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Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Energy savings and energy efficiency optimization (25 June / 14:00 - Room 21)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 21:

The energy saving activities at JFE Steel Corporation West Japan Works (Fukuyama)

A. Higuchi
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

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Title: The energy saving activities at JFE Steel Corporation West Japan Works (Fukuyama)


Author:
A. Higuchi

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
We have been conducting energy-saving activities since 1973 at Fukuyama Works. The target of the latest energy-saving activity is to reduce the amount of CO2 emission at our Works. This paper is a report on the latest energy-saving activity at our works, a high-efficiency replacement of an air-compressor which are used blast furnace and a replacement of an oxygen-compressor which optimizes the supply pressure to blast furnace and sintering plant. In addition, we describe other examples which are improving of oxygen supply facilities at our Works.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 21:

Development of innovative, regeneratively heated radiant tubes with low diameter for more flexibility in heat treatment furnaces for the press hardening process

L. Giesler
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Development of innovative, regeneratively heated radiant tubes with low diameter for more flexibility in heat treatment furnaces for the press hardening process


Author:
L. Giesler

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Wünning, E. Cresci, J. Schneider, H. Pfeifer, C. Schwotzer, N. Schmitz

Abstract:
Development of innovative, regeneratively heated radiant tubes with low diameter for more flexibility in heat treatment furnaces for the press hardening process

Linda Giesler1, Nico Schmitz1, Christian Schwotzer1, Herbert Pfeifer1,
Julia Schneider2, Enrico Cresci2, Joachim G. Wünning2

giesler@iob.rwth-aachen.de

1RWTH Aachen University, Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering,
Kopernikusstr. 10, 52074 Aachen, Germany

2WS Wärmeprozesstechnik GmbH, Dornierstr. 14, 71272 Renningen, Germany

In the automotive industry, press hardening is a favored process for the manufacturing of high-strength lightweight chassis-components. It includes the heating of parts in industrial furnaces with defined protective gas atmospheres. Heat treatment of components is an expensive process in a highly competitive industry, therefore a constant need for the development of new heating- and furnace-concepts to increase economic profitability exists. Fluctuating energy markets call for more flexibility regarding the choice of energy sources for the heating furnaces. This can be offered by installing burners and electrical heating elements at the same time, however the bigger size of this layout increases furnace size. Therefore the development of smaller radiant tubes is required to fully exploit the potential of both approaches.
The presented research project by the Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering at the RWTH Aachen University and the WS Wärmeprozesstechnik GmbH is the development of innovative, regeneratively heated radiant tubes for the integration in compact furnaces. The goal is to design radiant tubes with less than half the diameter of conventional models to substitute electrical heating elements. The regenerative burners’ intended design includes staged combustion over the entire length of the radiant tube, resulting in homogeneous surface temperatures on the radiant tube surface comparable to electrical heating elements. Flameless oxidation is integrated into the combustion process to reduce NOx-emissions and ensure compliance with future emissions regulations. High combustion air temperatures due to regenerative air preheating guarantee efficient combustion. During the project, a numerical

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 21:

Verification of energy saving effect by introducing dilute oxygen combustion burners

Y. Kawaguchi
(Godo Steel Ltd., Japan)

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Title: Verification of energy saving effect by introducing dilute oxygen combustion burners


Author:
Y. Kawaguchi

Company:
Godo Steel Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:
K. Miyagawa, S. Taguchi

Abstract:
The air combustion burners of Funabashi Works that preheat the ladle for refining were converted into the Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners. The purpose of this conversion was to reduce production of NOx, consumption of combustion gas and preheating time. The DOC burners inject oxygen and combustion gas at high speed separately and produce recirculating flow in the ladle. This recirculating makes diffuse combustion with uniform temperature. High temperature flame inside the ladle which is formed by the oxygen combustion burners does not exist. In addition, the DOC burners have temperature rise mode and heat retention mode. This heat retention mode cuts excess energy by controlling volume of combustion gas according to the temperature inside the ladle. As a result, this conversion from the air combustion burners to the DOC burners achieved the reduction of combustion gas consumption by 54%. Also, the preheating time required for rising temperature was half of that with the air combustion burners.
Consequently, shortening the preheating time enabled to reduce the number of burners from three to two.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 21:

Combustion 4.0 for better environmental footprint

A. Genaud
(Fives Stein S.A.S., France)

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Title: Combustion 4.0 for better environmental footprint


Author:
A. Genaud

Company:
Fives Stein S.A.S., France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Combustion 4.0 for better environmental footprint

Since decades, burner manufacturers have been continuously developing design and technologies to improve burner efficiency and lower environmental footprint. The paper describes different progress made by Fives with its AdvanTek® combustion system to reach an efficiency above 80% with recuperative type burners.
Being at this very high efficiency level, it appears quite difficult to gain an additional percent to improve efficiency by only developing a burners’ shape or other “analogical solutions”.
This is the reason why we are implementing smart control to our combustion system today to allow a much higher accuracy of combustion and better efficiency.
The paper describes methodology and results reached in terms of efficiency due to burner individual digitalization technologies (Smart Burner Control) while keeping emission parameters far below legal requirements as well.
Above enhanced efficiency, this smart control allows to manage other operational aspects, such as fuel gas LCV change (for instance, when a plant is using several sources for fuel gas) while keeping best possible efficiency and operating costs.

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25 June / 15:20 - Room 21:

Development of a mathematical temperature model for batch annealing of cold rolled steel coils

C. Chang
(China Steel Corporation, China)

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Title: Development of a mathematical temperature model for batch annealing of cold rolled steel coils


Author:
C. Chang

Company:
China Steel Corporation, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
A mathematical model for predicting coil temperatures during batch annealing was developed to minimize fuel consumption and maintain the uniformity of the coils’ mechanical properties. The model’s accuracy was verified by measuring the temperatures of the hot and cold spots of low-carbon steel coils. The results revealed that the prediction errors of the coil temperatures were within 3% of the actual temperatures. The new model was also applied to the bath annealing furnaces at the China Steel Corporation. The results there showed that the annealing cycle time can be reduced by more than 30 min and the production rate can be increased by about 1%.

Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: New and alternative technologies (25 June / 14:00 - Room 22)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 22:

Zinc production from EAFD at Cape Gate with the EZINEX® Process. A case study.

M. Maccagni
(Engitec Technologies S.p.A., italy)

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Title: Zinc production from EAFD at Cape Gate with the EZINEX® Process. A case study.


Author:
M. Maccagni

Company:
Engitec Technologies S.p.A., italy

Co-Authors:
E. Guerrini, J. Nielsen, F. Picciolo

Abstract:
Steel producers dedicate significant resources to the handling and management of Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD) from their mini-mill operations.
Until now, 3rd party recyclers or landfilling have been the steel producers’ primary disposal options. To reduce disposal costs, the possibility of recycling the dust in the EAF has been explored, but it proved to negatively affect meltshop operations and conversion costs.
The EZINEX® process to produce zinc from the direct treatment of EAFD was developed by Engitec Technologies in Milan, Italy. This process is a hydrometallurgical approach that produces high quality zinc and other salable products from the EAFD without the generation of additional wastes.
Cape Gate (Pty) Limited investigated the EZINEX® process to convert their zinc rich dust into zinc metal for their galvanizing unit. Cape Gate generates a high zinc content dust from their EAF and regional zinc prices carry a premium above LME.
This paper will discuss a successful 500 kg/day EZINEX® Demo Plant trial conducted by Cape Gate and Engitec Technologies. The goal of the campaign was to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the process for a future industrial project. Can the EZINEX® Process reduce the cost of production for galvanizing operations and effectively recycle internal wastes?

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 22:

Energy flow network optimization model for steel plants based on linear programming

Z. Hu
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Title: Energy flow network optimization model for steel plants based on linear programming


Author:
Z. Hu

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
There are many kinds of energy media in iron and steel process, and the use of different energy exchange media affects each other. At present, the design of energy flow network in iron and steel enterprises mainly depends on experience, lacking of systematic optimization methods. Taking the typical steel production process as the research object, aiming at the optimization and design of the energy flow network, the linear programming model of the static energy flow network of steel process is set up with the goal of the maximum economic benefits per ton of steel in the energy conversion process. The model involves more than 20 kinds of energy media such as gas, steam, technical gas and more than 30 processes or equipment including the main production processes such as ironmaking and steelmaking, combined cycle power plant (CCPP), combined heat and power (CHP) and other energy conversion processes. The example analysis shows that the optimal design scheme of energy flow network in iron and steel enterprises can be obtained by using this model, and the optimal utilization schemes of various energy media can be determined. The economic benefits of energy media utilization are improved, and the validity of the model is verified. In addition, the influence of the configuration of different energy conversion equipment on energy system and its economic benefits is analyzed.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 22:

Improvement of environmental protection and energy savings by suitable material handling systems

F. Reddemann
(Aumund Fördertechnik GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Improvement of environmental protection and energy savings by suitable material handling systems


Author:
F. Reddemann

Company:
Aumund Fördertechnik GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Today, one of the main goals in optimization of the iron and steel making processes is the consideration of environmental protection and energy saving in every plant area. Not only the processing from iron ore, reducing agents and additives has to be taken into consideration but also the handling and conveying of the materials between the different process steps. This paper provides some sustainable solutions for the iron and steel industry.
For example, the application of closed raw material yards in form of silos or enclosed stockpiles requires suitable compact stacking and extracting Systems. The use of large size silo systems allows a significantly increased storage volume on the same footprint as a conventional stockpile. Each silo can be used for different material qualities and with the use of the AUMUND rotary discharge machines travelling underneath the silos, every required blend can be extracted by requirement. Such closed storage and material extraction solution suppresses any dust development. No special dust control, no risk of material losses and no fugitive dust pollution or ground water pollution can occur.
Another example is the transport of hot sinter from the sinter crusher to the sinter cooler. The wide-spread application of vibrating feeders leads to the generation of fines due to the vibration movement besides the resulting maintenance requirements. With the use of the AUMUND high temperature resistant pan conveyors no additional fines are being generated as there is no relative movement between the conveyor and the hot sinter meanwhile significantly reducing equipment wear.
A significant contribution to energy savings effect is the thermally insulated transport of Hot DRI in a non-oxidizing inert atmosphere. Today hot charging is expected by customers operating a DR-Shaft Furnace-EAF route. Practically all new plants are equipped with this feature. Older Plant configurations are being examined for hot charging upgrades.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 22:

What is green steel? - Towards a strategic decision tool for decarbonising EU steel

V. Vogl
(Lund University, Sweden)

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Title: What is green steel? - Towards a strategic decision tool for decarbonising EU steel


Author:
V. Vogl

Company:
Lund University, Sweden

Co-Authors:
M. Åhman

Abstract:
The climate debate has sparked an interest for alternative steelmaking processes within the European steel industry. For the steel industry the Paris Agreement means it must undergo large-scale technological change. Public funding for research and demonstration projects has been successful in nurturing a variety of technology innovation projects, such as projects aiming to use renewable hydrogen in the direct reduction process, or to produce chemicals from steel off-gases via carbon capture and utilisation. If these technologies can be demonstrated successfully, their commercialisation will require further public support in the form of demand pull policy to create a market for these technologies in which they can mature and reach competitiveness.
In respect of the large sums of public support required for the push and pull of climate-friendly steelmaking technologies, support decisions must be based on a project’s compatibility with climate goals and avoid carbon lock-in. The aim of this paper is thus to analyse the implications the Paris Agreement has for future investments in the EU steel industry. We do this by reviewing technological pathways and suggest a methodology to determine if investments are in line with climate goals. The methodology is based on the carbon footprint of steel and we review the main choices that have to be made in a life cycle analysis for alternative steelmaking processes. We conclude that the technological options to reach zero emissions by mid-century are limited. The early articulation of support for high-ambition investments has the potential to create stable long-term market expectations and form the basis of a demand pull for green steel. Our insights can inform policy makers to bring innovation policy in line with long-term climate goals.

