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Opening Session (25 June / 10:00 - Room 1)

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25 June / 10:00 - Room 1:

Opening by the ESTAD 2019 chairman

W. Bleck
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Opening by the ESTAD 2019 chairman


Author:
W. Bleck

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
opening

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25 June / 10:20 - Room 1:

Political challenges and technological perspectives for steel

H. Kerkhoff
(Steel Institute VDEh, German Steel Federation, Germany)

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Title: Political challenges and technological perspectives for steel


Author:
H. Kerkhoff

Company:
Steel Institute VDEh, German Steel Federation, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Opening

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25 June / 10:40 - Room 1:

Steel Roadmap for a Low Carbon Europe 2050 – Technical assessment of steelmaking routes

P. Dahlmann
(Steel Institute VDEh , Germany)

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Title: Steel Roadmap for a Low Carbon Europe 2050 – Technical assessment of steelmaking routes


Author:
P. Dahlmann

Company:
Steel Institute VDEh , Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Opening

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25 June / 11:00 - Room 1:

Steel Roadmap for a Low Carbon Europe 2050 – Economic Assessment

M. Kube
(Navigant, Germany)

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Title: Steel Roadmap for a Low Carbon Europe 2050 – Economic Assessment


Author:
M. Kube

Company:
Navigant, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
opening

Plenary Session I: Trends in CO2 Mitigation (25 June / 11:30 - Room 1)

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25 June / 11:30 - Room 1:

SALCOS® - sustainable, stepwise and flexible decarbonisation based on proven technology

V. Hille
(Salzgitter AG, Germany)

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Title: SALCOS® - sustainable, stepwise and flexible decarbonisation based on proven technology


Author:
V. Hille

Company:
Salzgitter AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Redenius

Abstract:
With respect to deep decarbonization of primary steelmaking, Salzgitter AG plans to take advantage of a unique feature of ferrous metallurgy: Hydrogen can replace carbon in iron ore reduction processes, leading to the final formation of water (H2O) rather than CO2. Additionally, process heat for steelmaking may be supplied by electrical energy instead by carbon.
Thus, it is possible to address the root cause of the problem, directly avoiding the formation of CO2.
To clearly distinguish our set of ideas from CO2 usage (CCU) or disposal (CCS) concepts, we coined the term “Carbon Direct Avoidance” (CDA).
CO2 formation directly in steelmaking processes is a more sustainable - and also energetically more sensible - way compared to CCU or CCS, hence closely reflecting a generally preferred concept in any waste management.
Seen in combination of sustainability, energy efficiency and potential CO2 avoidance, our approach is the most favourable compared to any other industrial approach. Additionally, we do not expect objections against our proposed solution from the public.
With respect to the realization of CDA in detail, Salzgitter AG started the project SALCOS® (Salzgitter Low CO2 Steelmaking) in 2015, investigating the particular preconditions and implications of CDA for the integrated steelworks of our group.
To broaden the scientific basis for SALCOS® and ensure neutral expertise, we joined forces with Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (FhG), the leading application oriented scientific research organization in Germany.
The project is based on a modular concept, offering the possibility to be realized in subsequent steps, tailor-made to address the challenging further development of CO2 reduction targets in Europe after 2030.
The great strength of SALCOS® is the further development of existing technology. This offers the possibility to go directly for a large-scale pilot plant. The reason is the necessity to act now, if society wants to reach the climate targets set for 2050.

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25 June / 11:50 - Room 1:

Technology Development Hydrogen Steelmaking

T. Buergler
(voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Technology Development Hydrogen Steelmaking


Author:
T. Buergler

Company:
voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Reducing CO2 emissions by around 80 percent to 2050 is the central climate goal, and requires both energy suppliers and industry to prepare themselves and explore new pathways together. For the industry, transport, and energy sectors, CO2-free hydrogen is an important source of energy for sector coupling and can significantly contribute to achieving the climate goals. The vision is to move away from carbon via bridging technologies based on natural gas, as is already the case at the direct reduction plant of voestalpine in Texas and finally on to the greatest possible use of green hydrogen in steelmaking. The prerequisite is the provision of sufficient energy from renewable sources and at competitive prices. Construction of the new PEM pilot plant for the production of CO2-free hydrogen together with research on other breakthrough technologies like hydrogen plasma smelting reduction is a step further towards the long-term realization of a technology transformation in the steel industry in the next couple of decades.

