/m2/day. This novel technique gives many insights to the plant operator Keywords: Data Analytics, Coke rate, Return fines model, Net Productivity

Sintering: Sinter quality (26 June / 14:00 - Room 19)

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 19:

Characterisation of iron ore sinter phases by optical microscopy and Epma

S. Hapugoda
(CSIRO, Australia)

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Title: Characterisation of iron ore sinter phases by optical microscopy and Epma


Author:
S. Hapugoda

Company:
CSIRO, Australia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
ABSTRACT The mineralogy and texture of sinter play an important role in determining the physical and metallurgical properties of iron ore sinter. Identification and characterization of sinter phases is, therefore, a cost-effective and complementary tool to conventional physical and metallurgical testing of iron ore sinter in evaluating and predicting sinter quality. Over the years, CSIRO has developed a scheme for characterizing iron ore sinter which classifies primary and secondary sinter phases including various types of SFCA, secondary hematite and magnetite, glass, larnite and remnant fluxes. Correct identification of these sinter phases under optical microscopy is crucial for quantification of these phases by manual point counting under a petrographic microscope, automated optical image analysis, quantitative XRD and SEM techniques. Analysis of sinter phases by EPMA has helped to identify minor chemical differences in major sinter phases particularly various SFCA types. Sinters were prepared from sinter blends of varying chemistry and characterized using Optical microscope and EPMA. Distribution of sinter phases and abundance of mineralogical-textural sinter types can be used as an additional tool to explain metallurgical properties of sinter. Keywords: iron ore, sinter, mineralogy, phase quantification, EPMA

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 19:

The use of dunite mini-lumps in the sintering process

A. Elorriaga
(Pasek Minerales, Spain)

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Title: The use of dunite mini-lumps in the sintering process


Author:
A. Elorriaga

Company:
Pasek Minerales, Spain

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In this paper we will discuss the benefits of a very innovative way of introducing MgO in the blast furnace operation through the sinter, using mini lumps of dunite. By changing the traditional way of using an MgO bearing material in fines form (particle smaller than 5 mm), most of the MgO inserted material behaves as inert during the sintering process, with the effect of having the following parameters (among others) improved: productivity at the sintering bed, permeability inside the blast furnace, energy consumption, stability of the operation.

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26 June / 14:40 - Room 19:

Optimization of sintering process with deteriorating quality of iron ore fines

C. Verma
(Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India)

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Title: Optimization of sintering process with deteriorating quality of iron ore fines


Author:
C. Verma

Company:
Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Blast Furnace performance mainly depends on quality of sinter as major portion of iron bearing material occupies by it hence its quality w.r.t. Tumbler Index (TI), Reducibility Index (RI) and Reduction Degradation Index (RDI) are the key performance indicators of sinter plant. Now it became very tough to maintain the desired quality with the increasing Al2O3 content in iron fines and study is focused on it. Alumina is a refractory material and required more heat input to fuse thereby affecting the desired sintering temperature i.e. 1300°C. It goes in between the grain boundaries of the bond and makes weaker. Sinter strength decreases with increasing alumina content and weak sinter generates more fines thereby reduces the net sinter production as well as plant productivity. Presence of impurities beyond acceptable norm: such as LOI, Al2O3, MnO, TiO2, K2O, Na2O, Hydrates, SiO2, phosphorous and zinc, has led to greater challenges in the thrust areas such as productivity, quality and cost. The ultimate aim of this study is maintaining the sinter strength even with high Al2O without hampering the plant productivity. Study includes mineralogy test of iron fines to analysis the phases present in ore and phase analysis of product sinter to know the distribution of different phases. Corrections were done focusing majorly on varying Al2O3/SiO2 ratio, basicity: B2 (CaO/SiO2), B3 (CaO+MgO/SiO2) and B4 (CaO+MgO/SiO2+Al2O3). Concept of Alumina / Silica ratio, B3 & B4 found to be useful. We used to vary MgO, Al2O3/SiO2, B2, B3 and B4 to get the desired sinter strength even at high alumina (4.2 - 4.5%) in sinter. Study concludes with the establishment of B4 and Al2O3/SiO2 ratio in between 1.53-1.60 and 0.63- 0.70 respectively and have achieved tumbler index (Drum Index) 76 plus with the plant productivity of 1.60-1.63 t/m2/hr. at JSPL, Raigarh. Keywords: Sinter, B2, B3, B4,

Sintering: Sinter cooling and waste gas cleaning (26 June / 15:20 - Room 19)

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26 June / 15:20 - Room 19:

New off-gas cleaning system at the POSCO Sintering Plant

S. Jin
(POSCO, Republic of Korea)

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Title: New off-gas cleaning system at the POSCO Sintering Plant


Author:
S. Jin

Company:
POSCO, Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Recently, the Korean government announced the world's highest level of dust emission strengthen policy to improve the atmospheric environment. New environmental regulations mainly require emission reduction of SOX and NOX. In addition, both real-time emission levels and total annual emissions will be regulated and will be strengthened gradually from 2020 to 2024. In response, countermeasures must be taken to drastically reduce SOx and NOx emissions at steel mills and power plants that use large amounts of coal. The regulation of total amount regulation is set in consideration of emission standards and operation results for all combustion and power generation facilities in steelworks. However, gas-cleaning facilities must be installed in all facilities in order to comply with the total amount regulation, which requires huge investment. To solve these problems, POSCO needed to intensive investment in the sinter plant for further reducing the excess amount of other plants at the sinter plant. Sinter plant of Gwangyang works is capable of complying with the government's environmental regulations because of the installation of sodium hydrogen carbonate injection and SCR facility before. However, Pohang Works has only activated carbon facilities, so it is impossible to comply with NOx regulations. As a result, POSCO has made the world's first attempt to install SCR equipment in existing activated carbon facilities and is currently making investments. The biggest risk of this new process is the risk of fire due to SCR inflow of activated carbon. We conducted various tests and technical review to prevent such fire. In this paper, I will explain the government 's environmental regulation status and major technology of activated carbon & SCR combination.

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26 June / 15:40 - Room 19:

Dust emission reduction at sinter-cooler process

C. Polato
(ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France)

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Title: Dust emission reduction at sinter-cooler process


Author:
C. Polato

Company:
ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France

Co-Authors:
E. Izard, M. Moreau

Abstract:
Dust emitted by Sinter-Coolers are contributing to global emissions of sinter plants as well as diffuse dust emission around the process. Clean operation of this process is a key feature in the context of process environmental footprint reduction and to ensure safe working conditions. A global study including numerical modeling was conducted to further understand the mechanisms responsible for these emissions. Pilot tests were carried out to investigate the dynamics of dust emissions through sinter beds. In addition, several numerical models and characterization methodology were developed to identify the different dust sources around sinter-cooler, quantify their impact on global dust concentration at cooler stack and finally propose solutions to decrease the emissions. A two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to assess dust emissions coming from the sinter bed. This model allows to quantify the impact of different cooler configurations such as bed charging quality, sinter-bed segregation, production and fan numbers on dust emissions. A tridimensional CFD model was also used in different process conditions (high wind velocity – low wind velocity – cooler hood leakages) to determine all necessary inputs to perform global dust emission balance such as cooler hood, stack and leakages flow-rates. Diffuse dust emissions measurements around cooler, sinter-cooler stack flow-rate measurements and dust emissions measurements under cooler hood were also carried out to feed the global balance. Thanks to this study, several designs and process modifications were proposed to decrease dust emissions. Particularly a Discrete Element Method (DEM) model was used to propose implementation of a new charging chute system to limit dust emissions coming from the bed. As well, the cooler zone responsible for more than 95% of emissions was identified and the optimized flow-rate to be treated was calculated in case of fumes treatment implementation.

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26 June / 16:00 - Room 19:

A successful industrial application of selective waste gas recirculation for NOx mitigation without detrimental impact on productivity

L. Beirao do Valle
(CRM Group, Belgium)

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Title: A successful industrial application of selective waste gas recirculation for NOx mitigation without detrimental impact on productivity


Author:
L. Beirao do Valle

Company:
CRM Group, Belgium

Co-Authors:
S. Serre, C. Mathy, O. Havelange

Abstract:
ArcelorMittal Fos has invested in a Selective Waste Gas Recirculation (SWGR) aiming at NOX and dust mitigation while avoiding any detrimental impact on productivity. The layout was designed with the support of CRM Group and the full engineering and implementation at industrial scale was carried out by ArcelorMittal Fos itself. The installation was built by Azur Industries. WGR layouts have to be optimised in terms of many targets and constraints (reduced emission of specific pollutants, reduced off-gas flow rate, energy savings, productivity and sinter quality, limited available space…) which may widely differ from one plant to another. Furthermore, the performances vs costs to be expected for one given WGR layout may depend on local conditions (raw materials used, energy costs…). CRM has therefore developed a complete set of tools (its sinter model, a flexible sintering pilot station and industrial measurement capacities) in order to help its affiliated steel companies to make the best choice and optimise layouts in terms of local objectives and payback time. The model assesses the impact of any possible WGR layouts on sintering time, energy consumption and emissions (CO, CO2, NOx and SOx). For the specific case of Fos, CRM model predictions confirmed by pot trials showed promising results in terms of using an original SWGR layout for reducing the NOx emission. The selected final layout could even allow a productivity increase. Simulations results supported also the pre-engineering and economical assessment. First industrial results (2017-18) confirmed the reduction of NOx emissions and showed also a significant improvement in terms of dust emission.

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26 June / 16:20 - Room 19:

Optimization of sinter cooler and development of raw material drying process

Y. Imai
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

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Title: Optimization of sinter cooler and development of raw material drying process


Author:
Y. Imai

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:
M. Nakamoto, M. Yakabe, M. Kawarata

Abstract:
For the ordinary sinter cooler, air leakage at rubber seal is a big issue from the view point of cooling and exhaust heat recovery efficiency. Rubber seal of sinter cooler is placed between cooler trough and air chamber to prevent air leakage. However, this rubber seal is very easy to wear, because friction against the cooler trough is inevitable. Accordingly, we have replaced the rubber-seal cooler with water-seal cooler. This enabled us to improve cooling efficiency and expand exhaust heat recovery amount. Air leakage ratio of water-seal cooler is about 5%, which is much lower than that of rubber-seal cooler. We have accomplished this construction project in 2017 and operating smoothly. By the way, in the case of round shape cooler, exhaust gas temperature decrease with progression of cooling process. Therefore in the high temperature gas zone, installation of exhaust heat recovery system, such as boiler, is prevailing. On the other hand, in the low temperature gas zone, conventional heat recovery system is not suitable, because heat recovery efficiency is bad. So the low temperature gas is diffused into the air. In order to utilize the exhaust gas, we have developed the blast furnace raw material drying process using the low temperature exhaust gas from sinter cooler. In our factory, a lot of yard (wet) sinter are supplying to blast furnace on a daily basis, so we tried to dry it. Improvement of permeability and decrease of coke ratio has been achieved by drying the yard sinter. Development of this drying process is also completed in 2017 and operating smoothly. In my presentation, more details about water-seal cooler and raw material drying process will be mentioned.

Pelletising: Fundamentals in pelletising (26 June / 09:00 - Room 22)

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 22:

Effects of Ca additive on the mineral structure and compressive strength of pellet

R. Wang
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Title: Effects of Ca additive on the mineral structure and compressive strength of pellet


Author:
R. Wang

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
To neutralize the negative effect of adding magnesium olivine on the compressive strength of pellet, Ca additive was used in pellet. The effect of basicity on the compressive strength, phase composition and mineral structure of Mg-containing magnetite pellet was studied by changing the Ca additive content in pellet. Six groups of pellet were prepared the pellet was further subjected to the preheating and roasting processes in tube furnaces. Scanning electron microscopy-Energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fact-sage software were used to characterize the microstructure and phase composition of pellets. Results showed that five types of phases exist in pellets, which are hematite, (Mg,Fe)O–Fe2O3, silicate, calcium ferrite and incompletely mineralize magnesium olivine. With the addition of Ca additive, the compressive increased firstly and then decreased, the porosity tended an opposite trend, which indicated that Ca additive is conductive to the strength of Mg-containing pellet.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 22:

Importance of green pellet mixture properties - a new approach towards online monitoring and controlling

T. Stefan
(Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

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Title: Importance of green pellet mixture properties - a new approach towards online monitoring and controlling


Author:
T. Stefan

Company:
Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Lang

Abstract:
The pelletizing industry is facing a permanent requirement for process optimization in regard to productivity, quality and energy consumption. Operators worldwide are aware that successful furnace operation is getting set much further up-stream the actual process route. Raw material properties, grinding, dewatering and none the less mixing has a decisive effect on green pellet quality and therefore on bed permeability. Controlling the respective green pellet features, especially plasticity, is the basis for good bed permeability and omitting of fines generation. Unfortunately the balling process is decoupled in time from the up-stream processes as the mixed material resides in bins, which makes accurate controlling of mixing nearly impossible. The research study presented here aims to clarify the question whether the most important green pellet properties can be predicted from a mixture evaluation. Automation of this analysis method opens up for controlling the mixing process and optimization of green pellet properties. A systematic investigation was performed using a laboratory pelletizing disc and testing methods known from the foundry sand industry in order to be able to correlate green pellet properties with cylindrical test specimens (Figure attached) directly made from mixture by ramming. The results are indicating that there is a strong correlation between mechanical properties of test specimens formed from the mixture and pellets that get balled from the same material. The automated analysis of test specimens enables the controlling of the mixture quality in order to optimize the mechanical green pellet features with all known positive effects on the induration process.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 22:

Effect of MgO on the oxidation properties of magnetite

Y. Wang
(University of science and technology beijing, China)

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Title: Effect of MgO on the oxidation properties of magnetite


Author:
Y. Wang

Company:
University of science and technology beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The magnetite-pellet is based on the consolidation of the Fe2O3 crystal. In general, the magnetite is oxidized during the heating process to form Fe2O3 crystallites. The ion migration of the newly formed Fe2O3 crystallites during the high-temperature roasting process. The microcrystals are grown to form a connecting bridge, and the particles in the green ball are bonded to each other. It can be seen that magnetite oxidation is the basis for the growth of high-quality pellets and the consolidation of roasting. However, due to differences in mineral composition and solid solution form of magnetite, there are inevitably differences in oxidation characteristics such as oxidation initiation temperature, oxidation rate, and conversion rate, and the relationship between mineral characteristics and oxidation characteristics is determined for determining appropriate conditions. The pellet production process parameters are of great significance. In this paper, the oxidation properties of the main typical magnetite and solid solution magnetite are studied comprehensively by thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques, and the differences in the oxidation properties of different magnetites are clarified.