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25 June / 15:20 - Room 22:

Model-based optimisation for efficient use of resources and energy

H. Helaakoski
(VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Finland)

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Title: Model-based optimisation for efficient use of resources and energy


Author:
H. Helaakoski

Company:
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Finland

Co-Authors:
S. Ollila, S. Wasbø, T. Rotevatn, S. Moreira, M. Schlautmann, J. Backman

Abstract:
This paper presents an approach for adopting new software tools for model-based predictive control, multi-criterial through process optimisation and quality management with overall process coordination in steel industry. The work is being conducted in EU funded Morse project including the model and software development work as well as implementations and demonstrations for testing the results in real industrial environments. Morse software tools are aiming for process improvements - reducing the use of raw material and energy while increasing the high quality and production rates.
Morse approach is to use a set of software tools as building blocks for developing more comperehensive tool to manage and optimise the whole production chain of complex processes in steel industry. The used software tools have already been validated in different process steps in blast furnace, liquid steel making and hot rolling mills. Morse aims to integrate different tools starting from unit process level up to plant-wide optimisation level and therefore provide better optimisation for steel production bottlenecks.
The optimisation system developed in Morse will be implemented in three different steel plants; carbon steels and stainless steel both working on a large-scale production level, and cast steel in a foundry working on a small-scale production level. The purpose of Morse optimisation system is that it should be applicable for many different types of plants and industries, having similar and common requirements.
This paper describes detailed the Morse architecture, related models and software components. It will also describe the use cases setting the the requirements for the developments work. With the enhanced Morse tools companies of the process industry will be enabled to optimise the use of raw materials and energy by coordinated prediction and control of resource input and product quality along the entire process route from raw material and energy intake to customer delivery.

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25 June / 15:40 - Room 22:

Sustainable steelmaking toolbox: An LCA-based approach for increasing the sustainability of electric steelmaking

M. Klein
(IFU Hamburg GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Sustainable steelmaking toolbox: An LCA-based approach for increasing the sustainability of electric steelmaking


Author:
M. Klein

Company:
IFU Hamburg GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Steel-making is an energy-intensive process. With steel being the backbone of many industries, its contribution to climate change is high. The project EcoSteel (funded by BMBF) aims to develop a tool that enables steel works, especially those with electric arc furnaces, to reduce the carbon footprint of their products and foster the SDG 13: Climate Action.

A prototype tool is developed within the project. It consists of a material flow model combined with a library of furnace and supporting technologies, that can be adjusted to the specific requirements of a steel work. An optimization engine allows the computation of the most efficient set-up concerning carbon footprint and economic indicators.

Close collaboration with steel works ensures that the tool is applicable in their daily work and can be used continuously. The presentation will focus on the current status of the tool and how requirements of cooperating steel works are implemented.

Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Energy savings and energy efficiency optimization (25 June / 16:00 - Room 21)

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25 June / 16:00 - Room 21:

Energy artificial intelligence for effective energy imbalance cost reduction in the steel industry

C. Zaugg
(Alpiq Digital AG, Switzerland)

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Title: Energy artificial intelligence for effective energy imbalance cost reduction in the steel industry


Author:
C. Zaugg

Company:
Alpiq Digital AG, Switzerland

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Renewable energy sources play a key role to achieve global CO2 emission targets. However, the increasing penetration of solar and wind generation impacts short-term volatility and grid stability, ultimately resulting in higher imbalance penalties for large industrials. Such uncontrolled price fluctuations impose risks for steel plants with an electric arc furnace as the imbalance cost is a significant cost driver.

Alpiq and Swiss Steel established a convenient solution to reduce imbalance volume using artificial intelligence and real-time IoT. The core of the method is a self-learning algorithm predicting the plant’s power consumption for the next few hours based on real-time metering, day ahead forecast and further data. The forecast continuously predicts a 15-min profile which reflects latest available data, hence considering any deviations from the planned production schedule. The prediction is then applied as correction schedule and the differential volume placed as intraday re-nomination, unless overridden by Swiss Steel. We obtain a fully automated information flow with industrial IoT-gateways collecting data, a cloud-algorithm and automated communication between EDM-systems.

With the new practice an imbalance volume reduction of up to 20% is achieved, effectively reducing cost and protecting against unpredictable imbalance prices. State-of-the-art technology enabled an attractive payback time. On top of the immediate benefit, the setup paves the way for future improvements, e.g. forecast horizon and performance, since algorithm and connected data streams are fully modular. Furthermore, valuable process and performance insights beyond energy may be obtained in the future thanks to systematic real-time data availability and automated analytics.

Besides the cost saving advantage for the steel plant the concept also leads to better absorption of renewable energy in the market. This demonstrates how digital energy technology creates tangible value for power consumers while catalyzing the clean-energy transition. The best practice emphasizes the innovation spirit of the industry and increases its competitiveness.

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25 June / 16:20 - Room 21:

Optimization of waking beam furnace by the advanced Oxipyr®-Direct Heating System

M. Potesser
(Messer Group GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Optimization of waking beam furnace by the advanced Oxipyr®-Direct Heating System


Author:
M. Potesser

Company:
Messer Group GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The oxygen combustion technologies are lowering the production costs of many processes since the energy costs are continuously raising. Oxygen is used more and more in the combustion systems technology like oxygen burners, oxygen lancing or oxygen enrichment, in order to increase the capacity or save energy of particular furnaces, Oxyfuel is used to provide discrete oxygen rich areas in a furnace to allow complete combustion separately from a reducing zone or lower the emission volumes. This article analysis the possibilities and the advantages of oxygen application in different furnaces used for steel production on base of Messer results in a walking beam furnace with Oxipyr®-Direct and literature review.

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25 June / 16:40 - Room 21:

The blast furnace in view of past, current and future CO2 saving technologies

K. Kinzel
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: The blast furnace in view of past, current and future CO2 saving technologies


Author:
K. Kinzel

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
A. Agrawal, L. Micheletti, H. Kappes, P. Bermes, C. Castagnola, B. Rösner

Abstract:
Authors: Anand kumar AGRAWAL, Björn RÖSNER, Horst KAPPES, Dr.-ING (INPL) Klaus-Peter KINZEL, Philipp BERMES, Lorenzo MICHELETTI, Cristiano CASTAGNOLA

Blast furnaces are widely employed today for iron production all around the world, with a total production capacity of around 1.2 billion tons per year. Its operating principle, which relies on usage of coke to ensure the permeability in the reaction vessel, ensures its flexibility of operation and acceptability for varying qualities of iron ores. The blast furnace route is widely considered as the most economic and efficient route of iron production.

The blast furnace route has undergone significant development in terms of energy efficiency in the last decades, which led to a substantial reduction in the use of fossil reduction materials. Being an energy intensive process, competitiveness and cost saving in the blast furnace plant was always strongly related to the saving of energy and hence reduction of CO2 emissions. In addition to this, EU emissions trading system (EU ETS) as a cornerstone of the EU's policy in response to climate change has set new “challenges” for iron production in Europe.

Paul Wurth is deeply involved in the development of energy saving technologies for blast furnaces for many decades. In the following, a review of energy saving achievements developed in the last decades will be presented and the potential of available CO2 saving technologies will be summarized. Additionally, an outlook about the potential of future technologies, concepts and their impact on the blast furnace and the steel plant’s energy balance will be discussed.

Finally, the replacement of carbon by hydrogen as reduction agent in the steel plant will be reviewed, with special focus on a comparison of costs and incentives.