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25 June / 12:10 - Room 1:

Carbon2Chem: Reduce CO2 emissions in a cross industrial network

M. Oles
(thyssenkrupp AG, Germany)

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Title: Carbon2Chem: Reduce CO2 emissions in a cross industrial network


Author:
M. Oles

Company:
thyssenkrupp AG, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Opening

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25 June / 12:30 - Room 1:

Sustainable production of low carbon, renewable fuels by fermenting industrial process gasses from the iron and steel industry

W. Van der Stricht
(ArcelorMittal Belgium NV, Belgium)

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Title: Sustainable production of low carbon, renewable fuels by fermenting industrial process gasses from the iron and steel industry


Author:
W. Van der Stricht

Company:
ArcelorMittal Belgium NV, Belgium

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Technological solutions, to utilize process gases from the iron and steel industry for production of fuels and chemicals, are an attractive sustainable and economic approach for industries today. . This innovative approach converts carbon and hydrogen-rich off-gases, such as coke oven gas, blast furnace top gas and also converter gas into liquid based energy sources through a biological gas fermentation process to produce preferably ethanol or other chemicals. To produce ethanol, an integrated fermentation system with additional downstream installations is required to treat the fermentation product and waste streams. The treatment of the fermentation waste streams results in a number of by-products, usable for internal or external applications. By returning the by-products to an integrated steel plant or recovering the inherent energy, the fermentation system can be operated in circular system, with minimal waste. The first European commercial scale application of this technology is being developed at the ArcelorMittal steel plant in Gent with the objective of producing 80 million liters of ethanol per year to be used as renewable transport fuel.

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25 June / 12:50 - Room 1:

Technological achievements and experience on H2 use for DRI production in ENERGIRON Plants

S. Maggiolino
(Tenova HYL, Mexico)

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Title: Technological achievements and experience on H2 use for DRI production in ENERGIRON Plants


Author:
S. Maggiolino

Company:
Tenova HYL, Mexico

Co-Authors:
M. Dorndorf, P. Duarte

Abstract:
The world’s and especially European iron and steel producer need a paradigm change to be prepared for the future, to fulfill environmental regulations, specifically on carbon footprint reduction, and to cope with raw material availabilities and final product qualities. The move of steelmaking industry, as part of the decarbonisation of Europe’s economy, is towards hydrogen-based iron reduction as a long-term substitute for carbon-based processes.
The ENERGIRON technology has been characterized by the inspiration of innovation. Starting by installing the first gas based direct reduction in the 1950’s at industrial scale in Hylsa steelmaking facilities in Monterrey, using H2 rich gas (in a ratio of H2/CO ~5) as reducing gas, incorporating selective CO2 removal for increasing process scheme efficiency while reducing energy consumption and providing practical solution for CO2 capture and commercialization (CCU), developing the ZR (reformerless) scheme for further process efficiency while producing high-Carbon DRI (>3%C) since 20 years ago, using the breakthrough reliable Hytemp System for hot DRI transport and EAF feeding by environmental friendly, totally enclosed pneumatic transport, and developing schemes for higher H2 use. This paper is focused on the benefits and advantages of current achievements and technological experience on H2 use for Carbon Direct Avoidance (CDA) as compared to other proposals.