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26 June / 10:00 - Room 22:

Green ball plasticity - measurement, influences and downstream effects in iron ore pelletising

A. Firth
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

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Close26 June, Room 22 ( 10:00 )
Title: Green ball plasticity - measurement, influences and downstream effects in iron ore pelletising


Author:
A. Firth

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
M. Buntsma, M. Martinez Pacheco, A. Morón Barrios

Abstract:
The plasticity and deformation under load of iron ore pellets before and during firing is an important factor in their processing. Greater deformation at a certain load can lead to less permeability in the pellet bed during firing and subsequently in the blast furnace or direct reduction module due to lower sphericity. Stresses or cracks induced by deformation of the green ball can also be amplified during firing, reducing the strength of the pellets and creating edges which can be chipped and generate dust. Historical strength measurement techniques for green balls focused only on the crushing strength of the green balls and their resistance to cracking when being dropped onto a conveyor. These measurement techniques persist despite neither of these being predictive of behaviour in firing. Further analysis of the force-deformation curve from the strength test has found that a viscoplastic-viscodamage model can model the material behaviour of iron ore green balls undergoing deformation. A series of small scale balling tests and some pilot scale balling and pot-grate firing tests have been performed with different ore blends and ore size distributions to demonstrate the variations in the material model parameters with moisture, bentonite and ore properties. These tests show that bed permeability can be related to the initial rate of increase in the force-deformation curve for green pellets, and that this is related to moisture and ore properties. The tests also show that a higher amount of “damage” below the crushing force of a pellet during loading into the pot can have a negative impact on pellet compressive strength. Correctly balancing the deformability of the green balls with their sensitivity to damage can lead to fuel and fan electricity savings of up to 5%.

Pelletising: Pellet plant construction and operation (26 June / 10:40 - Room 22)

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 22:

Outotec Pelletizing Technology - Addressing today's challenges in production of high quality steel making feedstock

S. Lang
(Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 22 ( 10:40 )
Title: Outotec Pelletizing Technology - Addressing today's challenges in production of high quality steel making feedstock


Author:
S. Lang

Company:
Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The iron and steel market has seen an unprecedented rise of high quality feed material prices. Premiums for lump ore, high quality fines and concentrate and foremost for iron ore pellets have increased for the last 18 months. The most prominent reason for these developments have been China’s demand for high quality feedstock in its attempt to curb steel related emissions. Iron and steel companies as well as mining companies have tried to adjust to this so called “flight to quality”. The demand to increase production capacity by expanding old plants or building new production lines is undeniable. However there is also a decline in very good raw materials for iron and steelmaking which is the challenge for both plant technology companies and operators. Outotec has been the market leader in iron ore pelletizing for over half a century. Its Travelling Grate Pelletizing technology is robust, reliable and allows production of high quality pellets from various and changing ore sources. It allows production at low emissions and low operating cost as it can be well customized to raw material characteristics. Although the main technological features have not changed over the past years, Outotec has pioneered certain innovations to help improve the process steadily. These processes include advanced automation for travelling grate plants, solutions for lower emissions and energy savings as well as solutions for better maintenability of the plants. Our customers benefit from Outotec’s own R&D centre for raw material testing and processing combined with vast experience from delivered projects and plant operations. This ensures the optimum solution for any specific raw materials for both new plants as well as the expansion of existing operations.

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 22:

Iron ore pelletizing technology in Sino-steel China

W. Gao
(Sinosteel Equipment & Engineering Co., Ltd., China)

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Close26 June, Room 22 ( 11:00 )
Title: Iron ore pelletizing technology in Sino-steel China


Author:
W. Gao

Company:
Sinosteel Equipment & Engineering Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
With the increasing pressure from environment and the depletion of high-grade iron ore resources, iron ore pelletization has been paid extraordinary attention recent years in China. Sinosteel has been engaging in the development of iron ore pelletization technology, engineering design, equipment manufacturing and installation, and service. Sinosteel has delivered a number of iron ore pelleting projects, with their modern pelletization technology and integrated world class process equipment, to their domestic and international partners. This report will cover a brief introduction of the Sinosteel-engaged projects, the main iron ore pelletization technologies that have been used in the projects and a perspective for implementing intelligent processing and control of iron ore pelleting. The technologies include those for the preparation of iron ore concentrates, the proportioning and mixing of raw materials, the formation of green pellets, the drying and induration of green pellets, the transport of resultant pellets, and the control and management of pellet quality. Advanced computer modelling and artificial intelligent technologies have being applied in Sinosteel iron ore pelletization technology, which is expected to provide an environmental friendly, occupational health, economic and optimal iron ore pelleting process. The fundamental includes the modelling of drying, preheating, firing of green balls and the cooling of the fired pellets with numerical simulation technology and the prediction of pellet quality through metallurgical process analyzing models and data processing. The former provides the basis for the design of iron ore pelleting process and the determination of the parameters involved. The latter services for the selection of raw materials and the optimization and control of pelleting process for the materials by considering the effect of raw materials on swelling, melt formation and microstructure during induration. The features and performance of several Sinosteel’s iron ore pelleting processes are also introduced and discussed.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 22:

Improving pellet plant performance and increase capacity

B. Salagundi
(Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

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Close26 June, Room 22 ( 11:20 )
Title: Improving pellet plant performance and increase capacity


Author:
B. Salagundi

Company:
Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The recent steep increase in demand for high quality input material into iron making particularly driven by China and prevailing environmental restrictions has triggered Pellet Plant operators all over the world to restart idle capacity or increase production from existing running plants to satisfy short term demand. There are operational, environmental and reliability challenges when considering these type of projects. Outotec has conceptualized and implemented an approach which allows customers to benefit from our process expertise and testing capabilities as well as from certain upgrade products which help operators to improve overall plant performance. The stepwise implementation also allows pellet plant operators to focus on modernisations and changes which can bring the highest return on investment for their specific case. A plant audit focusing on process and mechanical issues will give first, easy-to-implement improvement suggestions to stabilize operation and achieve the first increases in quality or capacity or a decrease in energy consumption. Together with pot grate tests new raw materials can be checked, the potential future plant capacity and required capital investments can be determined. A further engineering study can then be used to optimize the implantation concept and limit the required plant shutdown to a minimum.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 22:

An analysis of iron ore blending scheme in Zhanjiang pelletizing plant

L. Xiaobo
(Baosteel Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., China)

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Close26 June, Room 22 ( 11:40 )
Title: An analysis of iron ore blending scheme in Zhanjiang pelletizing plant


Author:
L. Xiaobo

Company:
Baosteel Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract: Zhanjiang pelletizing plant established its classical iron ore blending structure after a long term production experience. The rate of limestone should be limited to avoid excessive CO2 emission produced by limestone during the pre~heating stage. The suitable basicity(CaO/SiO2) is 0.8±0.1 by avoiding the basicity zone of malignant expansion. So the SiO2 content of the pellet is 2.8~3.3% and the rate of limestone is 4.1~4.8%. Under this iron ore structure, a suitable liquid content of the pellets as well as the cold compression strength are acquired easily when fired in the rotary kiln. On the other side the pellets mutual bonding phenomenon can be prevented in the cooler to make a stable operation processing

Pelletising: Pellet qualities and coating of pellets (26 June / 13:00 - Room 22)

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26 June / 13:00 - Room 22:

Evolution of pellet microstructure during reduction: a comparison between R180 and ISO DR90

G. Laforest
(COREM, Canada)

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Close26 June, Room 22 ( 13:00 )
Title: Evolution of pellet microstructure during reduction: a comparison between R180 and ISO DR90


Author:
G. Laforest

Company:
COREM, Canada

Co-Authors:
M. Dubé, O. Lacroix

Abstract:
EVOLUTION OF PELLET MICROSTRUCTURE DURING REDUCTION: A COMPARISON BETWEEN R180 AND ISO DR90 ABSTRACT Mathieu Dubé (1), Olivier Lacroix (1), Guylaine Laforest (1), (1)COREM (Québec, Canada) The reduction behavior of iron ore pellets in gas-based DR shaft processes has been studied at COREM since the late 80s. At that time, COREM, in collaboration with ArcelorMittal Mines Canada (former Quebec Cartier Mining) and ArcelorMittal Long Products Canada (former ISPAT Sidbec Inc.), developed a new DR characterization test called the R180. This test is a non-isothermal laboratory test which has been shown to be a better representation of gas-solid counter-current reactions occurring in industrial DR shaft than isothermal tests such as the DR90 test. This paper describes COREM’s approach to improve its understanding of the relations between iron ore pellets microstructure and pellets quality. The paper describes microstructural features developed from measurements made with automated optical microscopy on iron ore pellets to study the reduction behavior during the two different DR reduction tests (R180 and ISO DR90). The evolution of the microstructure during reduction is compared. The differences between the DR90 and the R180 tests are discussed. The reduction steps during the two tests are put forward as an important factor impacting the microstructural changes as well as the test results.

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26 June / 13:20 - Room 22:

Study on pre-heated and fired process of pellets of vanadium-titanium magnetite concentrate

X. Chenyang
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Close26 June, Room 22 ( 13:20 )
Title: Study on pre-heated and fired process of pellets of vanadium-titanium magnetite concentrate


Author:
X. Chenyang

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The laboratory pelletization experiment was carried out with Panzhihua vanadium-titanium magnetite as raw material, and the micro-structure of pre-heated pellets and fired pellets was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that when the preheated time was 15 min, the compressive strength of pellets increases first and then decreases with the increase of pre-heaed temperature and when the pre-heated temperature is 900℃, the compressive strength of the pellets is higher than 400N. With the increase of fired temperature, the compressive strength of pellets increased first and then decreased, and when the fired temperature was 1300 °C, the compressive strength of pellets reached 2341.60N.

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26 June / 13:40 - Room 22:

Swelling of olivine potfurnace pellets - standard tests vs basket samples in the LKAB-Experimental Blast Furnace, EBF

P. Semberg
(LKAB AB, Sweden)

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Close26 June, Room 22 ( 13:40 )
Title: Swelling of olivine potfurnace pellets - standard tests vs basket samples in the LKAB-Experimental Blast Furnace, EBF


Author:
P. Semberg

Company:
LKAB AB, Sweden

Co-Authors:
J. Wikström

Abstract:
Efficient blast furnace operation requires good raw materials of low variability in the burden. This is normally ensured by a number of quality tests, each of them designed to highlight a certain quality parameter, for example cold compression strength, swelling and low temperature disintegration. However, the test environment is often simplified and designed for a tougher environment than that of a real blast furnace. In the present study, production pellets and pot furnace pellets with olivine ranging from very good to very poor in pressure and swelling behavior, as measured by the standard test ISO7992 and LKAB’s internal Swelling1000°C-test, were placed in baskets in the LKAB experimental blast furnace, EBF®, prior to the quench of campaign 31, autumn 2014. All pellets in the study swelled 8-13% during the first 15 minutes and began to shrink after around 50 minutes. The results indicate a tendency that pellets with a higher level of pressure drop and swelling in the metallurgical tests swell slightly more in the EBF. However, the difference between the different pellets is small, and the overall result is that the pellets swelled totally 8-13 % regardless of the result obtained in the metallurgical tests.

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26 June / 14:00 - Room 22:

Lab experimental studies of pellet induration and quality: A complementary tool to support optimisation of green pellet characteristics and induration scheme

J. Small
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

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Title: Lab experimental studies of pellet induration and quality: A complementary tool to support optimisation of green pellet characteristics and induration scheme


Author:
J. Small

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
C. Kooij, M. Wijngaarden-Kroft, Y. Xiao

Abstract:
Optimisation of iron-ore pellet induration schemes has traditionally been based on pilot-scale (pellet pot) testing and trials in production itself. While it is an imperative last step before production trials, pilot-scale testing is laborious, requires large amounts of material and is intrinsically limited in the degree of control over the physical conditions. Examples are presented from a developed lab-scale ‘pellet route’, designed to complement pilot- and industrial-scale studies. The aim is to define what physical conditions pellets should see during induration to guarantee sufficient quality, as a function of changing blend characteristics – e.g. ore type, Blaine, carbon and flux type and amount – or to optimise blend characteristics for given production conditions. This is approached by indurating green pellets in small batches in experimental gas-mixing furnaces, with precisely controlled and measured thermal profiles and gas atmospheres. The resultant pellets are characterised in terms of their mineralogy and microstructure, their metallurgical quality (free swelling, measured by on-line camera), and mechanical properties (cold compressive strength). Results provide high-resolution trends of quality changes as a function of pellet induration conditions. The relationship between basicity (CaO/SiO2 0.1 – 1.0, varied by limestone addition), induration temperature and reduction swelling behaviour is presented. Pellets indurated at 1250 °C show a maximum, with respect to basicity, in swelling (900 °C, CO gas atmosphere) at CaO/SiO2 0.5, while the swelling mechanism for these pellets appears unrelated to metal formation. However, ‘under-fired’ pellets indurated at 1100 °C show a dramatic increase in swelling index over the studied range of basicity, driven by Fe-whisker formation. We conclude that the observed maximum of swelling at medium basicity in pilot-scale studies is unrelated to sensitivity to low induration temperature, which increases throughout the basicity range 0.1 - 1.0.