Keywords:
CO2 emission, iron and steel making, blast furnace, energy saving technologies, hydrogen steel making, carbon capture and storage

Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Alternative fuels and reductants in iron and steelmaking (26 June / 09:00 - Room 01)

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 01:

Incorporation of biocarbon in blast furnace ironmaking

K. Ng
(Natural Resources Canada, Canada)

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Title: Incorporation of biocarbon in blast furnace ironmaking


Author:
K. Ng

Company:
Natural Resources Canada, Canada

Co-Authors:
L. Jia, L. Giroux, T. Todoschuk

Abstract:
Substitution of fossil fuel by biofuel in cokemaking and ironmaking process has the potential to substantially reduce the GHG footprint of the blast furnace ironmaking process. It was the targeted of Canadian steel industry to reduce GHG emission by 25% via replacing pulverized coal injection by solid biocarbon and incorporation of biocarbon materials in cokemaking coal blend. Despite of significant amount of efforts has been made. There are still many technical barriers need to be overcame prior to industry scale implementation. This paper summarizes the recent R&D efforts on addressing the technical challenges of solid biocarbon utilization in ironmaking.
Previous efforts has demonstrated that incorporation of loose biocarbon in coking coal blend significantly reduces resultant coke quality. Hence, it limits the amount of biocarbon can be incorporated in cokemaking at less than 3% in order to maintain acceptable coke quality. To overcome this challenge, a new approach was developed. The reactive biocarbon was briquetted with coal. Then, the bio-briquette produced was mixed into the coal blend. Small-scale sole-heated oven and 350 kg capacity pilot-scale carbonizations of these coal blends with incorporated bio-briquette were conducted. It was clearly demonstrated that the quality of bio-coke produced by the incorporation of bio-briquette could be improved relative to that using loose biocarbon. Using bio-briquette, the amount of biocarbon could be increased to a higher level and produce biocoke with acceptable properties.
The bio-carbon was also mixed with typical PCI coals of high and low volatile matter at different portions. The combustion behavior of the bio-carbon/coal blends was investigated in the experimental bench-scale PCI simulation rig at CanmetENERGY-Ottawa. Effect of tuyere condition, biochar properties and particle size on the gasification kinetic behavior of injected biocarbon and characteristics of combustion residues were determined. Based on the experimental results for replacing fossil coal in cokemaking and PCI by biocarbon, the corresponding reduction in GHG emission for blast furnace ironmaking was estimated.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 01:

Biocoal as a carburizing agents in foundry processes in respect to improving the environmental balance

S. Freitas Seabra da Rocha
(Ruhr West University, Germany)

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Title: Biocoal as a carburizing agents in foundry processes in respect to improving the environmental balance


Author:
S. Freitas Seabra da Rocha

Company:
Ruhr West University, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Steinmetzger, S. Freitas Seabra da Rocha, M. Borowycz

Abstract:
In order to protect the environment and to slow down climate change a transition to a “low carbon economy” must be performed by a substitution of fossil resources. Society focuses primarily on fossil resources as an energy carrier. These can be substituted by renewable energy technologies such as wind power plants and photovoltaic. However, fossil resources are also needed as carbon carriers. Especially, in foundries fossil coal is needed to carbonize and to produce cast iron, which is used in almost all industrial sectors, such as the automobile or construction sector. Therefore, an entire CO2-neutral product of any kind is currently almost not existing.
A CO2-neutral substitute of coal is biocoal to improve the carbon footprint of foundries. Additionally, the production of biocoal by pyrolyzing biomass residues instead of primary biomass improves the bioeconomy.
To analyze the behavior of carburization a series of tests in technical department scale followed by industrial scale were performed. Biocoal made from woody biomass, straw and sugarcane bagasse were investigated. An efficiency rate up to 80% was detected. An advantage of using biocal instead of fossil coal is the low sulfur-content, which has positive effects on the produced cast iron. Analysis of the “biocoal cast iron” showed similar quality as conventional cast iron.
Best results were obtained with woody biocoal, therefore, this material was successful used in a foundry. Implementation of this substitute in the production process of foundries can improve the CO2-balance significantly. This has positive effects of the CO2-footprint and the life cycle assessment of products consisting of cast iron.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 01:

Effects of simultaneous carbonization and pulverization process of biomass via heat storage materials at high temperatures

D. Maruoka
(Tohoku University, Japan)

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Title: Effects of simultaneous carbonization and pulverization process of biomass via heat storage materials at high temperatures


Author:
D. Maruoka

Company:
Tohoku University, Japan

Co-Authors:
H. Sumikawa, T. Murakami, E. Kasai

Abstract:
Biomass has potential to reduce the CO2 emissions because of their carbon neutral feature. Carbonization is necessary to efficiently utilize biomass, however, heat source should be prepared. Un-utilized exhausted heat generated in high temperature processes such as iron industry can be an alternative energy source however, dust-containing, corrosive and intermittent gasses are candidates since they have been difficult to be directly utilized. Our groups proposed the concept of the rapid carbonization process considered in this study. Waste heat is stored in heat storage materials (HSM) then HSM are charged into a rotary kiln-type furnace with biomass. The heated balls are charged with woody biomass into a rotary kiln-type furnace. Carbonization proceeds by the heat transferred from balls and pulverization through collision with balls simultaneously occurs. Biomass are pulverized and simultaneously carbonized at high temperature, however, promotion effect of pulverization on the carbonization process was not clear. In this study, the effect of the simultaneous carbonization and pulverization processes was examined.
Japanese cypress with cubic shape and Stainless steel, SUS304, balls were used. laboratory-scale rotary-kiln furnace was used to demonstrate proposed process. Different experimental conditions were applied to examine not only a simultaneous process of carbonization and pulverization, but also individually separated processes. Obtained char was recovered and pulverization behavior was evaluated to calculate pulverizing ratio. Carbon Crystallinity of carbon was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy.
As a results, simultaneous carbonization and pulverization process gives the deformation of biomass char from early stage. It results in that the pulverization is promoted in simultaneous process than separated one as well as crystallinity of carbon. Thus, the simultaneous process will be an important technological principle of a rapid and efficient carbonization process of biomass.

Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Improvment, treatment and usage of Iron and steelmaking slags (26 June / 09:00 - Room 02)

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26 June / 09:00 - Room 02:

Last untapped potential in waste heat recovery - dry slag granulation

A. Fleischanderl
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Last untapped potential in waste heat recovery - dry slag granulation


Author:
A. Fleischanderl

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
T. Fenzl, R. Neuhold

Abstract:
Over decades the majority of the blast furnace slags have been utilized as cement clinker additive applying the traditional wet granulation process. Even well proven, the wet process faces some disadvantages as inability to recover the enthalpy of 1.8 GJ per ton of slag, process water consumption and odor problems around the plant. Over the last couple of years Primetals has developed the DSG, Dry Slag Granulation process, which allows the recovery of heat out of the liquid blast furnace slag. After an intensive pilot plant operation phase it was decided to install a first of its kind industrial prototype at voestalpine’s BF #A with a design capacity of up to 2 ton per minute liquid slag. The plant was commissioned in May 2017. In the time range of June 2017 till April 2018 many trial campaigns were performed and hundreds tons of slag was granulated with the dry process. A relining of the connected blast furnace in summer 2018 was giving the chance to install plant upgrades for the upcoming trial campaign starting in winter 2018/19. The new installations should bring the development of the dry slag granulation technology a huge step closer to its industrial mature.
The paper will discuss trial results, product analysis, achieved process parameters and reports the actual technology development status with an economic outlook for the DSG process.

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26 June / 09:20 - Room 02:

Activation of hydraulic properties in BOF slags by carbo-thermal reduction with simultaneous phosphorus removal

S. Windisch
(University of Leoben, Austria)

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Close26 June, Room 02 ( 09:20 )
Title: Activation of hydraulic properties in BOF slags by carbo-thermal reduction with simultaneous phosphorus removal


Author:
S. Windisch

Company:
University of Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The Chair of Thermal Processing Technology at the Montanuniversitaet Leoben operates a pilot plant for the reducing treatment of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slags. In a novel reactor concept, a bed of graphite pieces is inductively heated, offering a large surface and short mass transport distances for the reduced phosphorus as well as the possibility of a direct heat input. Phosphorus can therefore be transported in the gas phase quickly and is continuously removed from the reactor. The formation of iron phosphides, which inhibits the complete reduction of BOF slags in other aggregates like electric arc furnaces, is thereby limited. The gaseous, elementary phosphorus as well as CO are removed from the reactor, post-combusted and led through a gas scrubber, so that phosphoric acid is produced.
In preliminary experiments in a lab-scale plant (0.5 kg, batch operation), an optimum point of operation for the reduction of chromium, manganese and iron oxides as well as phosphorus compounds was found. By the addition of silica sand and reactive coke powder the slag was completely reduced at 1650°C. Applying this technology, 80% of the phosphorus contained in the slags were removed via the gas phase. This was also done in continuous operation in a pilot plant called InduRed (3 kg/h). The results from the preliminary experiments were reproduced.
In current experiments, alumina oxide is added and the slag composition is altered so that after the reduction process the slag can be quickly cooled and hydraulic properties can be activated.

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26 June / 09:40 - Room 02:

Steel slag processing in MSC

S. Feghhi
(Mobarakeh Steel Company, Iran)

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Title: Steel slag processing in MSC


Author:
S. Feghhi

Company:
Mobarakeh Steel Company, Iran

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Mobarakeh Steel Company hereinafter as (MSC) is one of the largest steel producers in Iran and in the Middle East with a production of about 7.2 million tons steel per year.(about 1,800,000 tons steel slag per year)
In MSC, molten steel is produced using 8 electric arc furnaces (EAFs) in which input materials including DRI (Direct Reduction Iron) and scrap is charged into EAFs and melted. Depending on the charging materials ratio, the slag chemical analysis may be varied.
Steel slag is a valuable waste in a steel plant and normally has considerable Fe content which it could be recovered and charged into EAFs again.(circular economy)
In our power point presentation, we are going to have an overview on existing slag processing in MSC and try to describe why we need slag recycling or recovery in MSC.(cold and hot slag processing)
we would like to express our technical and environmental requirements to get best solutions for slag processing in MSC.

Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: By-product management and use of secondary raw materials and wastes in iron and steelmaking (26 June / 10:20 - Room 01)

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 01:

RECYRON®: Idea to Innovation to Technology in Zero-Waste Ironmaking

A. Bhattacharyya
(RECYRON Engineering & Consulting e.U., Austria)

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Title: RECYRON®: Idea to Innovation to Technology in Zero-Waste Ironmaking


Author:
A. Bhattacharyya

Company:
RECYRON Engineering & Consulting e.U., Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Waste products are actually raw materials in disguise, waiting for a smart person to identify them and put them back into use by an appropriate process. RECYRON® is the ultimate smart choice for a zero-waste ironmaking process. This groundbreaking process is designed to recycle all possible raw material wastes (RMWs) from an integrated steel plant to produce direct reduced iron (DRI). RECYRON® takes care all RMWs of steel plants and iron ore mines, starting from superfine ores, coke breeze, sinter dust and BF dust and sludge, mill scale, just to name a few. RECYRON® uses a simple technology like briquetting to its utmost potential to agglomerate all the wastes, and thereafter reduces it using a rotary kiln. The reduced briquettes with high metallic iron are excellent high-value intermediate products to sell to mini-mills having electric arc furnaces (EAF), or to charge in the blast furnace to lower the coke rate as much as possible. The process is also able to generate power as the by-product. RECYRON® offers several advantages in parallel, such as reduction of landfill, complete utilization of raw materials, low CO2 footprint and last but not the least – a highly profitable process. This work presents the development and the technical background of this novel process, which has been developed partially in India and partially in Austria (patent application in Austria). The financial aspects such as estimated CAPEX and OPEX along with the NPV (Net Project Value) and IRR (Internal Rate of Return) for plants of different capacities are also discussed. This work also explores the possibility of installing this new technology in Europe as well as in global context.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 01:

Trace element modelling and optimisation of byproduct use in an integrated steelworks

C. McMahon
(University of Queensland, Australia)

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Title: Trace element modelling and optimisation of byproduct use in an integrated steelworks


Author:
C. McMahon

Company:
University of Queensland, Australia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In iron and steel making significant quantities of by-products can accumulate onsite due to the presence of trace elements that limit their reuse, either by impacting on process operations, affecting product quality, or reporting to regulated emission streams. By-product materials that cannot be reintroduced into the process represents not only a lost opportunity for reuse, but also an increasing potential liability. By-product reuse within an integrated steelworks has been confirmed as a way of reducing the financial and environmental liabilities associated with stockpiled materials. It is therefore important that strategies are developed, supported by appropriate numerical models, which will allow the impact of by-product reuse to be assessed and optimised, leading to mitigation or even reversal of by-product accumulation.