Plenary Session II: Trends in Steel and Process Development (25 June / 11:30 - Room 2)

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25 June / 11:30 - Room 2:

How megatrends drive innovation

F. Androsch
(voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria)

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Title: How megatrends drive innovation


Author:
F. Androsch

Company:
voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
voestalpine is a technology leader in the development, production and processing of cutting-edge steel products and is a benchmark company for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. To stay at the position of being “one step ahead” it is inevitable to continuously bring innovations to the market. Developing new products takes time, so it is necessary to try to predict in advance what our customers will need in some years ahead. Predicting the future is quite challenging. Megatrends and new technologies must regularly be monitored and evaluated as a basis for strategy.
Megatrends show global developments such as the rise in world population, a resulting rise in energy consumption and the diversification of mobility. We have identified trends that are relevant for our business and will influence our further development. At voestalpine, R&D therefore focuses on identified relevantmegatrends, such as changes in mobility and transport, environmental awareness, the availability of resources and the introduction of new technologies.
The combination of metallurgical and processing know-how is an asset to develop new technical solutions and innovative products, like components for the lightweight car body and e-mobility, intelligent systems for the railway sector, highly sophisticated materials for aerospace and special materials for the energy market. We use digitalization for optimizing processes and we are utilizing new technologies, as in additive manufacturing.
Megatrends will of course bring changes to our business and the markets. We see them as a challenge, but even more as a big chance for the further use of applications from steel and other high performance metals in the future.

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25 June / 11:50 - Room 2:

Materials and processes for the third-generation advanced high strength steels

W. Bleck (RWTH Aachen University), Fritz Brühl (SMS group)

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Title: Materials and processes for the third-generation advanced high strength steels


Author:
W. Bleck (RWTH Aachen University), Fritz Brühl (SMS group)

Co-Authors:
C. Sasse, Y. Ma, F. Brühl

Abstract:
Materials and processes for the third-generation advanced high strength steels
W. Bleck1, F. Brühl2, Y. Ma1, C. Sasse2
1 Steel Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Germany, 2 SMS group GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany
The third-generation advanced high strength steels (3.G. AHSS) have been developed in recent years. The innovation and development of the new generation AHSS brings ecological and economic potential in the automotive industry for reducing automotive weight, improving fuel efficiency, and decreasing CO2 emission. The quenching and partitioning (Q&P) steel, as well as medium-Mn steel (MMnS), are promising candidates in the 3.G. AHSS. The microstructure design concepts of the 3.G. AHSS aim at obtaining a considerable amount of retained austenite (> 20 vol%) in a hard martensitic/ferritic matrix. To achieve the sophisticated microstructure, multi-step thermal processing routes are employed. Q&P is a novel process to produce martensitic steel with a certain amount of retained austenite by controlling carbon partitioning. Austenite-reverted-transformation (ART) annealing brings new opportunity to produce ultrafine-grained (UFG) duplex ferrite-austenite microstructure in MMnS. In this case, the manganese partitioning plays an essential role in stabilizing austenite. As a consequence, the combination of the unique characteristics of each microstructural component contributes to the extraordinary mechanical properties of the 3.G. AHSS. Specifically, the transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) effect in the metastable austenite improves the strain-hardening rate effectively, leading to an excellent combination of high strength and good ductility. In the current paper, the alloy design concept, microstructure characteristics, mechanical properties as well as potential applications of the 3.G. AHSS are summarized. The critical aspects in controlling stability and fraction of retained austenite in the new generation AHSS are explained. The requirements for the process design and the new annealing concepts are emphasized. Furthermore, the industrial feasibility, opportunities, and challenges of steel grades processed by the Q&P process and ART annealing are discussed.