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26 June / 14:20 - Room 22:

Smelting practice of adding metallized pellets in blast furnace

Z. Weiling
(Baosteel Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., China)

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Title: Smelting practice of adding metallized pellets in blast furnace


Author:
Z. Weiling

Company:
Baosteel Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The production process and some quality indexes, including the composition, particle size, compressive strength, softening and melting properties, of metallized pellets in Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co. were introduced. The behavior of metallized pellets in blast furnace and its influence on gas flow, fuel ratio and Zn load of blast furnace were analyzed. The mechanism study provided guidance for using metallized pellets stably and efficiently into blast furnace. According to the actual blast furnace production performance of using metallized pellets , it was concluded that metallized pellets were beneficial to increase the output of blast furnace and reduce the fuel ratio, but the usage of metallized pellets was limited because of the imbalance of Zn budget in the whole iron and steel smelting system. Based on the current use and the price of raw materials, the cost of raw materials and fuels could be saved by 23.02 million yuan annually within 250t metallized pellets were used to replace sinter into the blast furnace every day.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace relinings and campaign life extension (27 June / 09:00 - Room 1)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 1:

Remarkable advancements in blast furnace hearth lining

M. Bierod
(Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Remarkable advancements in blast furnace hearth lining


Author:
M. Bierod

Company:
Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
E. Schnaub, M. Engelmann, V. Dulz, R. Hebel

Abstract:
Paul Wurth works on the advancement of durable engineering concepts and design solutions for BF-hearth side walls since many decades. One of the utmost concerns of Paul Wurth’s great efforts is to find the key for improved engineering concepts of BF-hearth side wall solutions. Preventing BF-hearth lining refractory defects, like structural embrittlements, so-called “brittle layers“, is one of the great challenges. This paper will discuss ways to extend the running BF-hearth lining campaign, even with a defective lining, like a “brittle layer“. Preventing structural failures in BF-hearth lining already in the early BF campaign on the one hand and avoiding accelerated hearth lining wear on the other hand will be discussed in the paper as well. Different classical BF-hearth lining concepts and designs will be compared and judged regarding their success. Is it necessary to change the mind-set and develop new BF-hearth lining concepts for high specific hot metal production rates and significantly prolonged BF-hearth lining life campaigns?

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 1:

Multiphysics hearth lining state model

Y. Kaymak
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Multiphysics hearth lining state model


Author:
Y. Kaymak

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Bartusch, T. Hauck, J. Mernitz, H. Rausch, R. Lin

Abstract:
The campaign life of the blast furnace is governed by the erosion of the hearth lining. Therefore, it is essential to keep track of the residual lining thickness not only for the better planning of the relining but also for the operational safety to avoid dangerous hearth breakthrough incidences. Modern blast furnaces are equipped with many thermocouples in the hearth refractory to monitor the temperature level. Higher temperatures indicate lower residual wall thickness. However, the measured temperatures are also influenced by many other effects like thermocouple defects, cooling boundaries, brittle layers in the refractory, or temperature and flow state of hot metal. Existing models lack the comprehensive checks of the data plausibility or of possible effects unrelated to wear. The new multiphysics approach provides a flexible platform to include these influences as well as other physical aspects which are important for operational hearth monitoring. For instance, thermal stresses and the deformation of the hearth lining and steel shell can be analyzed. This enables the integration of strain-gauge measurements into the model which were recently established for the monitoring of liquid levels. The numerical computations for the 3d hearth geometry are performed using COMSOL ServerTM with MATLAB®. Standard web browsers can be used to visualize the results interactively on any device connected to the internal network without any local software installation. The developed multi-physics model has been calibrated and validated by comparing the estimated wear profile with the measured residual wall thickness during the last relinings at Eisenhüttenstadt and Dillingen. Two instances of the multiphysics model are online and in use for monitoring the hearth lining state at these plants.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 1:

Intermediate reline of ArcelorMittal blast furnace A

L. Hausemer
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: Intermediate reline of ArcelorMittal blast furnace A


Author:
L. Hausemer

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
C. Bicalho, P. Pinheiro, E. Valente de Barros, R. Maia

Abstract:
On September 14th, 2017 the intermediate repair of Blast Furnace “A” at ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Brazil was successfully concluded after a 50-day shutdown. With an initial plan of 45 days ( blow-down to blow-in ) the scope was increased mid-project to 55 days to accommodate the exchange of two layers of carbon blocks in the hearth wall initially not foreseen. Through time saving strategies and daily reorganization of teams and activities this was later reduced by 5 days. Blast Furnace “A” fuelled by coke was originally designed and built by Paul Wurth 18 years ago to replace four smaller charcoal blast furnaces. Since initial blow-in it had been operating without a major repair producing ~18 mt of iron. The complete operation required more than 1,000 on-site workers and the participation of cross-functional teams of specialists from ArcelorMittal and Paul Wurth. A sound, collaborative effort established the success of this project; the details of which are described in this paper. Blow-down took place on July 27th. All supervisory tasks, erection and replacement of old by new copper staves were executed successfully by Paul Wurth do Brasil Montagens e Manutenção Industrial. In addition to repairs and services for the blast furnace proper, modernization and upgrades were applied to the pulverised coal injection plant, gas cleaning plant, pre-heater, INBA® slag granulation plant, hot blast system and tap hole relining. Prior to shutdown, the Bell Less Top and cast house components belonging to a non-built similar blast furnace were inspected and refurbished by Paul Wurth Services workshop in Vespasiano, Brazil.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 1:

Emergency hearth repair: an unconventional solution to minimize production loss successfully applied in AST BF 3

M. Uras
(Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy)

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Title: Emergency hearth repair: an unconventional solution to minimize production loss successfully applied in AST BF 3


Author:
M. Uras

Company:
Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
V. Dimastromatteo

Abstract:
In May 2018, Paul Wurth was called from Arvedi’s Siderurgica Triestina for an urgent hearth repair at BF 3 at their Trieste works in Italy. BF3 has been in service since 1991 with a total hot metal production of more than 4.5 million tons, in the last two years production has increased with an average daily production of around 1450 tHM/d tons. Some thermocouples had started to show worrying temperatures, an ultrasonic test for residual hearth lining measurement showed reduced thickness in some parts. The new refractory configuration selected by Paul Wurth was a tailor-made combination of a silicon carbide-based unshaped material as hot face lining, a monolithic carbon block in the taphole area surrounded by small carbon bricks, suitably shaped to ensure a proper connection with the remaining carbon lining. A fast delivery time of repair materials was crucial and achieved thanks to the combination of small carbon bricks around taphole and unshaped material; A complete salamander tapping was thus reached with reduced time for hearth cooling, demolition and decreased ramp up period at blow-in with minimized risks of process and safety. The hearth bottom and wall has been replenished with a significant thickness of SiC pumpable castable and several thermocouples have been installed for wear monitoring between residual carbon and new wear lining. Despite organizational complexity and additional unforeseen activities, BF 3 tapped hot metal again on Sunday,1st July, after a furnace stop of only 34 days. Full production was reached after 4 days with the best average monthly production in the entire BF life. Proper execution of the planned activities in full compliance with projected deadline was possible thanks to the joint effort, the high level of cooperation achieved between Arvedi and Paul Wurth teams as well as quick and effective decision making between customer and designer.

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 1:

Smart modernization of existing blast furnace with substantial increase of production with limited changes to plant infrastructure: A Paul Wurth experience...

M. Perato
(Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy)

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Title: Smart modernization of existing blast furnace with substantial increase of production with limited changes to plant infrastructure: A Paul Wurth experience...


Author:
M. Perato

Company:
Paul Wurth Italia S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
R. Manoranjan , M. Bassetti , N. Kumar, S. Kataria

Abstract:
In February 2016, the upgraded Blast Furnace 1 of JSW Steel Limited (JSW) at its Vijayanagar Steel Plant was blown after that the whole furnace was rebuilt on the existing foundations and within the existing tower structure. Despite several plant constraints it was possible to increase the furnace inner volume by 85% - reaching 2307 m3 from existing 1250m3. The upgradation project covered the stockhouse and its dedusting system, top charging system, furnace profile, furnace cooling system, casthouse and its dedusting system, slag granulation plant, pulverized coal injection plant, hot blast system and gas cleaning plant – with major interventions in order to cope up with the changed operating conditions. The total scope of the project was split by JSW into several packages, all based on design data provided by Paul Wurth. JSW was responsible for coordinating the local sub-contractors along with Paul Wurth which has been appointed as main technology supplier in charge of complete basic and selected detail engineering in the key areas and of the supply of core equipment such as the Bell-less Top®, copper staves, GCP key items and TMT casthouse machines. The main design concept and the key points of the project such as optimization of project ROI, advanced erection concepts as well as a summary of the operating results are presented confirming JSW “BF1” upgradation as one of the latest examples of the current state of the art in the revamping projects.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace campaign life extension (27 June / 11:00 - Room 1)

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 1:

Fit for service assessment of aging ironmaking facilities

K. Chomyn
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Fit for service assessment of aging ironmaking facilities


Author:
K. Chomyn

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
K. Chomyn, M. Al-Dojayli, J. Busser

Abstract:
Pressurized and non-pressurized equipment and containers in ironmaking facilities are exposed to harsh operating conditions, often beyond the originally intended design life. Accidental downtime and safety risks associated with failure of this equipment can impose significant costs. Necessary inspections, fit for service assessment, and repair planning are critical for protecting this equipment. Sample applications of this methodical approach are presented, including the use of guidelines of ASME FFS-1 / API 579-1 code. Finite element analysis may be used to more accurately quantify the extent of damage in this equipment. This methodology enables the operators to detect and more accurately assess damages in their facilities, minimizing the cost of repairs and unplanned downtimes.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 1:

Long campaign design innovations of a large blast furnace at WISCO

Z. Lu
(Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China)

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Title: Long campaign design innovations of a large blast furnace at WISCO


Author:
Z. Lu

Company:
Wuhan Branch of Baosteel Central Research Institute, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Long campaign technology of blast furnace (BF) involves special considerations throughout design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the BF. Learning from the reasons leading to pre-mature repair requirements of some blast furnaces in recent years, a number of innovative ideas were implemented in the design and operation of No.8 Blast Furnace with volume of 4117m3 at Wuhan Iron and Steel Company (WISCO). With the application of copper cooling staves and new structure design in hearth, its temperature distribution of lining and cooling staves shows normal behavior after 9 years working. After implementing a new design in the structure and use of cooper cooling staves in tuyere zone, bosh, and lower part of stack, the abnormal erosion and damage of the cooling staves have been effectively limited. Since the blow-in of this BF in 2009, it has achieved highest technological indexes among similar volume large BFs (more than 4000m3) in China, and the cooling staves and pipes of the BF have never been damaged so far, the goal of high efficiency and longevity have been achieved.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 1:

Historical data from long-term blast furnace refractory monitoring for campaign life extension using Acousto Ultrasonic-Echo

A. Sadri
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Historical data from long-term blast furnace refractory monitoring for campaign life extension using Acousto Ultrasonic-Echo


Author:
A. Sadri

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
S. Kumar, Y. Gordon, W. Ying, M. Henstock

Abstract:
Proper timing of a blast furnace refractory reline is crucial to the success of any blast furnace operation. A premature furnace refractory relining results in loss of capital and creating unnecessary waste. Nevertheless, reckless furnace operation with inefficient and worn-down refractory lining can result in an costly metal leaks or run-outs and prolonged furnace downtime. Careful long-term continuous monitoring of refractory thickness and integrity allows for refractory wear and condition to be predicted, which results in better maintenance practices and optimum furnace reline schedules. Acousto Ultrasonic-Echo (AU-E) technique is a nondestructive testing technology based on stress wave propagation principals that has been proven to be a reliable and accurate for measuring refractory thickness and quality in operating furnaces. For complete analysis and improved accuracies, the AU-E results are cross correlated with thermal data from various sources in blast furnaces such as thermal couples and water cooling temperature, if the resources are available. For the last few years, blast furnace operators have been utilizing this patented technology for long-term periodic monitoring of refractory thickness and integrity to profound effect. The information generated from AU-E inspections has allowed the projection of refractory wear trends and remaining campaign life of blast furnaces. Additionally, the extensive history of AU-E allows historical benchmarking of wear rate and remaining refractory thickness of an inspection to other similar blast furnaces’ performances, or its previous campaign performance. In this paper, several blast furnaces cases are used to illustrate the effectiveness of AU-E in accurate predictions of refractory wear and subsequent actions for the extension of furnace campaign life. By comparing the subsequent AU-E measurements, we can see the effectiveness of various mitigating actions. Additionally, this paper introduces the state-of-the-art long-term continuous furnace monitoring technique – Furnace Integrity Monitoring System (FIMS). This technique is utilized with AU-E and thermal measurements for continuous and remote refractory wear monitoring to allow warnings and prediction of blast furnaces’ remaining campaign life.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 1:

30+ year campaign of IJmuiden Blast Furnace No. 6

F. Kerkhoven
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

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Title: 30+ year campaign of IJmuiden Blast Furnace No. 6


Author:
F. Kerkhoven

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
G. Tijhuis , J. Stuurwold , B. Nugteren , R. van Laar

Abstract:
Tata Steel Europe is operating two Blast Furnaces at the plant in IJmuiden. These produce more than 6 million tonnes hot metal per year at low coke rates (less than 300 kg/tHM) and high productivity levels (more than 3 tHM/m³WV). Raw materials include pellets and sinter. Blast Furnace No. 6 has been commissioned in 1967, while the current campaign started in 1986. The bosh, belly and stack campaign life has exceeded 32 years and 75 million tHM. This paper will address Blast Furnace No. 6 operations and design which have contributed to its record performance.