BlueScope’s (BSL) Port Kembla Steelworks (PKSW) generates numerous by-product streams. Some of these by-products are reused within the process, offsetting the use of raw materials, or sold offsite. Some by-product streams are restricted in their reuse due to the presence of key trace elements such as lead and zinc. This paper describes the development of reuse strategies based on a modelling and optimisation approach. A process integration based model known as The Integrated Steelworks Energy and Emissions Model (ISEEM) is a comprehensive material and energy balance model of the PKSW site. ISEEM is used as a platform to study the effect of by-product processing through the sinter plant, with a focus on ten key trace elements of concern that potentially impact operations, product quality, and/or emissions. The simulation and optimisation approaches are described, and a number of theoretical scenarios are evaluated using the validated model to demonstrate the effect of trace elements partitioning across process units.

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 01:

Synergistic use of by-products in the production of FeMn alloys

F. Blaffart
(CRM Group, Belgium)

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Title: Synergistic use of by-products in the production of FeMn alloys


Author:
F. Blaffart

Company:
CRM Group, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The metal industry is facing ever stringent environmental regulations leading to more and more efficient off-gas systems. These new off-gas systems generate additional by-products in the form of dusts and sludges. At the same time, the quality and scarcity of raw materials is becoming a real issue and metal producers have to maximize their resource efficiency in order to maintain their competitiveness. Therefore, a cross-sectorial consortium has been built in the frame of an EIT Raw Materials project “Go-4-0”. Its objective is to synergistically combine by-products from different sectors in view of their recycling in the production of FeMn alloys. This paper presents the different cold and hot stage pre-processing steps required before recycling. Indeed, to be recyclable the by-products mix has to comply with process requirements such as mechanical strength. Several binders have been tested and optimised in order to minimize the cost of cold pre-processing while providing the required mechanical properties. Three high temperature purification technologies (Rotary Kiln, Multiple Hearth Furnace & Rotary Hearth Furnace) have been compared at pilot scale in order to determine the best recycling route in terms of zinc and lead removal performance and economics. The final feasibility assessment will be done in 2019 during a semi-industrial campaign using a 600 kW Smelting Arc Furnace.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 01:

Best practices in refractories waste management

A. Soto
(Sidenor Investigación y Desarrollo S.A., Spain)

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Title: Best practices in refractories waste management


Author:
A. Soto

Company:
Sidenor Investigación y Desarrollo S.A., Spain

Co-Authors:
D. Maza

Abstract:
Current lines of research are mainly focused on Circular Economy, Energy Efficiency and Industry 4.0. While many sectors are influenced by this trend, it acquires special importance in the steel industry, specifically in terms of waste management. The reinforcement of the environmental policies has pushed steelworks to implement Circular Economy criteria, which allows the reduction of the negative impact of linear economy.
Despite waste management has been thoroughly researched by steelworks during last decades, it has always been focused on slags, melting shop powders or scales, but hardly any work has been developed in the management of refractory waste, at least in a systematic and integral way. Moreover, some of the spent refractories are considered as critical materials and probably in the short term as hazardous.
Under this scenario, five years ago, Sidenor started a continuous improvement initiative with the aim of minimizing the refractory waste disposal in landfills. The first results highlighted the interest for the company, and they surprisingly revealed a little explored and exploited market. The outcome of this project led to the allocation of more research resources into this matter. In this way, the management of Magnesia-Carbon and Alumina reclaimed refractories has been consolidated. Later, a remarkable and innovative achievement was reached by valorising Isostatic scraps.
The aim of this paper is, therefore, to disseminate the knowledge and best practices developed by Sidenor in this field during last years. In fact, Sidenor is now recognised as a consolidated player recently awarded with the “European Business Award for the Environment” for all this work.
Thanks to these best practices, the 90% of recoverable refractories are valorised at the moment. Although a lot of work has been done, Sidenor continues pursuing the excellence obtaining important environmental and economic benefits, which could be of interest for other steelmakers.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 01:

Binder-free compaction: a new technology to enable EAF by-products recycling

J. Banchet
(Eurotab S.A., France)

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Title: Binder-free compaction: a new technology to enable EAF by-products recycling


Author:
J. Banchet

Company:
Eurotab S.A., France

Co-Authors:
B. Bramaud Grattau, J. Steiler, C. Coenraets

Abstract:
Steel production generates vast amounts of by-products e.g. dust, sludge, slag, used refractories. The ever-stronger regulation regarding disposal and the potential benefit from recovering valuable elements (iron, lime, magnesia, zinc, …) contained in the by-products, some of them being considered as Critical Raw Materials in Europe, have driven steelmakers to develop processes to turn waste into source of raw materials and approach the goal of a zero-waste practice.
Due to their powdery nature, some by-products can hardly be introduced in a furnace as secondary raw materials without pre-agglomeration. Traditional agglomeration technologies (briquetting, pelletizing) require a binder to provide the agglomerates the adequate mechanical resistance and enable their handling without generating large amounts of fines. Aside from their costs, binders reduce by-products recycling efficiency rate, can require curing time hence handling and storage costs. They also require supplemental energy for their burn-up and generate environmental problems.
Binder-free compaction technology relies on subjecting a powder without any additive to uniaxial punching efforts up to 700MPa, leading to agglomerates called tablets. The latter are obtained via a rotary press with a throughput of tons/hour.
In this paper, EAF by-products (slags, dust and refractory fines) behavior under compression is studied using binder-free compaction technology. Based on the provided by-products compositions, several mixes are elaborated to aim at reducing the amount of primary raw materials (lime, magnesia), at proceeding to iterative zinc enrichment and at extending the refractory walls lifetime by achieving MgO saturation of the slag. Results demonstrate that any of the three studied by-products can be combined in optimized and valuable mixes yielding binder-free compaction tablets whose mechanical resistance, assessed by crushing and drop tests, is in accordance with the requirements of the metal making industry.

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26 June / 12:00 - Room 01:

Ciroval ®-Hydrometallurgical treatment process for recycling blast furnace sludge

L. Piezanowski
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: Ciroval ®-Hydrometallurgical treatment process for recycling blast furnace sludge


Author:
L. Piezanowski

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
J. Hugentobler, A. Iosif, D. Dubois, J. Baudson

Abstract:
In an economic system where environmental legislation tightened and the supply of raw materials becomes more and more critical, the application of new metal recovery processes becomes a priority. Today the steel industry produces by-products which are not fully valued. One of them is the sludge produced by the wet gas cleaning system of the blast furnace. Blast furnace sludge is not internally recycled due to its high content of zinc and lead, which are detrimental to the blast furnace operation. Presently only few solutions are available for treating this sludge. In this context, ArcelorMittal, in a co-development with Paul Wurth, decided to build the first industrial plant able to recycle the entire quantity of sludge produced at the Dunkirk site. In a circular economy approach, this innovative and environmentally friendly process based on hydrometallurgy, called Ciroval®, values the blast furnace sludge by transforming it into three products: an iron/carbon fraction, which can be recycled at the sinter plant; a zinc/lead concentrate, which is of interest for the non-ferrous industry; and finally salty water that can be recycled internally or in the salt industry. This approach of circular economy will allow ArcelorMittal to reduce disposal of by-products, to save raw materials and to reduce CO2 emissions.

The project for this first industrial Ciroval® plant, designed to treat 15’000t of blast furnace sludge per year, is supported by the “Région Hauts-de-France” and the ERDF European Regional Development Fund. Engineering started in September 2018. Commissioning is scheduled for beginning of 2020.

Efficiency increase and CO2 mitigation in iron and steelmaking: Energy management systems, energy and waste heat recovery I (26 June / 10:20 - Room 02)

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26 June / 10:20 - Room 02:

Waste heat recovery potential in integrated steel plants in the steel industry in germany

H. Rosemann
(VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Waste heat recovery potential in integrated steel plants in the steel industry in germany


Author:
H. Rosemann

Company:
VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Within the scope of this study, the potential for waste heat use in sinter plants, blast furnace plants, continuous casting plants and hot rolling mills, i.e. the main plant areas of integrated iron and steel works, was investigated.
The investigation included the description of the typical design of sinter plants, blast furnace plants and their ancillary facilities, BOF steelmaking plants with LD converters, and hot rolling mills, as existing in integrated iron and steelworks in Germany, was described.
Energy and heat balances were calculated and represented in tabular form and in Sankey diagrams. Possibilities of internal and external as well as direct and indirect waste heat uses were described. On this basis 13 waste heat flows were examined in greater detail.
Impediments to possible waste gas uses were identified in interviews with the iron and steelplant operators. Potentials for waste gas use were derived from the waste gas flows in the energy balance against the background of the available technology and general circumstances.

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26 June / 10:40 - Room 02:

All-in-one energy saving solution in steel plant

Z. Lu
(Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Japan)

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Title: All-in-one energy saving solution in steel plant


Author:
Z. Lu

Company:
Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:
S. Shinohara, Y. Osaka, H. Imanari

Abstract:
In recent years, we have developed the intelligent energy saving solution for fans and pumps in steel plants to achieve more energy saving effect than the conventional energy saving method using feedback control. The intelligent solution utilizes predictive information such as the pre-set calculation results from process model, predicts the optimal flow amount required at the optimal timing and outputs speed reference to fans and pumps via sequence controllers.
When applying the solution to an existing plant, it is important to make the revamping works less. We propose to apply a new controller named nV-pack, which is designed as an integration of PLC and computer, with all the functions of sequential control, drive control, mathematical calculation and human machine interface (HMI). Furthermore, as the operating system of the controller is based on Windows system, other convenient application tools for energy visualization and management can also be installed together as an all-in-one energy saving solution.
Therefore applying the new controller for intelligent energy saving will bring easier revamping works, easier daily maintenance and more energy saving effects. For example, the solution helps users to do P-D-C-A (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle easily. First, the user audits inefficient energy consumption and aims the energy savings with the energy management tool. Then he works on saving energy using intelligent energy saving control, checks actual effect with energy visualization tools and improves energy saving effects by the same controller. As a result from our actual experience, the return on investment for the energy saving project is usually under 1~3 years.
We have applied the all-in-one solution and achieve significant energy saving effects in several steel plants. In this paper, we introduce the solution of descaling pumps, unit cooling fans of main motors and water treatment pumps and show energy saving results with actual data.