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25 June / 12:10 - Room 2:

Solutions for a Changing Industry

A. Gupta
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Solutions for a Changing Industry


Author:
A. Gupta

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Flick

Abstract:
Where is the metals industry going? What should steel producers do to stay competitive? How can plants operate more efficiently, and what impact will trends such as digitalization have? This key-note will discuss some of the most pressing issues that we all – as players in the global metals business – are currently dealing with to shape our future.
The needs of metals producers and their strategies to remain competitive include aspects of raw- material flexibility, dynamic production, the development of new steel grades and the use of advanced production- planning and -scheduling algorithms. Businesses will have to operate with increased energy- efficiency, strive to move up the steel- value chain, and will need to sure embrace a kind of digitalization that ultimately leads to fully automated plants.
These aspects and trends, as we will illustrate, are diverse but have one thing in common.: they will ever more define the solutions required to tackle the challenges facing tomorrow’s steel industry. In many areas, sweeping changes will have to be made in order to survive and thrive, and not all of them will be easily implemented. Joint efforts, effective and reliable partnerships combined with openness to technological innovation will take steel production into a successful, eco-friendly, and altogether bright future.

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25 June / 12:30 - Room 2:

Big River Steel, Osceola - highly flexible and profitable strip production

K. Hoen
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Big River Steel, Osceola - highly flexible and profitable strip production


Author:
K. Hoen

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
C. Klein, S. Krämer, D. Hennessy, A. K De

Abstract:
The CSP® plant of Big River Steel (BRS) is the latest CSP® plant started up in the USA. The first hot strip was produced on 10 December 2016. The plant is part of a steel production complex starting from the steel making plant with DC EAF (electric arc furnace) a Twin station LMF and RH degasser. Downstream, it follows a PLTCM, processing lines and an offline skin pass mill.

The overall layout is based on a "U" shape and enables short distances between the facilities as well as simple coil handling. Started up was the plant as single stand CSP® plant with a nominal capacity of 1.5 m t/a. In the final stage, the plant is designed for a production capacity of up to 3.0 million tons per year. At its maximum strip width of 1930 mm, the CSP® plant is the widest thin slab casting and rolling plant worldwide.

The EAF-LMF-RH –CSP technology is being adopted to produce ultra-low carbon steels for automotive grades, electrical steels and near segregation-free sour service grade line pipe steels.

This paper presents the overall concept from steelmaking to strip processing as well as the superordinate philosophy of the learning steel mill. It discusses basic approach to successful production of advance steel grades and opportunities in the future for BRS. Numerous practical results document the achievements of the targets.

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25 June / 12:50 - Room 2:

Microstructural requirements for high performance drive train components

I. Ortlepp
(ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Germany)

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Title: Microstructural requirements for high performance drive train components


Author:
I. Ortlepp

Company:
ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In the past many efforts have been made to achieve greater understanding of the phenomenon of grain growth in case hardening steels and a lot was learned during that time. Nonetheless, several questions remain open as grain growth control is still not reliably guaranteed during the production process of drive train components.
The austenitic grain size is a system property and can be influenced by every single process step during the manufacturing of case hardened components.
The major goal of the investigations has been to identify the influencing factors on grain growth in the entire process chain like the alloying concept, forging process, annealing before and after forging and case hardening at different temperatures up to 1050 °C to define the optimum combination of parameters for a sufficient fine grain stability.
Therefore, four different industrial heats of B-alloyed MnCr case hardening steel with different microalloying concepts were produced. Beside Nb-microalloying concepts, two concepts pursued the goal of grain growth inhibition just by raising the Aluminum and Nitrogen content.
In order to figure out the influence of forging on grain growth, all investigations were performed in two different states with regard to the degree of deformation. The first sample set was investigated in the as rolled condition without forging and the second sample set was investigated in hot and cold forged condition.
In addition, microstructural SEM and TEM investigations after different process steps were performed to develop an explanatory approach for grain growth mechanisms in selected process chains.

Oxygen steelmaking: Hot metal pretreatment (25 June / 14:00 - Room 1)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 1:

Effect of graphite on hot metal desulphurisation

F. Schrama
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: Effect of graphite on hot metal desulphurisation


Author:
F. Schrama

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Beunder, H. Visser, R. Boom, J. Sietsma, Y. Yang

Abstract:
During the magnesium-lime co-injection process for hot metal desulphurisation, graphite can precipitate as a result of carbon oversaturation. The formed graphite is known to form a layer between the slag and the hot metal. This potentially blocks the sulphides, that are formed during the desulphurisation process, to reach the slag phase thus hampering the desulphurisation efficiency.