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27 June / 12:20 - Room 1:

Blast furnaces campaign extension at JSW

A. Srinavas Rao
(JSW, India)

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Title: Blast furnaces campaign extension at JSW


Author:
A. Srinavas Rao

Company:
JSW, India

Co-Authors:
R. Anand, L. Mallikarjun, L. Singh, M. Henstock, Y. Gordon, A. Sadri, W. Ying, S. Kumar

Abstract:
Reliable and stable operation with longer blast furnace campaign allows an increase in utilization of Blast furnace for production of hot metal. Longer campaign of the furnace to monitor the hearth wear out to initiate actions in time which is critical in extension of campaign of life of furnace. JSW and Hatch systematically monitor conditions of BF #3 lining using Acousto Ultrasonic-Echo (AU-E) non-destructive methodology. Testing of blast furnaces revealed problematic areas with refractory deterioration, formation of elephant foot, extent of accretion and rate of refractory wear, cracks and anomalies. Improvement in coke quality, periodical staves washing, addition of titania, grouting etc. were recommended and implemented to prolong furnace life while maintaining the productivity of furnace. Rate of refractory wear was calculated for various points of blast furnace hearth. The remaining furnace life was estimated and JSW started preparation for blast furnace reline.

Direct reduction and smelting reduction: Fundamentals in direct reduction and smelting reduction (27 June / 13:20 - Room 1)

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 1:

Factors influencing the quality of hot briquetted iron

C. Harris
(voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Factors influencing the quality of hot briquetted iron


Author:
C. Harris

Company:
voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
V. Romo, K. Gruber , E. De Moor

Abstract:
During the production of Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) it is important to control several key properties of the HBI in order to ensure a high quality, shippable product. These Important quality parameters include items such as apparent density, tumble strength and fines content. This paper reports on a series of plant trials performed at voestalpine’ s HBI plant in Corpus Christi Texas, which were done to better understand the major influences on HBI quality. Factors investigated include both process parameters such as incoming feed temperature as well as machine parameters, including operating torque and speed.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 1:

Reaction behavior between CO-CO2 gas mixture and carbon fiber deposited during metal dusting process

K. Nishihiro
(Kyushu University, Japan)

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Title: Reaction behavior between CO-CO2 gas mixture and carbon fiber deposited during metal dusting process


Author:
K. Nishihiro

Company:
Kyushu University, Japan

Co-Authors:
T. Maeda, K. Ohno, K. Kunitomo

Abstract:
CO-H2 gas mixture is often used for gas-based DRI process where carbon deposition reaction and Fe3C metal dusting play negative roles for a stable operation, such as sooting on the surface of gas path and the deterioration in gas ventilation due to the formation of ferrous dust. In particular, decomposition of Fe3C promotes the negative effects because of the formation of iron particle which is a catalyst for carbon fiber deposition around 600℃. Then, there is a possibility that CO-CO2 gas mixture gasifies the carbon fiber at around 1000℃. Investigation of these reactions is complicated because both of them sequentially occurs in sequential heating process. In the present study, thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to focus on the carbon fiber gasification reaction in CO-CO2 gas mixture. To prepare carbon fibers samples, metal dusting process and carbon deposition was carried out on reduced iron. Reagent Fe2O3 was reduced by 100vol%H2 at 800℃ for 120 minutes to get the reduced iron. The course of carbon deposition on the reduced iron were performed at 600℃ in 50vol%CO-50vol%H2. The carbon fiber gasification was investigated at 800, 900 and 1000 ℃ in flowing CO-CO2 gas mixture. Results showed that an increase in the initial gasification rate with an increase in either CO2 concentration or temperature. According to SEM observation, carbon fiber was gasified in the longitudinal direction rather than in radial. Moreover, a sintered iron cluster was observed in carbon fiber sample after gasification. It is assumed that dispersed tiny iron particles in the sample was aggregated and sintered due to gasification carbon fiber in the longitudinal direction.

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 1:

Size optimization of pellet for DRI process

C. Verma
(Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India)

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Title: Size optimization of pellet for DRI process


Author:
C. Verma

Company:
Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In Coal Based DRI process, reduction process mainly depends on size and physical quality of both iron oxide (lump iron ore or pellets) and fuel. In present time, most of the DRI kilns has been running with pellets and as already mentioned that the size of pellets plays crucial role in reduction kinetics inside the DRI kilns and most of the DRI plant uses pellet size 5-15mm and getting 81-82% Fe(M) in DRI at the rate of 92-93% metallization (Degree of Reduction) maximum which ultimately affects SMS yield as the rest Fe apart from Fe(M) is being present in the form of FeO which is not required by SMS. This study includes size wise physical and chemical analysis of both raw pellets and corresponding DRI after the reduction process and it shows +12mm raw pellet has very poor tumbler and abrasion index and reduction behavior also starts decreasing from +10mm size. Study concludes the ideal size for DRI process is 3-12 MM with respect to DRI quality i.e. Fe (M) and energy efficiency. At JSPL Raigarh, we have used the same size range which has reduced the retention time of pellet inside the kiln and ultimately improved the productivity and quality. It also brought down the energy and temperature requirement in DRI production.

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27 June / 14:40 - Room 1:

Experimental study of DRI carburization

M. Farahani
(ArcelorMittal Global R&D, United States)

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Title: Experimental study of DRI carburization


Author:
M. Farahani

Company:
ArcelorMittal Global R&D, United States

Co-Authors:
J. Barros Lorenzo

Abstract:
Carbon in DRI provides energy and enhances the steelmaking process in the EAF; in addition, it reduces the DRI reactivity, making easier the storage and material handling. Current article describes the research of DRI carburization phenomenon in a Direct Reduction Shaft Furnace (SF) by ArcelorMittal Global R&D. TGA and gravimetric furnaces were used to provide different reduction and carburizing conditions. The experimental setup is close to actual SF parameters. Obtained results show the importance of availability of reacting components, especially Hydrocarbons, and temperature as two major factors impacting the content and the type of Carbon in DRI.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Modern process control techniques and models I (27 June / 09:00 - Room 2)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 2:

Integrated tuyere health monitoring & enhancement system at I Blast Furnace, Tata Steel, Jamshedpur, India

U. Ghosh
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Integrated tuyere health monitoring & enhancement system at I Blast Furnace, Tata Steel, Jamshedpur, India


Author:
U. Ghosh

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Tuyere is one of the most important component in Blast Furnace. Tuyere is made of copper due to its high conductivity. Hot wind with huge velocity pass through the tuyere inside the furnace. Along with the hot Blast, oxygen, coal etc also go inside the furnace. Tuyere is water cooled from inside but at the same time water ingress from leaking tuyere inside the furnace is one of the major threat for Blast Furnace operators. Unintended water ingress inside the Blast Furnace not only increases fuel rate but at the same time uncontrolled water leakage from tuyere may lead to serious process incident. So enhancement of Tuyere life is important from the safety as well as business point of view at the same time, timely and accurate detection of tuyere leakage is equally important. As coal is abrasive material and it pass through the tuyere so always possibility of erosion failure of tuyere remain in the system, if not managed properly. Conventional practice is to monitor the lance and tuyere condition manually through the peep hole. In I Blast Furnace, Tata Steel, Jamshedpur,India one integrated Tuyere health Monitoring & Enhancement system was installed through which model can predict probability of tuyere failure in near future with 95% accuracy so that decision can be taken to replace it proactively. After leakage it can be detected online and existing low pressure water line of Tuyere body can be converted into high pressure water line to enhance its existing lifeby increasing heat transfer..Remote monitoring system of Tuyere is installed in-house. Important decision related to furnace movement can be taken by observing the visibility and brightness and logic of coal injection may be modified accordingly.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 2:

Development of longlife blast furnace tuyeres

J. Adam
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Development of longlife blast furnace tuyeres


Author:
J. Adam

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
W. Konrad, C. Neinhuis, S. Konietzko

Abstract:
The damage of a blast furnace tuyere is an unpredictable incident, happening in average between 30 and 100 times a year. As a result, two hours, in some cases up to eight hours shut down are necessary to change such cooling elements. Production loss, extra coke and steam for shut down increase the costs of hot metal (HM) production. Unplanned stoppages due to damages at the blast furnace tuyeres also cause additional emissions like CO2 etc. One of the most frequent reasons for blast furnace (BF) tuyere damages is burning at the tip of the tuyere. It is assumed that temporary peak heat flow at the top of the tuyere is affected by intensive contact of the tuyere tip with molten iron. HM dripping / flowing over the BF tuyere tip is resulting in extreme thermal load upon the tuyere surface. In 2015 the project “Development of longlife blast furnace tuyeres” funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy of Germany started with the aim to extend BF tuyere life-time by developing of 1. advanced BF tuyere coatings based on diffusion coating processes 2. advanced BF tuyere surface structures reducing the wettability by HM and the heat transfer at the tuyere surface The presentation gives an overview about the investigations, preliminary findings and results of the project and points out the demand for future R&D for further extension of BF tuyere life-time.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 2:

Computerized blast furnace training system

S. Zagainov
(Ural Federal University, Russia)

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Title: Computerized blast furnace training system


Author:
S. Zagainov

Company:
Ural Federal University, Russia

Co-Authors:
S. Filatov, L. Gileva, S. Myasoedov, A. Sorokin, Y. Gordon

Abstract:
Modern method of technological processes mathematical modelling allows to conduct education of blast furnace specialists and university students using computerised training systems. Operators study the response of blast furnace to various controlled and un-controlled changes in operating situation and acquire the knowledge to compensate the deviation of thermal state from set-up conditions. The training system uses dynamic model of blast furnace operation supplemented with models of various disturbances on furnace thermal state. Tuning of the dynamic parameters of blast furnace process uses regularities of heat and mass transfer. The temperature fields are used to estimate location and sizing of zones of chemical reactions. The system is implemented at NLMK Russia and allowed increase in personnel qualification and reduction in sub-standard hot metal production.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 2:

Process visualization and modelling in ironmaking enabling higher performance

G. Saran
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Process visualization and modelling in ironmaking enabling higher performance


Author:
G. Saran

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
A. Singhal, A. Kumar, A. Ganguly, S. Raj

Abstract:
Ironmaking processes, being complex metallurgical phenomena require deep understanding of the process for taking informed decisions well in time. Seeking this information from different measurements, making data flow on continuous basis, subjecting data to analysis of trends and cause effect analyses is needed to assert that one can quantitatively connect causes to effects. This is where process visualization and empirical modelling plays a major role thereby enabling generation of insights, connecting measurements to phenomena, diagnosis of disturbances, finding improvement opportunities, devising innovative approaches and maximizing value chain. This makes the data acquisition and knowledge accretion more important than ever. Real-time data visibility has been established with Blast Furnace & other Iron making units to take the relevant data to the central data repository named as iMonitor. Enhanced process visibility has helped in the development of advanced visualizations, statistical and empirical diagnostic models. This paper gives a flavor of some of these models such as ‘Blast Furnace Cohesive Zone’, ‘Sounding O/C’, ‘Stave visualization, ‘Liquid Level in hearth’ and how they contributed to achieve the current level of understanding.

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 2:

Consistent hot metal quality at the blast furnace by machine supported decisions

T. Hauck
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Consistent hot metal quality at the blast furnace by machine supported decisions


Author:
T. Hauck

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
S. Böhnisch, C. Hillmann, U. Paul, M. Kannappel, R. Klock

Abstract:
The blast furnace process is extremely complex and actually not fully understood, yet. Numerous spatially distributed measurements have to be considered but provide just incomplete, indirect information about the crucial inner process states. The control is still done manually, so it is an important topic to support the operators during this hard and essential work. Aim is to standardise the control in order to decrease fluctuations and, in succession, to decrease costs and emissions. A rule-based system for machine supported decisions was developed with main focus on the online control of hot metal quality but also on the monitoring of measurement and control systems. Instead of aiming at closed loop control, the system was especially designed to provide maximum transparency for the BF operators in daily practice. This approach is necessary since a closed loop control at BFs so far is just possible during normal operation, but not during special incidents when manual control with full awareness of the operators is essential for fast and correct trouble-shooting. All conclusions of the system are dynamically explained, step-wise and closely oriented to the individual best practice of knowledge-based process control of the respective BF. The system was successfully implemented at a small and a large BF. The recommendations were validated within several operational trials. The results exceeded the expectations, showing a 25% decrease of the standard deviation of hot metal temperatures and in particular a decrease of large target-deviations by up to 75%. Due to these benefits the system was transferred to a further large BF within 6 months. Comparing process efficiencies along the project time showed a saving of approximately 500.000 GJ/a. The system is also useful for benchmarking and training. Further enhancement by integration of complex statistical and analytical models into the current knowledge-based control strategy was already started.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Modern process control techniques and models II (27 June / 11:00 - Room 2)

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 2:

Successful deployment of a tuyere leak soft-ensor at USS Blast Furnace No. 14

Y. Ghobara
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Successful deployment of a tuyere leak soft-ensor at USS Blast Furnace No. 14


Author:
Y. Ghobara

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:
R. Albanese, J. Grindey, J. Busser, M. Sukhram, I. Cameron, R. Pula, M. Bodley

Abstract:
Leaking tuyeres damage hearth refractories, chill the hearth and cause production losses. U.S. Steel and Hatch implemented a soft sensor at Blast Furnace No. 14 to identify small water leaks as early as possible. The soft-sensor statistically compares inlet and outlet water flows for each tuyere. Leaks are found quickly by tracking fast and slow drifts in the differential water flowrates. The soft-sensor captured 100% of the leaks in advance of traditional testing over a 6-month period. This paper will discuss the development of the soft-sensor and present examples of the leak events that were successfully detected.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 2:

Raceway instrumentation

C. Plancq
(CRM Group, Belgium)

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Title: Raceway instrumentation


Author:
C. Plancq

Company:
CRM Group, Belgium

Co-Authors:
F. Van Loo, O. Ansseau, G. Moreas

Abstract:
Nowadays, the control of the blast furnace coke rate reduction by increasing the coal injection is more and more a priority. Therefore, behaviour and impact of coal char (from injected coals) on melting, smelting and burden permeability will be addressed by innovative techniques. Subsequently, several newly developed tools will enable to highlight the (coal) char regimes. Three measurement techniques have been developed and validated in order to characterize the raceway behaviour. The first one is the raceway depth measurement, the second technique is the temperature evaluation and the last technique is the chemical analysis. The raceway depth measurement method consists in aiming the target point with two spaced laser lines. Depending of the distance at which the reflection (or diffusion) occurs, the apparent distance between the two spots will vary because of the perspective on the condition that the objective is not telecentric. This distance will be measured using a camera and automatic image processing. Normally classical chemical analysis is performed with an absorption measurement inside a chamber filled with a gas. A laser emitter is installed at one side and a spectrometer at the other side to analyse the transmitted light. The classical method is not usable because only one side of the chamber (the raceway) is accessible. So, an emission measurement has to be performed. Emission bands were identified at around 589.6 nm for the Na, at 670.9 nm for the Li and at 766.5 and 769.9 nm for the K. The temperature measurement is combined with the spectrometric gas analysis. The raceway will be considered as a black-body. So the Planck’s law, giving its spectroscopic thermal radiation, can be directly fitted on the measurement. Deeper description and results will be shown during a presentation.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 2:

Tuyere tipping, phenomena understanding and measures to control at F blast furnace TATA Steel

M. Tiwari
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Tuyere tipping, phenomena understanding and measures to control at F blast furnace TATA Steel


Author:
M. Tiwari

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Tuyere is a water-cooled cast copper device that allows hot blast to be blown into the raceway of Blast Furnace. Tuyere tipping is a phenomenon when a tuyere is pushed inside blast furnace due to burden weight or descending scabs. This leads to equipment damage and subsequent loss of hot metal production due to furnace stoppage for changing of tuyere and sometime damaged tuyere cooler. High Productivity in furnaces, high injection rates with high oxygen enrichment and inferior raw material qualities are supplementing tuyere bending and tipping phenomenon in blast furnaces. F Blast furnace at Tata steel India suffered with such problem frequently in recent past. This paper discusses about the phenomenon of tuyere tipping and primary causes for its occurrence. Basis for the project was to study the impact of recent operation on cohesive zone root position, gas flow pattern in furnace and its subsequent effect on heat losses. Different trials were done to study burden distribution and effect of coke and metallic proportion in Blast furnace periphery. Liquid buildup inside hearth and frequent drainage issues have also been considered in study as higher slag volume in hearth affects the gas flow pattern. Outcome of the project has been implemented and has resulted in reduction in tuyere tipping rate at F Blast furnace of Tata Steel, Jamshedpur, India.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 2:

Wind rate control amongst blast furnace tuyeres

N. Spirin
(Ural Federal University, Russia)

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Title: Wind rate control amongst blast furnace tuyeres


Author:
N. Spirin

Company:
Ural Federal University, Russia

Co-Authors:
O. Onorin, A. Polionov , A. Pavlov, Y. Gordon

Abstract:
Uneven distribution of hot blast amongst the tuyeres leads to variation in raceway length, causes a difference in material descent and gas flow in various areas of blast furnace cross-section. Because of this the information on gas distribution along the tuyeres is very important technological parameter. A new technique is proposed for determining the blast flow rate through tuyeres, based on the usage of the wind thermal energy and the value of the heat removal from this tuyere. It is shown that, with an uneven distribution of hot blast amongst the tuyeres, stabilization of the raceway thermal state requires an adjustment in natural gas flow per tuyere to maintain the theoretical combustion temperatures at a given level.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Modern process control techniques and models III (27 June / 13:20 - Room 2)

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 2:

Fuel rate reduction by optimizing gas distribution & stack temperature at E BF of Tata Steel Ltd

B. Seal
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Fuel rate reduction by optimizing gas distribution & stack temperature at E BF of Tata Steel Ltd


Author:
B. Seal

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
D. Kumar, D. Viswakarma, R. Kumar, S. Saha, M. Patra

Abstract:
Controlling of blast furnace stack temperature is very important for process stability, fuel rate reduction, hot metal chemistry control and for improvement of its campaign life. For controlling stack temperature, gas distribution in furnace plays a major role. Productivity, fuel rate, process stability, hot metal chemistry, campaign life all are affected to great extent in case of adverse gas flow in blast furnace is happened. E Blast Furnace, one of the oldest furnace (Working Volume 595 m3) of Tata Steel Ltd(India) started its 20th campaign from Aug’2017. E BF faced very high stack temperature, less central gas flow, high fuel rate and wide fluctuation in hot metal chemistry for couple of months since it started its new campaign. Since E BF having only coke screening facilities and availability of agglomerate is less (i.e. 60% agglomerate & 40% iron ore), hence reduction of fuel rate with high fines input through iron bearing material & high Al2O3 load through iron bearing material is quite difficult because of adverse gas flow & high slag rate operation of furnace. Formation of wall accretions due to high fines input and its frequent dislodge used to cause wide fluctuations of hot metal chemistry and fuel rate at E BF. For optimization of stack temperature measures like improvement of central gas flow by modifying bell less top chute rotation logic for controlling fines distribution, adjustment of burden distribution in furnace, improvement in raw material batching practice at stock house, inclusion of center coke charging in existing charging matrix, improvement of cast house management was taken. By adopting these measures, gas distribution inside furnace improved and optimization of stack temperature became possible. Fuel rate achieved as 560 Kg/THM with 60% agglomerate from earlier 600 Kg/THM along with consistent hot metal quality and productivity.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 2:

Development of a simplified process tool for blast furnace inner conditions mapping

M. Lima
(ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France)

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Title: Development of a simplified process tool for blast furnace inner conditions mapping


Author:
M. Lima

Company:
ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France

Co-Authors:
M. Fernandes Ferreira Lima

Abstract:
Based on the measurement of gas temperature, chemical composition (CO, CO2 and H2) and pressure across the radius from charging level down to the cohesive zone, one can characterize inner conditions of blast furnaces and determine suitable guidelines for process improvements, as for instance how to decrease total equivalent coke rate, etc. On the other hand, such measurements are heavily deployable, being time and resources consuming. Such information is of high interest to support operators to adjust furnace’s process KPIs to reach expected operation and would be even more useful if trials could be carried out more frequently during some specific periods like the characterization of very different working points when varying burden composition or injecting gas in the shaft. Thus, a new process tool has been designed with the objective to simplify such measurements, reducing needed time and resources, and improving its employability. On this way, blast furnace process teams would be empowered to easily perform a complete characterization of inner conditions as a complement to all accessible process information supporting different decision-making processes. This new development is under implementation in a 10.5m diameter blast furnace of ArcelorMittal Dunkerque, where this process tool will be used as an enhancer for operation, supporting the definition of required actions to improve process stability, productivity and PCI rates, and providing more autonomy to local process teams.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 2:

Autonomous operation with artificial intelligence in blast furnace

J. Kim
(POSCO, South Korea)

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Title: Autonomous operation with artificial intelligence in blast furnace


Author:
J. Kim

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:
S. Son, K. Son, S. Choi

Abstract:
The artificial intelligence, AI, especially deep learning algorithm has been remarkably developed. This new technology has been applying to steel processes preemptively in POSCO. Autonomous control would be most difficult to apply in blast furnaces due to numerous unstructured data, such as video information from tuyere or burden etc., and long term sparse data, such as burden properties and hot metal temperature etc. We defined smartization as autonomous control with machine learning algorithm including deep learning, and digitization as conversion to structured data from unstructured to get real-time data. Smartization can be realized on the basis of digitization. This paper will introduce overall activities for digitization and smartization for Pohang No.2 blast furnace, which is main test bed for AI technology in POSCO.

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27 June / 14:20 - Room 2:

Blast furnace heat balances usage to control heat losses

N. Spirin
(Ural Federal University, Russia)

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Title: Blast furnace heat balances usage to control heat losses


Author:
N. Spirin

Company:
Ural Federal University, Russia

Co-Authors:
O. Onorin, A. Polinov, A. Pavlov, Y. Gordon

Abstract:
In modern blast furnace conditions, the specific coke consumption is determined by the development of heat exchange processes in bottom zone of the furnace. The heat losses estimated based on bottom zone heat balance sufficiently reflect specific coke consumption and silicon content. Knowing heat balance makes it possible to determine heat losses in the bottom zone of the furnace and to estimate the correction factors when the conditions of blast furnace process change. The control of heat losses is also necessary for estimation of condition of a refractory lining, optimum gas distribution and also for correction of the coke rate. The control system is implemented at blast furnaces of MMK, Russia.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace charging and gas cleaning I (27 June / 09:00 - Room 3)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 3:

Soft sensors for blast furnace stack monitoring

H. Bartusch
(VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Soft sensors for blast furnace stack monitoring


Author:
H. Bartusch

Company:
VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Pethke, T. Mirkovic, T. Hauck, Y. Kaymak

Abstract:
The blast furnace is the most important aggregate for hot metal production. In 2017 around 1.2 bn. t hot metal has been produced as base of around 1.7 bn. t worldwide steel production. A modern blast furnace is equipped with hundreds of sensors delivering information about local temperatures, pressures, gas compositions, etc. Nevertheless, even after more than hundred years of blast furnace ironmaking, it is not possible to directly measure information about the current process state like position of process zones, homogeneity of gas flow through the whole stack, etc. In consequence it is task of the operators to interpret all available data and to deduce to the inner stack state. With the raising number and complexity of measurement data this task gets more challenging. Furthermore, with increasing number and quality fluctuations of charged raw materials the stack processes are more and more difficult to control. The soft sensor concept has been developed to deduce the internal process parameters, which are of real interest, by exploitation of numerous measurements of auxiliary quantities. During the last years measuring techniques like 2D measurement of top gas temperatures, 3D burden surface radar, etc. became state-of-the-art of blast furnace process monitoring. These techniques enable together with innovative simulation methods like CFD-DEM modelling to compute a far more accurate insight in the current blast furnace stack state. During actual research projects, BFI has developed models basing on the soft sensor concept, in cooperation with steel plant operators and measurement technique providers. They interpret e.g. top gas temperature developments over time or aggregate burden layer models with process data providing information about stack gas flow. These tools are designed to support the blast furnace operators in their daily challenge of correctly interpreting the multitude of available data series.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 3:

Upgrade of BF sludge treatment in U. S. Steel Kosice

J. Curilla
(U. S. Steel Kosice, Slovakia)

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Title: Upgrade of BF sludge treatment in U. S. Steel Kosice


Author:
J. Curilla

Company:
U. S. Steel Kosice, Slovakia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Originally designed system for the BF sludge separation for the low and high zinc fractions consists of multi hydro-cyclone battery, dewatering of low zinc sludge by continual operating rotary vacuum disc filter and dewatering of high zinc fraction by discontinue operating chamber press filter. Due to the technical difficulties to operate, this system was out of service for many years which resulted to low BF sludge recycling rate and high and costly dumping rate. In first step BF sludge separation was restored through the old hydro-cyclone battery and high zinc fraction started to be continual dewatered by new automated belt press. To eliminate cyclone underflow nozzles clogging and necessity of manual cleaning, old multi hydro-cyclone battery was replaced by modern abrasive resistant polyurethane hydro-cyclone with the simple flexibility of underflow and overflow nozzle size setting. Upgraded system consists of new hydro-cyclone with the bigger size of underflow nozzles, old fashioned vacuum disc filter and new belt press. New continual system allowed establish stable, more effective and very reliable one stage BF sludge separation. This resulted to the higher iron units recycling to the sintering blend/BF process and lowered high zinc BF sludge dumping rate.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 3:

Mitigating the emission of acid pollutants from dry blast furnace gas cleaning plants

P. Klut
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

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Title: Mitigating the emission of acid pollutants from dry blast furnace gas cleaning plants


Author:
P. Klut

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Engel

Abstract:
Given the improved operational economics and – in some areas – the physical or economic scarcity of water, steel producers are shifting towards the application of blast furnace gas cleaning systems, in which the wet scrubber has been replaced with a dry second gas treatment stage. While in traditional systems, acid pollutants leave the system with the scrubbing water, dry gas cleaning systems need to incorporate additional measures such as absorbent injection to eliminate acid compounds. This article evaluates several solutions for the dry elimination of pollutants such as hydrochloric acid, hydrogen fluoride and cyanides. Removal mechanisms of the different approaches are compared as well as their efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the elimination and reduction of unwanted consequences downstream of the gas cleaning plant, such as acid-accelerated corrosion in ducting or plant equipment and NOx emission from the hot blast system.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace charging and gas cleaning II (27 June / 10:40 - Room 3)

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 3:

Introduction of pellet and center coke charging lead to improve blast furnace process efficiency by 5% and production by 14%

K. Das
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Introduction of pellet and center coke charging lead to improve blast furnace process efficiency by 5% and production by 14%


Author:
K. Das

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Abstract: Tata steel blast furnaces were operated with sinter and lump iron ore. Pellet was new for Tata Steel. At the starting pellet quality was not up to the mark as it was a new technology for Tata Steel. It was a challenge to start pellet charging in blast furnace, get benefits of pellet and stabilization of furnace. Initially, pellet was charged 10% in the burden and gradually increased to 30%. Blast furnace permeability improved with pellet introduction. It was an opportunity to push more wind into furnace that will help to increase hot metal production. With the increase of wind volume, it was observed that permeability resistance in furnace suddenly shoot up, high staves temperature and wall heat loss. Blast furnace process got disturbed. Based on data study it was observed that with increasing pellet and wind volume, peripheral working of blast furnace increased resulting high wall heat loss and very high staves temperature. To address the above issue, first time center coke charging started. With center coke charging, wall heat loss decreased, staves temperature decreased and furnace permeability improved that allowed to increase wind volume into furnace. As a result of pellet introduction in burden and center coke charging, blast furnace process efficiency improved by 5%, carbon rate decreased by 17 kg/thm and production increased by 14%. Keywords: Pellet, center coke charging, heat loss, coke rate, process efficiency, production

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 3:

Operational experience with the Danieli Top Charging Unit at Zaporizhstal Blast Furnace No. 3

E. Tesselaar
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

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Title: Operational experience with the Danieli Top Charging Unit at Zaporizhstal Blast Furnace No. 3


Author:
E. Tesselaar

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
A. Fomenko, E. Engel

Abstract:
The Danieli Top Charging Unit is the latest generation chute type charging units with newly developed distributor of robust hydraulic design. The hydraulic distributor is a proven concept in blast furnace charging technology however it was recognized that several improvements could be done to increase lifetime, redundancy and maintainability of its components. The full scale Danieli Top Charging Unit arrangement is based on a maintenance concept whereby all key equipment and components are conveniently positioned on rail systems or such that they can be removed and re–installed in minimum time. A unique feature is the optional capability for operating on hot sinter. The first unit was installed at Zaporizhstal Blast Furnace No. 3 during a modernization project that was completed in 2017. After recommissioning, the furnace was ramped up and operational practices were developed including charging strategies for optimized process efficiency and stability. This article presents the experiences and achievements during this first year in operation with respect to process efficiency and coke rate reduction as well as practical experiences in maintenance and operation.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 3:

Bell-less top charging unit with rotor distributor: background, process peculiarities, application and maintenance.