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26 June / 11:00 - Room 02:

Operational results of new generation sinter shaft cooler

M. Böberl
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Operational results of new generation sinter shaft cooler


Author:
M. Böberl

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
J. Reidetschläger, M. Kastner, K. Zellinger

Abstract:
Primetals Technologies has developed a new vertical sinter shaft cooler that is not only highly energy-efficient but is also much more environmentally friendly than conventional circular sinter coolers. It is based on a counter-flow cooling process, so heat transfer efficiency is significantly higher than in a conventional sinter cooler. The shaft cooler design allows the optimized utilization of sensible heat contained in the hot sinter. With this approach the temperature of the cooling air exiting the shaft can be maximized and more efficiently applied for the generation of steam. The total cooler off air of the process is finally cleaned in a dedusting unit which gives the environmental benefit of zero diffuse dust emissions. Primetals Technologies and Ansteel Engineering Technology implemented the first industrial scale shaft cooler on a 265m2 sinter plant at Anshan Iron & Steel, China. The system consists of a pan conveyor for charging the shaft cooler, the shaft cooler, a heat recovery system and a bag filter unit. Operational results and achievements of the first installed shaft cooler will be presented.

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26 June / 11:20 - Room 02:

How to recover energy from a steel reheating furnace

L. Cioriciu
(Cockerill Maintenance et Ingénerie (CMI), Belgium)

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Title: How to recover energy from a steel reheating furnace


Author:
L. Cioriciu

Company:
Cockerill Maintenance et Ingénerie (CMI), Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Well known as high energy consumers, reheating furnaces can become energy sources in several ways.
The energy recovery coming from a reheating furnace can be considered for both green fields as well as for brownfields.
One way is to recover the heat coming with the waste gases from the main heat exchanger for the combustion air by installing a WHRB in line towards the stack.
If the length of an existing waste gas tunnel to the stack do not allow the installation of the WHRB in line, a bypass can be considered as well as it will be shown later in the presentation.
The second is to install an evaporative cooling system for the skids and posts of the walking beam section. In this case, instead of cooling the skids and posts with cooling water, a hot water/steam mixture can be used. This mixture will be heated and saturated in steam during skids and posts cooling process. The saturated steam can be then extracted and sent to the plant steam network. It is preferably to install such an ECS to new furnaces but solution can be found for large upgrade works in existing plants.
The steam that is generated by these two means can be used as it is or can be transformed in electric power through a turbine.
At atmospheric pressure the saturation temperature is 100° C. However, if the pressure is increased, this allows the addition of more heat and an increase in temperature without a change of phase. Therefore, increasing the pressure effectively increases both the enthalpy of water, and the saturation temperature.
Despite the general reservation against steam generation through the reheating furnace due to apparent non reliability, the concept has been already installed at our customers and in all cases the feedback was positive.

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26 June / 11:40 - Room 02:

Recovery of high temperature waste gas heat by thermoelectric generators

F. Mintus
(VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Recovery of high temperature waste gas heat by thermoelectric generators


Author:
F. Mintus

Company:
VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Steel production involves a huge amount of energy consumption. Despite the usage of waste heat from high temperature steel making processes, e.g. for heating purposes, a considerable amount of this energy is lost to the ambient. Energy recovery from these waste-heat streams is getting more and more important in the future due to commercial and strategic reasons, like international competition as well as geopolitical issues such as security of energy supply and greenhouse gas emission. In recent years, numerous ideas have been suggested e.g. reuse in other processes, or for power generation. One opportunity for power production from waste heat are thermoelectric generators (TEG). Thermoelectric materials are semiconductors which exhibit a strong relationship between the passage of heat through the material and a current flow. TEG are already used in special applications, e.g. for power supply of sensors in remote areas, or in air and space industry. However, the use of this technology in a large-scale industrial application has not been sufficiently investigated until now.
The paper will describe results achieved in the research project PowGETEG (RFSR – CT – 2015 – 00028, funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel). The project investigates possibilities of thermoelectric power generation using industrial gaseous waste heat at temperatures above 550°C. In order to be able to apply this technology in industrial waste gases new solutions for control, power conversion and heat exchange were developed. Based on results from bench-scale tests with a 200 Wel unit and simulations a demonstrator with an electrical output of 700 - 1,000 W was designed and constructed. Final results of the lab-scale tests and first results of the long-term test of the demonstrator at a steel production site will be presented.

Efficiency increase and CO2 mitigation in iron and steelmaking: Energy management systems, energy and waste heat recovery II (26 June / 13:30 - Room 02)

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26 June / 13:30 - Room 02:

Potential solutions to withstand highly corrosive conditions in heat recovery systems

A. Spaghetti
(Sandvik AB, Italy)

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Title: Potential solutions to withstand highly corrosive conditions in heat recovery systems


Author:
A. Spaghetti

Company:
Sandvik AB, Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
With the upcoming and increasing interest for environment and consequently for more efficient processes, heat recovery systems have become of great importance, as well as their durability. The equipment meant to recover such heat found usually itself in very corrosive conditions. The temperature of the tubes of the recuoerators is usually higher than 500°C and this open the door to several damaging mechanisms, like hot corrosion as well as dew point corrosion, where a standard carbon steel would fail very quickly. Based on this detrimental conditions it becomes really relevant to select good materials for such tubes in order to increase the lifetime of the whole equipment and consequently increasing the process efficiency.

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26 June / 13:50 - Room 02:

Residual heat valorization at Arvedi steel plant in Cremona

N. Monti
(Tenova S.p.A., Italy)

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Title: Residual heat valorization at Arvedi steel plant in Cremona


Author:
N. Monti

Company:
Tenova S.p.A., Italy

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Thanks to the original Arvedi ESP cast-rolling technology, the scrap-based plant in Cremona is among the world most efficient operations for the production of high quality thin gauge steel coils.

Arvedi most recent investments, concentrated in the electric steelmaking area, allowed to reduce further the energy consumption and CO2 emissions, making the plant in Cremona one the most energy efficient in the steel world.

In 2018 Arvedi successfully commissioned and started-up an iRecovery® system and a 7 MW ORC turbogenerator unit to recover the off-gas residual thermal energy coming from the 250-t Consteel® EAF feeding the ESP line and to convert it into electrical energy.
The new installation is the largest EAF heat recovery system in Europe.

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26 June / 14:10 - Room 02:

Waste heat recovery for EAF steelmaking via calcium based energy storage

G. Hartfuß
(University of Stuttgart, Germany)

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Title: Waste heat recovery for EAF steelmaking via calcium based energy storage


Author:
G. Hartfuß

Company:
University of Stuttgart, Germany

Co-Authors:
G. Scheffknecht, M. Schmid

Abstract:
To meet rising energy prices and targets for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Europe, waste heat recovery has become a major interest for EAF steelmaking. Currently up to 30% of the EAF energy input is lost via the off-gas waste heat, by an average off-gas temperature of serval hundred degrees Celsius. This shows the huge potential for implementation of waste heat recovery technologies for power generation. However, challenges for waste heat recovery included fluctuating heat flow, varying temperatures, high dust loads of the EAF off-gas and the need of an energy storage unit to compensate for power-off times during tapping and charging.
The few existing waste heat recovery facilities in EAF steel plants typically use waste heat boilers and Ruth’s steam accumulators to produce statured steam (lower than 50 bar). Therefore, the efficiency of the power generation is low, while complex waste heat boilers must be used.
To improve the power generation efficiency a new approach for the production of super-heated steam will be discussed in this paper. The major differences are the application of thermochemical energy storage material and the avoidance of off-gas heat exchangers. By using this concept a reduction in design complexity and easier implementation in existing off-gas systems is expected. Calcium based materials offer a great potential for use in EAF steel plants, because they have a high energy storage density, are cheap and degraded material could be reused as slag formers. By using data from a carbon steel producing steel plant the waste heat recovery potentials will be discussed and the best suited storage material selected. Following a process design for waste heat storage and utilization will be given.

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26 June / 14:30 - Room 02:

Modelling thermal processes in the steel and iron industry

C. Rein
(VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Modelling thermal processes in the steel and iron industry


Author:
C. Rein

Company:
VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
B. Stranzinger, E. Thienpont

Abstract:
Within the steelmaking industry thermal processes are key processes to produce high grade steels. Numerical modelling has become an indispensable tool for analysing and optimizing these processes. The department of energy, gas and industrial furnace technology of the VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut gives an overview of examples along the steelmaking process. The capability of their burner testing facility at the area of the Hüttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann makes it possible to verify and validate thermal and combustion models. In the last years BFI developed CFD-models for:
• Reheating furnaces
• Strip galvanizing lines
• Hearth furnaces
• Heat treatment furnaces
• Recuperative burners
• Regenerative burners
• Ignition hoods for sinter plants
• Converter waste heat Boilers

Since 3 years BFI also uses the Fluid-Structure-Interaction method to combine the numerical simulation of fluids (CFD) and structures (FEM) for the calculation of furnace components such as furnace rollers or radiation tubes. These simulations help to find the best design in an early stage of development or to investigate flow, temperatures or species in furnace zones where it’s impossible to measure. The article/presentation gives an overview of 5 modelling examples within the steelmaking process.

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26 June / 14:50 - Room 02:

Roadmap towards carbon neutral steelmaking

R. Hekkens
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: Roadmap towards carbon neutral steelmaking


Author:
R. Hekkens

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
A. Steeghs, C. Pietersen, B. van der Meulen, J. van der Stel

Abstract:
Tata Steel Europe has renewed its vision, mission and strategy to set the way forward in a changing world. The renewed strategy is to build the leading European steel business that is sustainable in every sense. This fits with our customers and stakeholders moving towards a more sustainable future and circular economy. Governments worldwide joined the global Paris agreement and national legislation is being updated to implement this agreement. Meanwhile existing agreements to increase energy efficiency gradually are being implemented. What does this mean for the activities of Tata Steel IJmuiden concerning energy use and CO2 emission? Next to the execution of our Energy Efficiency Plan in the period 2017 – 2020, a clear roadmap towards carbon neutral steelmaking needed to be set up.