In this research it was aimed to obtain experimental evidence for the postulated hampering effect of graphite on the hot metal desulphurisation efficiency at an industrial process. In 2018 at Tata Steel in IJmuiden, the Netherlands, the carbon concentration in the hot metal was measured after the reagent injection, instead of being calculated assuming carbon saturation of the hot metal. This provides the opportunity to predict graphite formation during the process. Although a correlation is found between graphite formation and specific magnesium consumption, which is a measure for desulphurisation efficiency, the effect could not be directly proven, as too many other parameters could have influenced the desulphurisation process. Data analysis does show that the observed correlation could not be attributed to temperature and initial sulphur concentration of the hot metal, which are the two most important factors for the desulphurisation efficiency. The observed correlation between graphite formation and desulphurisation efficiency is significant at low initial sulphur concentrations (<225 ppm) and insignificant at high initial sulphur concentrations (>225 ppm).

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 1:

Energy efficient steel production with the Primary Energy Melter (PEM)

C. Thiede
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Energy efficient steel production with the Primary Energy Melter (PEM)


Author:
C. Thiede

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
I. Infante, P. Starke, J. Bader, A. Frankenberger

Abstract:
Nowadays new technologies for the steel production are of major importance. New processes focus on solutions which have a low investment cost, are energy-efficient, have low environmental impact (focus on circular economy, lower CO2 emissions, etc.), and are focused on the actual available resources for the production of steel.
To meet this market demands SMS group has developed the Primary Energy Melter.

The PEM (Primary Energy Melter), using primary energy such as natural gas or oil, is a cost-effective, eco-friendly shaft furnace for melting scrap. In the lower part of the shaft the scrap is molten with oxygen/gas burners substoichiometric. In the upper part of the shaft furnace the off gas is combusted completely to preheat the charged scrap column. The molten scrap flows out of the shaft of the PEM into a second vessel for superheating or transport. Depending on the production concept the tapping could be into an open-top ladle, torpedo ladle or directly into an electric arc furnace.

There are two main production applications for the PEM. The first application is the enhancement of production capacities in existing steel plants by providing hot, liquid scrap as charging material for converters.
The other application is the production of steel through the combination of a PEM with an EAF to take advantage of low cost for natural gas and the reduction of electrical energy and graphite electrode consumption.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 1:

Successful start-up of 1st movable KR in India at JSW steel Vijayanagar works

M. Dhami
(Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., India)

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Title: Successful start-up of 1st movable KR in India at JSW steel Vijayanagar works


Author:
M. Dhami

Company:
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., India

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
There has been a rapid increase in the demand for high-quality steel in India. Desulfurizing units, as part of the treatment process for hot metal, are integral to the stable and efficient production of high-quality steel.
KR is a desulfurizing unit in which a refractory coated impeller (rotor blade) is soaked in hot metal and spun, to mechanically mix the hot metal and desulfurization agent. The impeller is spun at high speeds to promote an efficient desulfurization reaction. It also allows for the use of inexpensive lime as a desulfurization agent, instead of the expensive magnesium, which dramatically decreases operation cost compared with Injection type de-sulfurization process.
KR hot metal de-sulfurization plant has successfully started-up at 2 steel melting shops at Vijayanagar works in JSW steel. These plants has achieved excellent operational performance i.e. more than 95 % of desulfurization ratio with less than 12 kg/t-HM of lime at treatment time of 16 minutes and 10 ppm of [S] after treatment can be attainable.
This plant is the 1st movable type KR in India. Movable type KR has the following benefits.
(1) One movable type KR can desulfurize at multiple stations, which allows for a reduction in equipment cost as compared to owning multiple fixed type KR units.
(2) Movable type KRs can engage in simultaneous desulfurizing and deslagging operations in multiple locations, which allows for a reduction in operation time.
In addition to the above is the fact that these movable type KR units have had very few issues (vibrations, etc.) due to vibration analysis done at design stage.
This report describes feature of KR technology and equipment, metallurgical & operation performance compared with Injection type de-sulfurization process.