D. Tikhonov
(DDG Technologies, LLC, Russia)

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Title: Bell-less top charging unit with rotor distributor: background, process peculiarities, application and maintenance.


Author:
D. Tikhonov

Company:
DDG Technologies, LLC, Russia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Bell-less top charging unit with rotor distributor: background, process peculiarities, application and maintenance. Temir Boranbaev, Dmitrii Tikhonov, Bell-less top charging unit with rotor burden distributor (BLRU) as compared to contemporary bell-less units implements absolutely different burden charging process in BFs and its circumferential and radial top distribution. In the report main stages of this charging unit equipment and process development, process peculiarities and its application experience are highlighted. The unit maintenance demonstrated equipment simplicity and reliability and, as a result, minimal operation costs. Key word: blast furnace, charging, top, burden distribution

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 3:

Impact of altered coke distribution practice and process diagnostic tools on blast furnace performance at Tata Steel

S. Kumar
(Tata Steel Limited, India)

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Title: Impact of altered coke distribution practice and process diagnostic tools on blast furnace performance at Tata Steel


Author:
S. Kumar

Company:
Tata Steel Limited, India

Co-Authors:
A. Reddy, S. Halder

Abstract:
Over the years, improved process visibility enabled by reliable measuring instruments, process practices, models and derived parameters have helped BF operators to stabilize and further improve the efficiency of blast furnace. Several such measurement and diagnostic tools/models were used to improve the process efficiency and reduce carbon rates with higher coal injection rates at Tata Steel Jamshedpur blast furnaces. In addition to offline burden distribution models, use of profilometers and under burden probes to fine-tune the burden distribution logic for improving gas utilization helped in achieving the desired result. A change in the distribution philosophy of the coke fraction inside the furnace for optimizing the coke layer thickness helped to sustain furnace stability during low coke rate operations. It also helped in improving the gas utilization in the central and wall regions of the furnace. Increase in coal injection further enabled a reduction in the humidification steam requirement, which also aided in an improvement in the carbon rates.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Hot blast stoves and blowers I (27 June / 09:00 - Room 5)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 5:

Blast furnace hot stove despressurization control

R. Nadur Motta
(CSP, Brazil)

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Title: Blast furnace hot stove despressurization control


Author:
R. Nadur Motta

Company:
CSP, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The hot stoves have got the function of to utilize the enthalpic energy from the gases produced by the blast furnace process through combustion cycles and air blow from the blower motor. This article shows how that was made in CSP´s Blast furnace at Ceará State in Brazil. The quick hot stoves depressurization cause vibration, wear equipment out, decreasing the lifetime and can lead to dragging of the refractory bricks from the checker chamber and to combustion to the smoke channel. In addition, it has the inconvenience of the associated audible noise that exceeds the 85 dB allowed by working legislation. The implemented depressurization control is novel because it does not have neither discharge pressure process variable transmitter nor proportional relief control valve. The novel consists in the actions performed in the regenerators process control to promote a controlled relief by the pressure derivative using the pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. The relief time increased from 3 to 8 minutes decreasing the audible noise and the vibration in the area without any extra investments in control equipment.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 5:

Paul Wurth top fired stoves - from paper to industrial implementation

E. Schaub
(Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Paul Wurth top fired stoves - from paper to industrial implementation


Author:
E. Schaub

Company:
Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
R. Allmannsdoerfer, M. Bierod, S. Kessler, S. Thaler, J. Simoes

Abstract:
Top Fired Stoves were originally invented already fifty years ago. Although during the first 25-30 years after the invention this technology was not accepted by the market, top fired stoves became more and more popular during the last years. In order to serve the increasing market demands, Paul Wurth decided to develop its own Top Fired Stove technology five years ago. The design was developed, based on theoretic analysis and numerical modelling. As a second step a pilot plant was built, tested and is in operation for more than two years. The design has been scaled up and currently industrial implementations are carried out. This paper describes the development process for the top fired stove, illustrates and analyses the installation and commissioning, shares operational results of the pilot plant and gives an outlook on the industrial implementation.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 5:

Improved energy efficiency of innovative design of Kalugin top combustion stoves

S. Ivlev
(KALUGIN JSC, Russia)

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Title: Improved energy efficiency of innovative design of Kalugin top combustion stoves


Author:
S. Ivlev

Company:
KALUGIN JSC, Russia

Co-Authors:
M. Aksyushin, A. Subbotin, Y. Murzin, M. Kalugina, B. Prokofiev

Abstract:
Continuously growing competition in ironmaking as well as toughening of requirements for environmental safety requires application of innovative engineering solutions by iron-makers. Selection of the hot blast stove design significantly influences capital and operating expenditures for iron production. Kalugin Top Combustion Stoves (or Kalugin Shaftless Stoves) provide the hot blast temperature of 1300-1350°C using standard refractory and provide high economic and environmental performance with the service life of 30 years. In these stoves combustion is performed by pre-chamber type burner with jet and vortex supply of gas and air. The burner is installed at the top of the dome and provides full combustion of gas without flame pulsation and uniform distribution of combustion products over the checkerwork. These stoves have small dimensions, which provides 30-50% saving on refractory as compared to conventional stove designs. In addition, for improvement of energy efficiency Kalugin stoves can be accompanied by waste heat recovery systems of different types developed by our company. Energy recovery in these systems makes it possible to save 30%-40% of energy consumption. Furthermore, the use of preheated combustion air and gas improves fuel combustion and reduces chemical and mechanical fuel underburning. As a result, the quantity of heat received during the combustion process increases by 10-15% with the same fuel consumption. Moreover, WHRS enables to reduce significantly consumption of expensive high-calorie gases (NG or COG) used for enrichment of BF gas. Energy efficiency of these solutions is confirmed by the analysis of heat balances of stove operation in the “checkerwork heating – blast heating” operating cycle. The paper presents an innovative design of Kalugin Stoves exemplified by successful cases of stove construction in the world, provides calculation results of the heat balance in Kalugin stoves and describes the major advantages of preheated gas and combustion air supplied to the stove.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Hot blast stoves and blowers II (27 June / 10:40 - Room 5)

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 5:

Sequential repair of stove plants considering different stove technologies

R. Allmannsdoerfer
(Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Sequential repair of stove plants considering different stove technologies


Author:
R. Allmannsdoerfer

Company:
Paul Wurth Deutschland GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Bierod, E. Schaub

Abstract:
Many Blast Furnaces (BFs) in the world were originally built already decades ago. While the BFs are relined on a regular basis, the corresponding stove plants remain often in service since they have been built. Some of them reached the end of their normal service life and need to be revamped soon. However the relining time of a BF is typically too short for the relining or revamping of a hot blast stove. Therefore hot blast stoves are often relined sequentially; sometimes even the installation of an additional stove is necessary, in order to minimise interferences with the BF operation. Paul Wurth has carried out sequential stove revampings in different plants with different stove designs. This paper will illustrate three of these projects, each with its own challenges. The technology for the different projects is always considering constrains given by the existing plant configuration and special requirements by customers. Therefore a different stove technology was considered for each project (internal combustion chamber stoves, external combustion chamber stoves, top fired stoves), which will be illustrated as well.

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 5:

Performance and recently orders of top combustion type hot stove with metallic burners

N. Hashimoto
(Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan)

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Title: Performance and recently orders of top combustion type hot stove with metallic burners


Author:
N. Hashimoto

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
NIPPON STEEL ENGINEERING CO., LTD (here in after called “NSE”) started to supply hot stoves from the 1960s and we have constantly improved both external and internal combustion types. For the external combustion type hot stove, we developed NSE original type with stable refractory design. For the internal combustion type hot stove, we improved the refractory design to adopt in large size blast furnaces over 5,000 m3. On the other hand, in recent years, large-capacity and compact hot stoves have been aimed, and since the 2010s, the top combustion type hot stoves with ceramic burner for large blast furnaces have started to spread in Russia and China. However, with the method of installing the ceramic burner at the top of the hot stove, there are some problems with regard to initial cost, and the long-term service life time as a refractory structure, etc. For these reasons, NSE had developed the top combustion type hot stove with metallic burner which has low initial cost and stable refractory structure, after actual burning test with actual size metallic burner in 2009, this technology was adopted in a commercial blast furnace in Japan in 2014. NSE have received evaluation about the following some points from customers delivered the hot stove. The ability to blow air as planned equivalent to the conventional type has been achieved stable operation is possible without trouble. The hot stove is compact and low cost and has excellent maintainability. The ratio of unburned CO and NOx is extremely small, BFG exclusive combustion is also possible, and the flammability and environment are excellent etc. Because of this reference, NSE has received many orders for this hot stove in 2018 for large blast furnace. NSE will continue to strive to disseminate excellent hot stoves in the future.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 5:

Reducing carbon dioxide through improving operation of hot stove efficiency

S. Kang
(POSCO, South Korea)

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Title: Reducing carbon dioxide through improving operation of hot stove efficiency


Author:
S. Kang

Company:
POSCO, South Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Hot Stoves at POSCO Gwangyang No.4 BF Gwangyang No.4 blast furnace was blown in 2009 with 5,500㎥ inner volume (first half in 2018, Po 2.08t/d/㎥, fuel ratio 496.5kg/t-p), and Didier type for a hot stove is installed at that time. The background of improving performed to reduce the rate of coal among iron making cost and decreasing CO2 gas. The Hot stoves of Gwangyang No.4 BF consist of 4 stoves. While the Two Dome type was previously applied, the system was improved to prevent stress corrosion cracking by changing the dome type into One Dome Type. Compared with the Two Dome Type, there is no hole occurrence in the exterior of the structure and falling off graphite in the contact tube. The following issues have arisen during operation, and improvement several activities are done. (1) [Problem] Unstable mixed gas and air-fuel ratio due to operator control. [Solution] Prevent loss through automatic control reflecting combustion, exhaust gas, and checker temperature. (2) [Problem] Fluctuations in flow rate and heat loss during stove switching. [Solution] Minimize valve opening speed and adjust the CBCV (cold blast control valve) differently for the combustion cycle to prevent damage. In result, compared with the initial operation, CO concentration in flue gas (34,000→100ppm) and Mixed gas consumption (378→367Mcal/t-p) have increased in recent. For the overall economy, there is economic merit.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Coke quality requirements and reduced coke rates (27 June / 13:00 - Room 5)

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 5:

Characterization of coke surface using topographic and specific surface area measurement techniques

A. Bhattacharyya
(Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria)

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Title: Characterization of coke surface using topographic and specific surface area measurement techniques


Author:
A. Bhattacharyya

Company:
Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The properties of coke play a crucial role in the blast furnace process. Coke, a highly cost intensive raw material, is the most important reducing agent for the furnace. During the burden descend inside a blast furnace, coke undergoes several macro and microscopic changes in its structure due to the combined effect of chemical and mechanical process conditions inside the furnace. A strong and stable structure of coke is necessary in order to secure smooth movement of the burden as well as to maintain the bed permeability. The surface properties of coke play an important role to influence coke properties. Previous research works have demonstrated the effect of slag penetration in the coke structure due to the change of coke surface caused by Boudouard reaction. In this work, several blast furnace coke samples of different qualities (in terms of their CRI and CSR values) are investigated microscopically in order to characterize the topographic nature of their surface. Coke samples before and after CRI tests have been tested and their surface roughness and other topographic parameters are measured along with successive correlation to their reactivity indices. The samples are also analyzed using BET technique to measure their specific surface areas and these values are correlated with the topographic parameters. The results reveal a better understanding of the changes of surface properties of coke caused by similar conditions as blast furnace.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 5:

Importance of coke quality and optimization for higher pulverized coal injection rates in blast furnace

H. Upadhyay
(Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India)

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Title: Importance of coke quality and optimization for higher pulverized coal injection rates in blast furnace


Author:
H. Upadhyay

Company:
Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, India

Co-Authors:
H. Upadhyay

Abstract:
Coke is a fuel with few impurities and high carbon content. It is the solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. Coke is the most important factor in blast furnace iron making which alone, other than providing heat, reactants and mechanical support to burden, accounts for more than 50% of hot metal production cost. In modern blast furnace operational practices significant efforts are made to decrease the costly coke consumption mainly by introducing cheaper coals in pulverized form through tuyeres. This alters the in-furnace aerodynamics, reduction conditions, burden distribution and demands on raw material, particularly coke, quality. Therefore coke quality such as its hot and cold strength, reactivity, composition, size fraction and granulometry etc. exerts great influence on the performance of blast furnaces. With increasing productivity & pulverized coal injection the quality requirement becomes more and more stringent. It is due to the fact that ascending injection rates cause descend in coke unit per charge and the function of coke from being thermal, chemical and mechanical equally shifts to become predominantly mechanical. Hence in order to maintain stable operation with higher rates of performance, it is important to have lowest possible degradation of coke during its travel from top to bottom of the furnace. This in turn demands proper understanding of the conditions coke has to face in the BF (i.e. effect of alkali, lime, other oxides, char/dust & reactions with surrounding gases) and mechanisms of fines generation & consumption in the blast furnace. In this work a study on role of coke and its functions in traditional as well as modern high PCI furnace operation has been made. The mechanisms inducing and affecting coke degradation have been investigated and correlated with the actual experience from one of the best blast furnaces.