The Paris agreement focusses on decreasing the absolute CO2 emission levels in a drastic way. Analysis of the source of CO2 emission was done, concluding that only a change in hot metal and steel production route can have such a large effect. Roadmaps were set up for Low CO2 iron and steelmaking, in fact these are routes to feed the casting of steel slabs for our customers. Main routing options were set up based on ULCOS core technologies for iron and steel making. Analyses were made for the scrap and iron supply chains. The state of the current asset base and it’s expectation for the future was taken into account, as this can influence what is the best choice. Next to this the feasibility will be influenced by and have consequences for the regional energy infrastructure. And these are changing strongly as transitions are being prepared mutually in energy systems for the urban environment, the transportation sector, the electricity generation sector, all industry and agriculture.

Efficiency increase and CO2 mitigation in iron and steelmaking: Efficient and safe management and expoitation of off-gases in the steel sector (27 June / 09:00 - Room 01)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 01:

Advanced modelling for forecasting off-gas, steam and electricity production and demand in integrated steelworks: the Gasnet Model Library

I. Matino
(Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy)

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Close27 June, Room 01 ( 09:00 )
Title: Advanced modelling for forecasting off-gas, steam and electricity production and demand in integrated steelworks: the Gasnet Model Library


Author:
I. Matino

Company:
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy

Co-Authors:
A. Wolff, S. Salame, V. Weber, A. Petrucciani, A. Zaccara, V. Colla, S. Dettori

Abstract:
Improving the sustainability of steelmaking industries is a priority of European Union. In addition, the reuse of by-products is promoted inside the industrial community in order to reduce the exploitation of primary resources with consequent environmental and economic advantages. In integrated steelworks, noteworthy by-products are the off-gases produced during the main steps of production cycle. They are a valid replacement of natural gas for the production of heat, steam and electricity and they are normally recovered. However, their recovery is often not optimized for several technical and non-technical issues. The project entitled “Optimization of the management of the process gas network within the integrated steelworks - GASNET”, which is funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, provides a Decision Support System that allows optimizing the off-gas management. One of the main components of this system is a model library devoted to the forecasting of off-gas (and their features), steam and electricity production and demand during the integrated steelmaking production cycle by taking into account the production plan. Advanced data-based approaches have been used in the modelling phase in order to follow the dynamics and the non-linearity of the different involved processes and phenomena. For instance, Neural Network-based models have been developed and presented for the most complex and highly non-linear processes such as the basic oxygen gas production in which Echo State Neural Networks have been exploited. Equation-based models have been exploited in the case of simpler processes (e.g. the demand of blast furnace gas in the hot blast stoves). The most representative models of the GASNET library are presented in this paper.

The abstract is submitted to the special session "Efficient and safe management and exploitation of off-gases in the steel sector"

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 01:

Economical Mixed-Integer Model Predictive Controller for optimizing the sub-network of the BOF gas

A. Wolff
(VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Economical Mixed-Integer Model Predictive Controller for optimizing the sub-network of the BOF gas


Author:
A. Wolff

Company:
VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
V. Colla, S. Dettori, S. Bialek, F. Mintus

Abstract:
Abstract:
Steel production generates significant amounts of by-products, including some high-energy exhaust gases that are reused both within the production cycle itself and for power generation. To this end, the steel mills have complex gas networks that distribute the gases to the various consumers. The EU project "Optimising the management of the process gas network within the integrated steel mill - GASNET" aims to support the management of each sub-network by developing a Decision Support System. For this purpose, the overall problem is broken down into subproblems: power generation scheduling, steam network, BOF and BF network. The solution to the subproblem is then coordinated via a consensus procedure, so that an overall optimum is achieved.
This paper describes in detail the design of the sub-controller of the BOF network. First the overall model of the subnet is described. The model of the subnetwork is nonlinear, by a suitable transformation it can be transformed into a linear mixed integer problem which can be solved efficiently. Subsequently, the quality functional of the Economical Model Predictive Controller (EMPC) for the economic optimization of the BOF gas network is presented. Finally, the first simulation results are presented, and performance is determined

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 01:

Quantification of the impact of an optimal gas network management in integrated steelworks: the gasnet performance indicators

V. Colla
(Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy)

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Title: Quantification of the impact of an optimal gas network management in integrated steelworks: the gasnet performance indicators


Author:
V. Colla

Company:
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy

Co-Authors:
L. Romaniello, R. Speets, S. Bastida, N. Zapata, A. Wolff, S. Salame, V. Weber, A. Petrucciani, A. Zaccara, S. Dettori, I. Matino

Abstract:
Worldwide the largest amount of steel is produced through the integrated production route. The reuse of process gases is fundamental in order to improve the environmental footprint of the steelwork and to decrease the exploitation of natural resources, such as natural gas. Indeed the process off-gases (i.e. coke oven, blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace gases) contain carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which provide them with significant calorific values. Therefore, they are exploited to produce heat, steam or electricity. Although the reuse of these gases is a common practice, the management of the whole gas network and of the distribution of these gases is normally not optimized with consequent losses of high valuable resources, mostly due to the complexity of the gas network and the associated numerous technical and not-technical constraints. In order to fill this gap, the GASNET project provides a Decision Support Tool for improving the gas network management. One of the main part of the tool is the monitoring and quantification system. Such tool is conceived to give an easy visualization of the efficiency of the gas management. Considering a plant-oriented approach, it allows reporting the advantages that an optimized management of gas distribution can provide in terms of environmental and economic impacts. In addition, it can support analyses aimed at identifying further improvements or bottlenecks to be addressed in the whole gas network. Six main Key Performance Indicators and further Extra Performance Indicators grouped in different clusters represent the core of the monitoring system. In this paper, the list of the Performance Indicators will be depicted and their meaning will be deeply discussed.

This abstract is submitted to the special session entitled: “"Efficient and safe management and expoitation of off-gases in the steel sector"

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 01:

Advanced energy management system at Tata Steel in IJmuiden

R. Speets
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: Advanced energy management system at Tata Steel in IJmuiden


Author:
R. Speets

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
D. Bernhuis, P. Pronk

Abstract:
By
Ramon Speets, Dion Berghuis, Pepijn Pronk

Tata Steel Group’s business objectives are to reduce its operational costs and to become the benchmark in terms of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. The reduction of energy consumption and energy costs is therefore very important.
To achieve this, Tata Steel in Europe joined the European research project entitled "Optimization of the management of the process gas network within the integrated steelworks" (GASNET). The project overall goal consists in the development of a an energy management system, which enables energy, CO2 and costs savings on an integrated steel site. This system will determine the most optimal distribution, generation and utilization of the energy carriers, such as works arising gases, natural gas, steam and electricity. The system will be based on advanced control methods, such as Model Predictive Control.
This contribution describes the work, scope, limitations and expectations of the GASNET system for the IJmuiden site.

NOTE: This abstract is a contribution to the special session "Efficient and safe management and expoitation of off-gases in the steel sector"

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 01:

Prediction of the temperature distribution in the hot blast stove with a switching Kalman filter

A. Wolff
(VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Prediction of the temperature distribution in the hot blast stove with a switching Kalman filter


Author:
A. Wolff

Company:
VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
C. Hillmann, J. Schlimbach, B. Stranziger, S. Bialek, D. Sonnenschein

Abstract:
Approximately 18 GJ are required for the production of 1 tonne crude steel, where the preheating of the hot blast in the hot blast stoves for the iron ore reduction requires approximately 12 % of the total energy. In order to improve energy efficiency, it is necessary to investigate improvement strategies for the hot blast stove operation. In this paper, a mathematical model was developed to evaluate the performance of the hot blast stoves by using a finite differential approximation to represent the heat transfer inside the furnace during operation. The model developed was calibrated using the process data from DK in Duisburg. Subsequently, a control model was derived. Due to the operation of the hot-blast stoves, a hybrid model has been derived consisting of continuous and logical states. When estimating the temperature distribution, the logical states must also be taken into account; for this reason, a switching Kalman filter was used.. The resulting simulation and observer showed good results compared to the measurement data.

Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Emission avoidance from iron and steelmaking I (27 June / 09:00 - Room 02)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 02:

Adding intelligence to environmental plants - the digital gas-cleaning plant

T. Steinparzer
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Adding intelligence to environmental plants - the digital gas-cleaning plant


Author:
T. Steinparzer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Fleischanderl, F. Hartl, R. Schmied

Abstract:
Digitalization has also arrived emission control. In addition to process technologies digitalization approach and automation packages can help plant operators to improve their energy consumption as well as process control of their environmental plants.
Secondary de-dusting systems based on fabric filter technology often suffer of non-optimized operation in terms of energy efficiency. Primetals Technologies has developed know-how based solutions which incorporate various energy efficiency measures across the gas cleaning plant and linking the de-dusting operation to the primary plant operation. Such digitalization approach either reduces the energy consumption or increases the suction capacity. Respectively the emission situation is improved or the productivity of the system is positively influenced (i.e reduction of charging time). Beside intelligent process models also online data analysis contribute to reduce the maintenance costs or improve process control. In combination with a video analysis system for emission control and quantification an overall optimization approach is achieved.
Practicable solutions and intelligent automation packages for plant improvements to support operators to upgrade their off-gas system and minimizing operational costs of their off-gas system are presented within this paper.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 02:

The latest technology of CDQ (Coke Dry Quenching) system

K. Itakura
(Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan)

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Title: The latest technology of CDQ (Coke Dry Quenching) system


Author:
K. Itakura

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In 1976, NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD. (NSENGI) had constructed the first CDQ (Coke Dry Quenching) plant with 56t/h capacity in Yawata Works of NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO METAL CORPORATION, JAPAN. After installation of the first CDQ, we have established numerous original technologies through a lot of construction achievement, and finally developed the world’s largest 280t/h capacity CDQ in 2009.

NSENGI is now one and only supplier which can supply most suitable CDQ capacity for each customer by various capacity range from 56t/h to 280t/h.

In addition, NSENGI is now developing technology of automatic operation and prolonged life of CDQ, in order to realize our customer`s demand to save man-power for operation and reduce the burden of maintenance work, which has enhanced more and more in these days.

The presentation describes our CDQ technologies about cooling large amount of hot coke, automation and extending service life.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 02:

Innovative solutions for diffuse dust monitoring in the steel Industry

P. Bourrier
(Aloatec SARL, France)

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Title: Innovative solutions for diffuse dust monitoring in the steel Industry


Author:
P. Bourrier

Company:
Aloatec SARL, France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Innovative solutions for diffuse dust monitoring in the Steel Industry
Philippe BOURRIER, ALOATEC

Diffuse Dust Emissions remains a difficult Environmental question for the steel industry. Such emissions may involve complicated relationship with neighbourhood of steel Plants. Important expenses may be due to local or international regulations regarding the finest dust particles emitted in the atmosphere.

State of the art of the innovative monitoring solutions developed by ALOATEC for more than 20 years are presented in this paper. Solutions are installed in different plants of ARCELORMITTAL, THYSSEN, HKM, TATA Steel, APERAM, in Europe and TERNIUM in south America.

The solutions cover the full range of particle size, from the coarsest particles involving dust deposition on the ground within the first kilometres around the steel plants to the finest visible particles emitted by the roofs and other diffuse sources of the Steel process.

The Aloa_ADA is an automatic dust deposition gauge measuring mg/m2/day on a hourly measurement time. The WEB monitoring interface delivers Alarm and important information such as the location of the main sources. The sensor samples the deposition for accurate analysis. The sensor refers to the sampling method ISO/DIS 4222 similar to most of the national standards in the world.

Aloa-DETECT Pollutions is an intelligent camera for monitoring the visible diffuse dust emissions in the atmosphere. It is optimized for steel shop, electric furnace, blast furnace and coke plant. The INTRANET management interface sends Alarms, permit to set the origin of the emission…. A dashboard gives the opportunity to edit statistics for ISO 14001 management.

Aloa_PM10 is a solution for the WEB for monitoring Up-wind / Down-wind fine dust at ground level around a plant in order to determine “added” fine dust in the Environment. The sensor measures simultaneously the particle fractions TSP, PM10, PM2,5 and PM1 in µg/m2.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 02:

Application of wet-type electrostatic precipitators in BOF primary gas cleaning systems, experiences and operating results of the first hydro hybrid filter systems

T. Wübbels
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Application of wet-type electrostatic precipitators in BOF primary gas cleaning systems, experiences and operating results of the first hydro hybrid filter systems


Author:
T. Wübbels

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
BOF-based steel mills worldwide are faced with increasing environmental restrictions and rising energy costs. The ferro-alloy production, steelmaking, secondary metallurgy and casting process chains generate off-gases that are rich in energy and laden with dust and other contaminants. That is why SMS group offers sustainable solutions for gas treatment which comply with numerous governmental regulations. These include technologies for gas collection, cooling, cleaning, and recovery. Besides primary gas cleaning systems such as dry-type electrostatic precipitators for new converter shops, innovative technologies that include wet-type electrostatic precipitators (WESP, hydro-hybrid system) for plant upgrades are also provided.
Hydro-hybrid systems meet the most stringent regulations and offer significant economic benefits. These systems are based on the integration of an electrostatic precipitator into the existing wet-type gas cleaning system.
The key features of this solution are low investment costs as well as advanced and proven technology. Not only that, because this technology can be installed during ongoing operation, production losses are avoided. Steel producers can respond even faster to more stringent environmental regulations.
The main principle of this dedusting concept is that the main dust load is separated by the existing wet scrubber, while the additional fine cleaning takes place in the new WESP. With this solution, the gas purification system meets the most stringent environmental regulations with respect to dust content. Clean-gas dust concentrations of less than 10 milligrams per standard cubic meter of converter gas can be achieved. This low clean-gas dust content allows the LD gas to be fed from the gas holder directly to a consumer, without the need for additional final cleaning.
By optimizing the overall system pressure drop, the system’s design offers potential power savings of up to 30%.
The present paper reports on the results and experiences with the first installations of this kind.

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27 June / 10:20 - Room 02:

Comparison of emissions of conventional and shaft-based electric arc furnaces

H. Beile
(Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Comparison of emissions of conventional and shaft-based electric arc furnaces


Author:
H. Beile

Company:
Primetals Technologies Germany GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Steinparzer

Abstract:
Environmental emission limits are getting more stringent all over the world since years. In order to fulfill local emission requirements and even surpass them, modern electric arc furnaces have to consequently monitor and treat their off-gas emissions accordingly.
This paper outlines the differences of conventional electric arc furnaces and shaft furnaces in terms of environmental emissions. All relevant emissions like particle matter, carbon monoxide, NOX, VOCs, dioxins, furans etc. will be discussed in detail. Emission generation within the furnace as well as different technical solutions for off-gas cleaning and monitoring will be presented.
The different approaches and technical solutions for both furnace types will be highlighted from the emission source to the stack. The conclusion of this paper will show, that differences in final emissions of the two furnace technologies are minimal.

Efficiency increase and CO2 mitigation in iron and steelmaking: Carbon direct avoidance (27 June / 09:00 - Room 13)

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27 June / 09:00 - Room 13:

ΣIDERWIN project: electrification of primary steel production for direct CO2 emission avoidance.

H. Lavelaine de Maubeuge
(ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France)

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Title: ΣIDERWIN project: electrification of primary steel production for direct CO2 emission avoidance.


Author:
H. Lavelaine de Maubeuge

Company:
ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
ΣIDERWIN project proposes to develop a breakthrough innovation compared to the actual steel production process bringing together steel making with electrochemical process. The electrolysis process using renewable energies will transform any iron oxide, including those inside the by-products from other metallurgies, into steel plate with a significant reduction of energy use. This process decomposes under mild conditions but at intense reaction rate naturally occurring iron oxides such as hematite into iron metal and oxygen gas. By offering a CO2-free steel production process, the project will contribute to the reduction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Compared to traditional steelmaking plants, this innovative technology has several positive impacts such as: a reduction by 87% of the direct CO2 emissions; a reduction by 31% of the direct energy use; the ability to produce steel from by-products rich in iron oxides from non-ferrous metallurgy residues; an increased integration with renewable energies with a more flexible process.

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27 June / 09:20 - Room 13:

Techno-economic assessment of the transition from coal-based steelmaking to hydrogen-based steelmaking

E. Reichelt
(Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Germany)

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Title: Techno-economic assessment of the transition from coal-based steelmaking to hydrogen-based steelmaking


Author:
E. Reichelt

Company:
Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
To meet the environmental goals of the Paris Agreement, namely the reduction of CO2 emissions, alternatives to the use of coke and coal in steelmaking must be found. The stepwise integration of a hydrogen-based direct reduction (H2-DR) process combined with electric arc furnace (EAF) into the current primary steelmaking based on blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace (BF/BOF) offers the opportunity to make use of renewable electrical energy and thus enables the stepwise decarbonization via carbon direct avoidance (CDA). Hydrogen produced via water-electrolysis may be used in different, incremental shares (with a future target of 100%) as reducing agent in the DR process, with natural gas providing the respective energy balance. Despite being rated as a technically feasible decarbonization approach in steelmaking, an immediate transition to this route requires investments while the operating costs of H2-DRI-EAF steelmaking are likely to be higher than those of the current BF/BOF-steelmaking. The BMBF-funded joint research project MACOR carried out by Salzgitter Group, Fraunhofer IKTS, Fraunhofer UMSICHT and Fraunhofer ISI examines the concrete technical and economic feasibility of a stepwise introduction of H2-DR-EAF into the existing integrated steelworks of the Salzgitter Group (Salzgitter Low CO2 Steelmaking, SALCOS). In the present study, a model-based investigation on the influence of this gradual transition from the BF/BOF-route to the H2-DR-EAF-route on CO2 emissions and energy balance is carried out. Therefore, models for the major process steps are developed in Aspen Plus and applied for the analysis of the concept. The influence of feeding DRI to the BF/BOF-route (as a possible intermediate step) or directly to the EAF is evaluated. From the simulation results, the CO2 reduction potential, the demand of fossil fuels as well as the related demand on renewable energy are derived. The implications of the integration of renewable energy on the economics of steelmaking are discussed.

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27 June / 09:40 - Room 13:

Transition technologies for an inevitable transformation process of integrated steelmaking route

M. Dorndorf
(Tenova S.p.A., Germany)

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Title: Transition technologies for an inevitable transformation process of integrated steelmaking route


Author:
M. Dorndorf

Company:
Tenova S.p.A., Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The final asymptotic target world steel demand in future will be covered by 80 - 85% with recycled steel scrap and only 15 – 20% has to be substituted by iron ore considering worldwide economic growth and the related product lifecycle in emerging markets.
Next to that, raw material quality and availability, different energy sources on changing price levels, the European Emission Trading System (ETS) with rising prices for CO2 certificates in conjunction with stricter environmental regulations and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and the upcoming hydrogen era are topics iron- and steelmakers has to consider in future planning and strategic business development.
What the steel industry and especially integrated plants need is a paradigm change, a transformation process to be prepared for the future, to fulfill environmental laws, specifically on carbon footprint and to cope with raw material availabilities and final product qualities. Tenova recognized at an early stage the necessity to modify its product portfolio towards sustainability, flexibility and cost efficiency, to support iron- and steelmakers with the right products and solutions and to walk the path of transformation together.
Such transition technologies, e.g. iBOF® measurement and automation package, energy recovery solutions (iRecovery®), the flexible modular furnace (FMF®) concept and the direct reduction technology, especially the ENERGIRON-ZR process with its characteristics and features such as selective CO2 removal, hydrogen utilization and High-C DRI production providing already the capabilities to meet future challenges.
The incremental electrification of the integrated route in subsequent steps, the avoidance of carbon (CDA) instead further utilization (CCU/CCS), a steel plant designed as recycling facility dealing with various input materials and produces various products next to steel, these are the key elements to create additional business, to fulfill environmental regulations and to remain competitive.

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27 June / 10:00 - Room 13:

Green hydrogen for low-carbon steelmaking

K. Rechberger
(K1-MET GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Green hydrogen for low-carbon steelmaking


Author:
K. Rechberger

Company:
K1-MET GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Sasiain Conde, A. Spanlang, T. Bürgler, I. Kofler, C. Harris, H. Wolfmeir

Abstract:
The iron and steel industry is responsible for approximately 30 % of the global industrial CO2 emissions. Achieving 80 % CO2-reduction by 2050, using the actual production routes without breakthrough technologies, seems to be an unattainable goal. Since there are multiple technological pathways to reduce CO2-emissions, different steelmaking routes were analyzed in terms of feedstock consumption, energy demand and carbon saving potential.
The direct reduction process may be seen as first step to reduce the CO2-emissions from primary steel production. The high flexibility of this process allows the gradual substitution of syngas derived from natural gas by hydrogen as a single reducing agent. Model-based calculations for the transformation towards a low carbon iron and steel industry were performed in this research. Therefore, process design models for the natural gas as well as a possible design for the hydrogen based DR-process were developed and evaluated.
The goal of this study was to point out possible CO2-reduction potentials of the considered routes and the additional energy demand required for the direct reduction with hydrogen. Hence, the availability of sufficient amounts of renewable energy to produce green hydrogen plays a dominant role for the decarbonization of the steel industry.

Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Emission avoidance from iron and steelmaking II (27 June / 11:00 - Room 02)

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27 June / 11:00 - Room 02:

CARLA®: CMI's patented and "ready-to-install" small scale acid regeneration system to efficiently eliminate waste acid streams from galvanizing and pickling plants

D. Konlechner
(Kon Chemical Solutions, Austria)

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Title: CARLA®: CMI's patented and "ready-to-install" small scale acid regeneration system to efficiently eliminate waste acid streams from galvanizing and pickling plants


Author:
D. Konlechner

Company:
Kon Chemical Solutions, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Acid regeneration systems, mainly for pickling process plants, are state of the art for all major players in the steel industry. They are to reduce fresh acid demands and waste streams in general. However, the current technologies do not cover all acid regeneration needs. Small capacity waste acid streams are generally not regenerated due to economic reasons, thus generating a negative environmental impact.
To address this environmentally unacceptable situation a new batch process called CARLA®, has been developed by CMI UVK in cooperation with KonChem. CARLA® can economically handle waste acid capacities down to 100l/h, thus closing the loop on acid regeneration also for installations only producing small amounts of waste acid. CARLA® provides a unique batch system that allows for everything being processed inside a single reactor, thus reducing investment costs significantly when compared to conventional systems. But CARLA not only considerably reduces the waste streams of the plant, but also the amount of fresh acid to be purchased and the amount of the highly dangerous acids to be transported to a centralized acid treatment location.
Another benefit when compared to the conventional acid regeneration systems in the market, is the easy “Start & Stop” feature that provides an unrivalled flexibility, as it allows to run the installation in a two shift operation, but also to easily shut it down over the weekend. Additionally, the CARLA process uses an indirect heating system, with an operation temperature below 200°C. As such, any excess energy available in the plant can be used to heat the system. Furthermore, CARLA® concentrates valuable metals contained in the waste acid, like Zinc or Nickel, which allows for their further treatment and recovery.
For surface treatment or waste acid treatment plants with no or limited access to conventional acid regeneration technology, the use of CARLA® will have a significant positive impact on the environmental balance of these plants.

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 02:

Meeting local requirements with high performance environmental solutions

P. Trunner
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Meeting local requirements with high performance environmental solutions


Author:
P. Trunner

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
T. Steinparzer, H. Pasteiner, A. Steinwandter

Abstract:
Environmental protection has become a decisive factor for steel producers over the recent years. Also existing gas cleaning systems have to comply with the most stringent environmental regulations set by national and local governments. Especially for existing steel plants the modernization and revamp of their off-gas systems is a challenge to achieve the future emission standards.
Primetals Technologies has wide experience in revamp projects to fulfill the actual emission standards. Due to high complexity of these projects in terms of technical solutions, interface coordination and strict order management they require excessive knowledge in all technical fields.
Within this paper the modernization of basic oxygen furnace primary dedusting system in Europe will be introduced. Furthermore, the revamp of an European electric arc furnace dedusting system including the upgrade to waste heat recovery at a minimum stand-still and and record start-up time will be presented as well as first operational results from the waste heat recovery systems.
Besides steelmaking plants Primetals Technologies also successfully implemented gas cleaning solutions and energy recovery solutions for sinter plants and blast furnaces. The modernization of 3 sinter plants with the patented MEROS technology including also waste treatment as well as novel concept for top gas recovery turbine arrangement for a blast furnace will be presented in the paper.
The revamp projects as well as operational achievements in terms emissions and recovery rates will be presented.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 02:

Improvement of work safety and reduction of environmental issues with fire resistant lubricants in steel plants

T. Mattern
(Quaker Chemical B.V., The Netherlands)

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Title: Improvement of work safety and reduction of environmental issues with fire resistant lubricants in steel plants


Author:
T. Mattern

Company:
Quaker Chemical B.V., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
R. Knecht

Abstract:
Fire hazard in the steel industry is not a new topic and the steel industry is taking any possible efforts to lower the fire hazard in its production plants. Fire hazard is present in several different forms, but fires induced and intensified by mineral oil based lubricants are notorious and feared. For hydraulic fluids, gear oils and greases several alternatives are available. This paper explains typical examples in steel plants of successful conversions and the impact on safety and environment. In addition, the paper describes what change can be made to the choice of lubricants to get to a situation with significant reduced risk, enhanced work safety and a secured productivity in Casters, Rolling Mills and auxiliary equipment.

Efficiency increase and CO2 mitigation in iron and steelmaking: CO2 capture in iron and steelmaking processes (27 June / 11:20 - Room 01)

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27 June / 11:20 - Room 01:

Evaluation of pre-combustion carbon capture for coal gasification and direct reduction (DR) plants

A. Maity
(Dastur Innovation Labs, India)

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Title: Evaluation of pre-combustion carbon capture for coal gasification and direct reduction (DR) plants


Author:
A. Maity

Company:
Dastur Innovation Labs, India

Co-Authors:
A. Mukherjee, S. Bose, S. Bhattacharya

Abstract:
It is estimated that by 2020 global CO2 emissions are set reach around 36,000 Million MT. To mitigate the ever increasing CO2 emissions from industrial processes, Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCU&S) is an essential strategy for mitigating climate change. Iron and steel plants are amongst the major carbon intensive industries. While there are several ways to capture the emitted CO2, post combustion carbon capture is more favorable for integrated plants with Blast Furnace (BF) - Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) route. On the other hand, Coal Gasification Plant (CGP)-Direct Reduction Ironmaking (DRI)-Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) route, which is an already established process, offers techno-economically feasible options for carbon capture. As the concentration of capturable CO2 in exit stream is high compared to flue gas exit streams, it offers the opportunity for more cost effective and less capital-intensive carbon capture. Although, the equivalent CO2 emission of coal-gasification to syngas-based DRI-EAF route is not very different from BF-BOF route, the gasification and capture mechanisms can be particularly attractive for regions having enough supply of coal that can be effectively used for coal gasification based DRI production. Additionally, the deployment of pre-combustion CCS facilities can lead to development of circular green economies by utilization of CO2 in various downstream industries like carbonated beverages, baking soda, methanol, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) etc. Along with appropriate policy mechanisms for investment, carbon capture credit and cap and trade systems, like 45Q in the USA and Emission Trading System (ETS) in EU, this can enable a less carbon intensive steel industry in regions with ample supply of low rank coals. This paper evaluates and compares the techno-economics of pre-combustion carbon capture technologies with respect to various coal gasification and syn-gas based DRI plants considering the coal availability and geographical conditions.

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27 June / 11:40 - Room 01:

Steel mills advantage for CO2 lean methanol production - a brilliant example for symbiosis between chemistry and steel -

G. Harp
(Harp Process Chemistry Consulting, Germany)

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Title: Steel mills advantage for CO2 lean methanol production - a brilliant example for symbiosis between chemistry and steel -


Author:
G. Harp

Company:
Harp Process Chemistry Consulting, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Integrated steel mills are industrial parks with coke-, iron and steel making. Their process gases are coke oven gas (COG), blast furnace gas (BFG), and converter gas (BOFG). COG contains more than 60 % H2 and BFG more than 20% CO2. About one half of the produced gases are used for metallurgical heating purposes. The other half is used for electricity production within the steel mills power plant to cover the steel mills demand. Covering steel mills electricity demand by renewables needs an alternative solution for that second half of the steel mills process gases.
It will be shown that production of methanol is such a solution which fits excellent into the steel mills environment and is CO2 lean designable.
Methanol is a universal intermediate in chemical industry to be used for a lot of different products like formaldehyde, acetic acid, dimethyl ether, light olefins, methyl esters etc. which are used for wide variety of products for home, business, personal, automobile, and electronics applications. Nearly 10 mio t/a are consumed In Europe whereas about 3 mio t/a are produced here which means that about 2/3 must be imported from overseas. CO2 lean Methanol is also basis for green and clean transportation fuels without particle emissions and a big potential to reduce the nitric oxides caused by combustion engines, leading to a big market volume.
Based on model calculations it will be demonstrated that the profitability of methanol production is best on hydrogenation of BOF gas with the use of industrial by-product hydrogen from showing clearly the value of the steel mills environment and the symbiosis between chemical and steel industry.

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27 June / 12:00 - Room 01:

CO2 capture in combination with the HIsarna process

S. Santos
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: CO2 capture in combination with the HIsarna process


Author:
S. Santos

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Authors: Koen Meijer1), Stanley Santos1), Jan van der Stel1), Pieter Broersen2), Juliana Monteiro3), Peter van Os3)
1) Research and Development, Tata Steel Europe
2) HIsarna pilot plant Operation, Tata Steel Europe
3) Separation Technologie, TNO

Abstract

The HIsarna process can contribute to a more sustainable steel industry because it consumes less energy and emits less CO2. Without CCUS, the HIsarna process could achieve at least 20% CO2 reduction as compared to conventional ironmaking process. With CCUS, reduction of at least 80% is possible. The combination of CCUS and biomass (as alternative to coal), could even realize negative emissions.

HIsarna is a “CO2 Capture Ready” Process. This is because the HIsarna uses nearly pure oxygen (instead of hot air) in the ironmaking process; therefore producing an off-gas that is not diluted by nitrogen.

In the HIsarna pilot plant at IJmuiden, CO2 concentrations in excess of 80% (on dry basis) are measured at the top of the vessel. The off-gas is mainly diluted by the use of nitrogen for coal transport and injection gas. Experiments in alternative coal carrier gas has been carried out. This could further increase the CO2 concentration in the off-gas.

For high CO2 concentration, capture technologies with lower energy consumption can be applied. The concept of such system is based on low temperature CO2 separation (cryogenic separation). This is a similar capture technology developed in the previous decade mainly applied to coal fired power plants using oxyfuel combustion with recycled flue gas. The concept of this technology is briefly presented in this paper.