Industry 4.0 in Ironmaking I (27 June / 09:00 - Room 8)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 8:

Digital solutions for modern and efficient ironmaking at ROGESA

F. Hansen
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: Digital solutions for modern and efficient ironmaking at ROGESA


Author:
F. Hansen

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
Y. Reuter, S. Weyer, A. Schmitz, J. Simoes, R. Lin

Abstract:
Digitalization of our industry is bringing new opportunities to further optimize operation including production and maintenance. One of the biggest drivers of this digital wave is the artificial intelligence based on big data in combination with process knowledge and IoT technologies. This paper describes the approach to and the status of implementation of modern digital solutions at Rogesa ironmaking plant. The Rogesa implementation includes L2 automation packages for sinter plant and blast furnace process optimization, deep learning with data-driven models. staves wear monitoring by smart sensors, production KPI monitoring via mobile dashboards, condition-based predictive and prescriptive maintenance for tapping equipment and the slag granulation plant as well as a digital twin of the blast furnace using virtual and augmented reality for the visualization of live data, alarms etc. on a 360° tour through of the plant. Key words: Industry 4.0, blast furnace, sinter plant, process optimization, energy and resources efficiency, wear monitoring, KPI dashboard, smart maintenance, predictive maintenance, digital twin, 360 tour, smart sensors

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 8:

Ironmaking expert and Through Process Optimization - a holistic approach for ironmaking optimization

D. Bettinger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Ironmaking expert and Through Process Optimization - a holistic approach for ironmaking optimization


Author:
D. Bettinger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
H. Fritschek, T. Kronberger, W. Oberaigner, J. Plaul, M. Schaler

Abstract:
Up until recently ironmaking process optimization systems focused on the production processes of stand-alone operations such as individual sinter plants, pelletizing plants and blast furnaces. This control has been based on locally-stored recent – and therefore limited – data. Process models convert data into usable information, expert systems judge the process conditions and derive required actions by rule based decision support systems to achieve a standardized operation strategy. “Holistic Ironmaking” offers a wider view, covering the interaction and coordination of the related plants in order to aim at the plant-wide optimum. The two key pillars of Holistic Ironmaking are the “Ironmaking Expert” and “Through Process Optimization” systems. These systems provide a digital assistant to supervise the overall plant and to offer decision-making solutions to meet the required KPIs of (for example) productivity, cost and quality. Automatic control and decision support systems naturally rely on data: The integration of innovative data sources as Acoustic Measurements, Tuyere Optics and Intelligent Staves into the automation landscape and related benefits are discussed. Together with the individual process optimization systems Holistic Ironmaking offers an increased degree of transparency and standardization in order to orchestrate the ironmaking plants closer to the optimal operational setpoint. The interaction of these systems with the local optimization systems is described in this paper: Together with the individual process optimization systems Holistic Ironmaking offers an increased degree of transparency and standardization in order to orchestrate the ironmaking plants closer to the optimal operational setpoint.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 8:

Smart equipment - the next generation of equipment for ironmaking

P. Tockert
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: Smart equipment - the next generation of equipment for ironmaking


Author:
P. Tockert

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
F. Hansen, D. Meyer, C. Hoffmann

Abstract:
Paul Wurth has a long history in equipment and plant unit design in ironmaking. Much effort and considerations went into continuous improvements and designing new generations of equipment. Besides bettering the equipment is there a way to make a leap in terms of productivity and delivered value on new and existing equipment by making them smart? The answer is a definitive yes. The label “smart” is a very general one and the article will focus on conveying the series of features and functionalities that define a Paul Wurth smart equipment. Constitutive features are: advanced automation, virtual commissioning, on board I/Os, embedded diagnosis, vibration analysis, embedded historian, remote support, dash-boarding… The article will give insights to each feature. It will describe the application of the Smart philosophy to the Bell Less Top equipment and the gains in performance, reliability and the possibility to train operators prior installation and minimised duration for commissioning.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 8:

Industrial change: Impact of emerging technologies on the Steel Industry

M. Boedecker
(Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States)

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Title: Industrial change: Impact of emerging technologies on the Steel Industry


Author:
M. Boedecker

Company:
Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States

Co-Authors:
C. Cotton

Abstract:
With the mainstream adoption of technologies, such as Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Data Analytics and Digitalization, many industries are exploring these areas to understand how each solves unique challenges in their operational value chain. This paper explores non-steel producing industries to see what solutions are being adopted, problems they are solving, and how this relates to the steel industry. Further, this paper discusses how Midrex is making these technologies available in Midrex Connect, a connected services platform, designed to help customers understand Industry 4.0 adoption and how it can drive greater operational efficiency.

Industry 4.0 in Ironmaking II (27 June / 11:00 - Room 8)

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 8:

The benefits of integrated decisions over sulphur content along the process chain production of pig iron and steel

E. Marchal
(Cassotis Consulting, Brazil)

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Title: The benefits of integrated decisions over sulphur content along the process chain production of pig iron and steel


Author:
E. Marchal

Company:
Cassotis Consulting, Brazil

Co-Authors:
E. Marchal, F. Silva, G. Martino

Abstract:
Keywords: Integrated decisions, processes integration, mathematical model, optimization, sulphur content, trade-offs Abstract: The definition of the chemical specification at multiple steps of the steelmaking process is very common in the industry. Among all elements and compounds, the sulphur content has a special control over several stages, from the coal blend to the final products. Coke, iron and steelmaking specialists usually agree on a static specification for each intermediate product according to their local operation capacity and production cost. However, local decisions have major impacts on the whole production chain and many global factors should be considered in order to make the best decision. In this study, we will exemplify focusing on sulphur content concepts and techniques that could be applied to many decisions in an integrated carbon steel plant. The variation of coal and coke prices, the desulphurization cost and time, the processes operating points, the hot metal rate at converters, prices and demands of low and ultra-low sulphur steel grades are some of the integrated factors that are usually disregarded during the specification process. Mathematical modeling presents itself as a proper option into dealing with all the complexity that emerges from integrating all these processes' trade-offs and decisions. This study presents the results of a mathematical model that encompasses economic, thermal, chemical, and mass balances, physical quality of materials and productivity constraints of all processes of a hypothetical integrated carbon steel plant. It optimizes the iron and steelmaking process on a global and unique objective, dynamically defining targets for product quality to achieve the lowest steel production cost. This study details multiple market-plant scenarios in order to compare economic and operating results of a static vs dynamic specification practice.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 8:

Advanced BFXpert with artificial intelligence at ROGESA

J. Simoes
(AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany)

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Title: Advanced BFXpert with artificial intelligence at ROGESA


Author:
J. Simoes

Company:
AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Agrawal , F. Hansen, Y. Reuter, C. Schockaert , F. Giroldini, P. Bermes, R. Lin, J. Simoes

Abstract:
BFXpert is considered as one of the most advanced application in the field of level 2 and process control technology. In order to advance the BF operation and reduce the cost of production, ROGESA decided to install BFXpert at their blast furnace No. 4 and 5. The performance test of BFXpert resulted in significant coke savings of 5 kg/t hot metal on BF 4, and 7 kg/t hot metal on BF 5. Furthermore, blast furnace operation with BFXpert resulted in stable and smooth process, in addition to improvement and stability in the product quality of both the furnaces. Close cooperation between Dillinger and Paul Wurth resulted in further process optimization as well as introduction of new technologies, such as machine learning. In particular a data-driven model for the prediction of hot metal temperature has been put in place. A precise prediction of hot metal temperature with a time horizon of three to six hours is mandatory information for optimal thermal regulation of the BF: It ensures stable hot metal quality, as well as reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emission. Several data-driven models covering particular operation states of the blast furnace have been developed. These predictions are further enhanced by a so-called meta model. A meta model is dedicated to learning the behaviour of each base model together with process data in order to provide an improved temperature prediction. This article describes the particularities of the project and achieved performances. It highlights the metallurgical and economic benefits of automation and digitalisation in terms of fuel saving and improvements in the process stability. Keywords: Industry 4.0, Blast Furnace, Iron Making, BFXpert, Machine Learning, Artificial intelligence, Deep Learning, Hot Metal Temperature

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 8:

Improving production process with digital solutions for iron ore pelletizing

S. Haus
(Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany)

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Title: Improving production process with digital solutions for iron ore pelletizing


Author:
S. Haus

Company:
Outotec GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Missalla, M. Bergmann, L. Emich

Abstract:
The digital transformation is one of the main technology drivers in the metallurgical processing industry today. In several industrial scale applications, Outotec could prove excellent operational improvement in different process technologies. As one of the next areas of application, Outotec has finalized its concept for the digital solution to optimize the operation of iron ore pellet plants and is currently in preparation of starting up first applications. Outotec’s digital solution for pelletizing, Optimus, is based on extensive process know how as well as laboratory experiments and operational experience. It is developed to offer solutions to the operational challenges of modern pellet plants, which were identified in several extensive data analyses. Such identified operational challenges can be stability issues, enhanced electrical or enhanced thermal energy consumption. Optimus combines several features, such as process stabilization, process monitoring and process optimization with the experience in plant manufacturing and commissioning. In addition, the operational know-how of operating companies can be included in the system, providing a flexible and individually-tailored solution to enhance the process operation. The Optimus system is based on the Outotec ACT platform and allows continuous improvements and extensions with new features. Thus, the system can be interpreted as part of a long-term modernization journey, guiding a customer plant towards operational excellence. As an example, the system can be combined with additional devices such as PelletSize, a newly developed solution based on machine vision in a challenging environment to improve the green pellet size distribution.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 8:

Smart and safe - the digital heart of ironmaking

D. Bettinger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Smart and safe - the digital heart of ironmaking


Author:
D. Bettinger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
H. Fritschek, N. Laister, R. Lamplmayr, M. Lehner, H. Lindbichler, B. Schwarzbauer, D. Ulrich, W. Braunschmid

Abstract:
Higher demands regarding flexibility is a key request of modern plant operation and hence for the respective automation system. At the same time any downtime of a production facility causes loss of production and can even harm your plant. Especially the complex processes of ironmaking – in particular in blast furnaces and direct reduction plants – require a reliable and highly available automation backbone. This system has to control the process at any time, deliver sound performance in daily operation and guarantee easy and flexible maintainability. A clearly structured system (based on proper system design, advanced programming tools and software management), flexible communication and interfaces, inclusion of smart sensors, simulation with a digital twin for operator training and development of software modifications, online documentation (to support the operating and maintenance personnel) as well as virtualization concepts, belong to the cornerstones of digitalization – features that are offered by state-of-the-art automation systems. Common features of the control systems as well as the individual approach – tailored to the boundary conditions and respective requirements - are illustrated by means of four recently finalized projects for high-end customers: • raw material handling and ore preparation • blast furnace revamping • new blast furnace • direct reduction plant

Direct reduction and smelting reduction I (27 June / 09:00 - Room 21)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 21:

MATMOR - development of an innovative DRI technology

A. Tarafadar
(M. N. Dastur & Co. Pvt. Ltd., India)

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Title: MATMOR - development of an innovative DRI technology


Author:
A. Tarafadar

Company:
M. N. Dastur & Co. Pvt. Ltd., India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Environmental Clean Technologies (ECT), in consortium with NLC India and NMDC is developing a demonstration scale plant showcasing their innovative Coldry and Matmor technologies in Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. ECT is currently completing FEED engineering for this project with MN Dastur in Kolkata. This project will be a world first integration of ECT’s proprietary Coldry and Matmor technologies. The Coldry technology is a patented brown coal densification and pelletisation process that changes the naturally porous form of brown coal to produce a dry, dense, energy rich pellet. ECT’s Coldry technology will be utilized in the integrated demonstration plant as an efficient pelletisation process to supply composite Iron ore and lignite pellet feed for the Matmor process. Matmor is a technology for the production of High Quality DRI. The process operates at relatively low temperatures and is highly energy efficient. Utilizing novel reduction chemistry, the Matmor process has a favorable carbon intensity generating significantly lower CO2 emissions and a substantially lower water consumption while still producing high quality DRI compared with conventional Iron making technologies. Given the utilization of low rank coal and iron ore fines and reduction of CO2 emissions, feasibility studies indicate promising project economics with both CAPEX and OPEX advantages.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 21:

Optimization of the desulfurization of hot metal in Corex Process by adjusting the operation parameters

Y. Lu
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Title: Optimization of the desulfurization of hot metal in Corex Process by adjusting the operation parameters


Author:
Y. Lu

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:
S. Wu

Abstract:
The Corex process, which has obvious advantages in environment protection but still has some disadvantages, for example, the content of sulfur in hot metal is high and fluctuant severely. To overcome the desulfurization problems, the effects of the slag ratio (SR), temperature of hot metal (HM), binary basicity (R2) and the ratio of MgO/Al2O3 of the slag on the sulfur content in hot metal are investigated in the present work. Correlation analysis and regression analysis are used to analyze the qualitative and quantitative relationships between operation parameters and sulfur content of hot metal based on actual plant data. After that, slag-metal reaction experiments are carried out to verify and develop it. Considering interactions between the slag and hot metal, the suggested suitable ranges of R2 and MgO/Al2O3 of the slag for Corex-3000 are 1.20~1.35 and 0.80~0.90, respectively.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 21:

Utilization of cement/bauxite coating for iron ore pellets during DRI production

A. Alharbi
(Hadeed, Saudi Arabia)

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Title: Utilization of cement/bauxite coating for iron ore pellets during DRI production


Author:
A. Alharbi

Company:
Hadeed, Saudi Arabia

Co-Authors:
M. Alzayer, M. Saddik

Abstract:
Clustering phenomena of pellets is observed frequently in shaft direct reduction processes operating at high temperatures. To prevent sticking, a coating material, inactive under the reducing conditions prevailing in the shaft furnace, should be applied to cover the outer layer of the pellets.In the present work cement/bauxite coating is applied to iron ore samples in various concentrations. Using thermogravimetric technique, the coated samples were reduced with hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture which simulates the composition of the reducing gas in Midrex furnace. The influences of various coating conditions on the reduction behavior and the morphology were investigated. It was found that the various coating conditions had no clear effect on the microstructure of the formed metallic phase. The reduction rate was decreased gradually with increasing the amount of coated material per ton of iron ore pellet. Also decreasing the slurry conacentration of the coating material enhanced the pellet reducibility. The optimaly reduced samples had the following coating conditions; • 15% Bauxite slurry conc. & 0.5 kg/ton iron ore • 15% Bauxite slurry conc. & 1.0 kg/ton iron ore • 20% Bauxite slurry conc. & 0.5 kg/ton iron ore • 20% Bauxite slurry conc. & 1.0 kg/ton iron ore These samples were comparatively subjected to sticking index measurements. The optimized Cement/Bauxite coating conditions were the ones that achieved higher reducibility with lower sticking index values. Recommended primary/secondary coating would enhance the metallization of produced DRI pellets, hence the productivity, while still providing adequate resistance to sticking.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 21:

HBI: The benefits and sourcing of steel's most versatile metallic

V. Chevrier
(Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States)

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Title: HBI: The benefits and sourcing of steel's most versatile metallic


Author:
V. Chevrier

Company:
Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States

Co-Authors:
V. Chevrier, J. Kopfle, R. Hunter

Abstract:
Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) is a compacted form of DRI that is manufactured with well-defined, consistent chemical and physical characteristics. Like DRI, it is primarily used in electric arc furnaces and allows the production of high quality steel products that could not be made consistently due to high residual element levels inherent in most obsolete scrap. The enhanced physical characteristics of HBI proved to be a solution to the handling, shipping, and storing issues associated with conventional cold DRI. Merchant HBI allows those who do not own and operate their own plant to purchase material in the open market. The motivation for obtaining HBI from a merchant source can be that local prices for the primary inputs for producing it – iron ore and natural gas – are prohibitive and the steelmaker wants the flexibility to purchase HBI in specific quantities on an as-needed basis. As worldwide merchant demand for high quality metallics continues to grow, HBI production must keep pace. However, much of the HBI capacity either installed or under construction is not available for merchant sale, so the amount of HBI available to the market is limited. Therefore, investing in natural gas-based direct reduction plants, either directly or through long-term supply contracts, is now feasible. To determine the best locations for these plants, this paper will review where iron ore and natural gas are produced and the location of the steelmaking facilities that could use the product.

Direct reduction and smelting reduction II (27 June / 10:40 - Room 21)

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27 June / 10:40 - Room 21:

Various roads to CO2 reduction with the HIsarna technology

K. Meijer
(Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands)

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Title: Various roads to CO2 reduction with the HIsarna technology


Author:
K. Meijer

Company:
Tata Steel Europe, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Authors: Christiaan Zeilstra1), Koen Meijer1), Hans Hage1), Johan van Boggelen2) 1) Research and Development, Tata Steel Europe 2) HIsarna pilot plant Operation, Tata Steel Europe Abstract The HIsarna process is a breakthrough innovation in the area of ironmaking. The process produces a liquid hot metal without the need for coking and agglomeration. In a single step fine ores and non-coking coals are used to produce hot metal that is suitable for the BOS process. The elimination of coking and agglomeration reduces the energy consumption and CO2 emission. The HIsarna process has a specific CO2 emission that is 10 – 20 % lower than that of the blast furnace route. Recent trials in the pilot plant at the IJmuiden site of Tata Steel Europe show that further reduction is possible even without capture of the CO2. Between September 2017 and October 2018 an experimental campaign was completed in the HIsarna pilot in which the potential for further CO2 reduction was investigated. Partial replacement of coal by renewable biomass and partial replacement of iron ore by recycled steel scrap in the HIsarna process was part of this research program. The present research program with the HIsarna pilot plant is jointly carried out by Tata Steel Europe, ArcelorMittal, ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe, voest alpine and Paul Wurth and is supported by the EU Horizon2020 SILC-II-2014 program (Grant agreement: 654013).

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 21:

Sustainable decrease of CO2 emissions in the steelmaking industry by means of the ENERGIRON direct reduction technology

D. Pauluzzi
(Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy)

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Title: Sustainable decrease of CO2 emissions in the steelmaking industry by means of the ENERGIRON direct reduction technology


Author:
D. Pauluzzi

Company:
Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:
A. Martinis

Abstract:
Compared to the traditional Blast Furnace– Basic Oxygen Furnace way of producing steel, more than 50% of CO2 emissions can be saved if steel is produced by means of the Energiron Direct Re-duction – Electric Arc Furnace way. This target is achieved partly thanks to the use of reducing sources cleaner than coal, and partly thanks to the selective capture of up to 60% of the CO2 pro-duced by reduction of iron ores, CO2 that can be possibly commercialized as a valuable by-product for several different industries. The investment cost of DR-EAF minimills is lower than the BF-BOF configuration; therefore, in principle this is a sustainable solution to decrease CO2 emissions in the steel industry. Operating costs are competitive, provided that the reducing agent is available at reasonable price: the Energiron process can use either natural gas, syngas and BF off-gas, whichever is locally available at the cheapest price. Further than this, even Hydrogen can be used as reducing gas, without any modification to the original Energiron process scheme. This allows further reduc-tions in CO2 emissions, as many technologies are being developed to exploit renewable energy sources for production of Hydrogen, which is generally considered to be the fundamental element for the future global energy system.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 21:

Improve operation and productivity of your Midrex® plant

R. Millner
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Improve operation and productivity of your Midrex® plant


Author:
R. Millner

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
H. Ofner, D. Bettinger, J. Rothberger

Abstract:
This paper deals with some new improvements and digitalization efforts for Midrex® direct reduction plants in order to increase product quality and plant efficiency. Such new plant improvements were recently developed by Midrex and Primetals Technologies for implementation at new direct reduction plants but each of the following can also be retrofitted into existing DR plants as well. The technical plant improvements presented therein are: -Product quality conservation system (PQCS) for Midrex plants – Onsite generation of gaseous nitrogen for supply of critical inert gas consumers and integration into the plant inert gas system -Waste Heat Recovery for Top gas and Reformer Flue Gas – Production of steam or electricity based on framework conditions -Bottom Seal Gas Hot Dry Dedusting System – Recovery of hot DRI dust for increase of product yield and conditioning of vent gases The digitalization of data obtained from Midrex plant operation is already well technologically advanced and consists of the following State-of-the-Art configuration: -Level-1 Plant automation with improved data storage & recording -Level-2 DRIPax Carbon and Metallization Prediction – Improvement of plant operation by stable operation -Level-2 Expert System Improvements – Increased support of operation team with latest results from DRIPax Expert system Gowest

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 21:

MIDREX H2TM: Ultra Low CO2 Ironmaking in the transition to the hydrogen economy

V. Chevrier
(Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States)

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Title: MIDREX H2TM: Ultra Low CO2 Ironmaking in the transition to the hydrogen economy


Author:
V. Chevrier

Company:
Midrex Technologies, Inc., United States

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Mitigating CO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry is becoming critical in Western Europe, as the cost of CO2 emissions increases. While the natural gas-based MIDREX® Process paired with an electric arc furnace (EAF) has the lowest CO2 emissions of any steelmaking route; there is room to further decrease emissions using hydrogen as a fuel and chemical reactant. The best possibility for significantly reducing CO2 footprint in the future is to use “green” hydrogen as the energy source and reductant to produce DRI/HBI, which can be used as feedstock for steelmaking. This flow sheet concept is known as MIDREX H2™. The supporting process details, calculations and experimental results that lead to this innovative process will be presented. Unfortunately, hydrogen is not currently available at sufficient scale and low cost for rapid adoption. This paper will review the status of the transition from a Carbon Economy to a Hydrogen Economy, its challenges and various on-going activities. As “green” hydrogen becomes available and cost effective, the MIDREX Process can be converted to MIDREX H2 in stages, allowing steelmakers to take advantages of CO2 reduction immediately and further reduce them in the future without major capital expenditure.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 21:

LeafIron – an innovative contribution to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production

S. Potter
(Leaf Iron, )

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Title: LeafIron – an innovative contribution to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production


Author:
S. Potter

Company:
Leaf Iron,

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
LeafIron – an innovative contribution to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production Author(s) Name(s) and Affiliations(s) S. Potter, VALE, Brazil; H.Filho, Leafiron, Brazil. Contact data … Summary Leafiron presents itself as an innovative contribution to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production combining Tecnored process and biomasses. Tecnored technology, which has been studied and developed over the last 30 years, reached important indicators in its current industrial demonstration plant in recent years not only related to the performance of the reactor, but also to the use of raw materials barely used by the conventional ironmaking industry. The process is distinguished by the production of ferro-alloys using any type of biomasses source, differently of other processes that demands metallurgical coke or mineral coal. The last results confirm the possibility of the reactor size increasing, reducing OPEX and CAPEX and contributing to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production. Key Words LeafIron; Tecnored; ironmaking technology; Biomasses; eliminate CO2 emission Introduction The iron & steel industry is one of the biggest industrial emitters of CO2 and Leafiron presents itself as an innovative contribution to eliminate CO2 emissions from steel production combining Tecnored process and biomasses. Tecnored process is an emerging technology for the production of primary iron and alloys developed in Brazil which stands out for the use of differentiated geometry furnace and lower operational costs than traditional. The process can use typical raw materials of Blast Furnace as iron ore and metallurgical coke but its great differential is the capacity to convert and recycle materials as mining and steelmaking residues using low grade coal (thermal and non-coking coal) and biomasses to produce hot metal, contributing to decrease iron and steelmaking environmental impacts and CO2 emission.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Use of DRI/ HBI in blast furnace, injection of auxilliary reductions (27 June / 13:20 - Room 21)

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27 June / 13:20 - Room 21:

Effect of H2-rich carbonaceous materials' ash on physicochemical properties of raceway slag and coke reactivity

H. Ahmed
(Lulea University of Technology, Sweden)

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Title: Effect of H2-rich carbonaceous materials' ash on physicochemical properties of raceway slag and coke reactivity


Author:
H. Ahmed

Company:
Lulea University of Technology, Sweden

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Iron and steel industry is one of the most important sectors which have a great impact on the global growth and economy, however, this sector is still highly dependent on fossil carbon. To decrease such dependency, attempts to partially replace the injected pulverized coal by secondary, highly reactive, renewable (biomass) and H2-rich materials have been tested. Injection of such materials is expected to significantly lower the emitted CO2 from blast furnace. However, due to their different ash composition (especially alkali and alkaline earth metals) compared to ordinary injected coal, it is also expected to alter the raceway slag properties and affect the coke reactivity. In the present article, effect of ashes from different hydrogen-rich carbonaceous materials on raceway slag physicochemical properties as well as coke reactivity is reported. Melting characteristics of ash briquettes in contact with coke and wettability of melted ash on coke surface are determined visually using optical heating microscope. The effect of ash on coke reactivity is studied by means of thermogravimetry under a continuous flow of CO2.

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27 June / 13:40 - Room 21:

Effect of reductive gas co-injection on combustion of pulverized coal in blast furnaces

K. Moriya
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

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Title: Effect of reductive gas co-injection on combustion of pulverized coal in blast furnaces


Author:
K. Moriya

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:
K. Fukada, T. Sato, A. Murao, K. Takahashi

Abstract:
COURSE50 is the national project to reduce an amount of CO2 emission from ironmaking processes in Japan. In COURSE50, we aim to use H2 for reductive agent for iron oxide instead of CO, so that we can reduce an amount of CO2 emission of blast furnaces. In the case of COURSE50, a large amount of reductive gas containing H2 will be injected from tuyeres with pulverized coal (PC) into blast furnace. However, the effect of that on the combustion behavior of PC still remains unclear. In this work, we conducted two experiments with experimental furnaces to evaluate that. Firstly, we evaluated the effect of reductive gas co-injection on PC combustion behavior from the aspect of PC motion. We used particle image velocimetry for the measurement of the PC motion in the cylindrical experimental furnace. PC was accelerated with reductive gas co-injection. It is because earlier combustion of the reductive gas rapidly expands surrounding gas by raising temperature of the gas and the gas expansion accelerates PC. The gas expansion can also enhance PC dispersion, which enables PC to react with O2 more efficiently and can increase PC combustibility. Secondly, we evaluated the effect of the change in an amount of co-injected reductive gas with PC on coke replacement ratio (CRR) as PC combustibility. We used the other experimental furnace to simulate combustion field around a tuyere of a blast furnace. CRR increased with raising an amount of reductive gas, but turned to decrease with further increase of the amount. With reductive gas combustion, PC combustibility can be enhanced by rapid heating and dispersing, whereas be deteriorated by decrease of O2. The CRR change can be affected by this trade-off relationship. The optimal amount of co-injected reductive gas to maximize CRR may be determined in the future work.

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27 June / 14:00 - Room 21:

Use of plasma torches to overcome top temperature limits when adding DRI or HBI to blast furnaces

J. Bolen
(Hatch Ltd., Canada)

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Title: Use of plasma torches to overcome top temperature limits when adding DRI or HBI to blast furnaces


Author:
J. Bolen

Company:
Hatch Ltd., Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Addition of directed reduced iron (DRI) or hot briquetted iron (HBI) to blast furnaces has been studied for decades and has well known benefits for increasing productivity and decreasing coke rate. In the last few years, it has been of interest as a means to reduce ironmaking carbon dioxide emissions. Despite the technical benefits, DRI or HBI addition to the blast furnace is rarely done due to economic reasons or issues related to low top-gas temperatures. Part 1 of this paper will review the theory and plant experiences for addition of DRI or HBI to blast furnaces. Operational issues related to top gas temperature constraints will be discussed. Part 2 will estimate the maximum amount of DRI or HBI that can be added to a typical blast furnace operation. The practical limits for addition and potential ability to shut down a blast furnace at a multiple blast furnace facility will be explored. Carbon dioxide savings will be estimated. Part 3 of this paper will consider hot gas addition to the mid-stack of the blast furnace in order to increase top gas temperature to allow for higher DRI or HBI addition. The hot gases can be generated via plasma torches to further reduce CO2 emissions from the ironmaking area.