Industry 4.0 - I (25 June / 14:00 - Room 01)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 01:

Digitalization innovation in automotive strip production

K. Van Teutem
(Fives DMS S.A., France)

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Title: Digitalization innovation in automotive strip production


Author:
K. Van Teutem

Company:
Fives DMS S.A., France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Today’s steel processing plants are becoming "smart" and more agile. Digital tools offer solutions that facilitate production system management, quality control and maintenance by means of data capture and analysis, mathematical and statistical modelling of production processes, digital control and process feedback. Digital technologies link the complete steel making processes that enable production to be adapted in real time to requirements and resources. This paper examines the latest developments in digital quality control methodology as applied to automotive grade strip steel production including through process control to upstream steel making processes.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 01:

Cyber-attacks for breakdown or intentional quality reduction - how secure is the European steel production in the era of digitalisation?

M. Neuer
(VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Cyber-attacks for breakdown or intentional quality reduction - how secure is the European steel production in the era of digitalisation?


Author:
M. Neuer

Company:
VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Wolff

Abstract:
Cyber-attacks on the European steel producers have become a real threat, where massive production breakdowns are rare, but very expensive events. Companies prepare for these problems, often on the IT level, where firewalls, internet restrictions or staff compliance rules are enforced to secure the on premise networks. For the staff this topic often regards to the right handling of malicious Emails or non-compliant USB sticks which address some of the most urgent security issues. But the threat is much more fundamental. Intentional attacks are targeting not only production systems with the aim to stop the process or destroy machinery, moreover, they secretly reduce the product quality and try to remain undetected as long as possible. To do this, an attack must be explicitly target the automation layer of a plant. The talk will elaborate about this threat using simple examples that demonstrate attack vectors and working principles, without disclosing details on processes. It also shows counteractions as well as mitigation and secure shutdown strategies to prevent any larger damages to machinery or continued downgrading of product quality.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 01:

Digital twin of an integrated steel plant in m.simtop – strategic operations planning and cost optimization in the digitalization era

B. Weiss
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Digital twin of an integrated steel plant in m.simtop – strategic operations planning and cost optimization in the digitalization era


Author:
B. Weiss

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Spanlang, W. Wukovits

Abstract:
Iron and steel making requires a wide range of different raw materials significantly influencing process performance. This demands a continuous optimisation of process routes with respect to energy efficiency as well as environmental emissions. Steadily changing raw material prices and qualities, market situations and product variations are challenging integrated steel plant operators in production planning and cost optimization.
On the basis of state of the art process simulation practices as applied in petrochemical and oil and gas industries was decided to develop a comprehensive metallurgical flow sheet model library for simulation and optimization of integrated steel plants. Intensive development efforts were taken in order to migrate existing well established calculation and engineering routines as well as integrate newly developed models. The generated model library enables the setup of mass and energy balances for integrated steel plants in hand with professional simulation and optimisation capabilities. Development and evaluation of new process concepts as well as investigations of impacts of raw material changes and trace material distributions can be performed in one platform. By using this process integration system, it is possible to compare different iron and steelmaking routes within one standardized environment. In this publication an insight will be given in depicting of an integrated steel plant operation on the example of a real operation simulation along with an analysis of selected trace materials via the full ironmaking production route. Additionally the functionalities for raw material planning by usage of optimization techniques and consideration of core KPIs will be shown. The effect of applied functionalities on operation figures and operation costs will be clearly illustrated.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 01:

Application of advanced artificial intelligence in the manufacturing execution system for metals industry

A. Klein
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Application of advanced artificial intelligence in the manufacturing execution system for metals industry


Author:
A. Klein

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
W. Runde, T. Ohm, K. Ptaszyk, I. Bleskov, M. Passon, M. Hütt

Abstract:
Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) provide powerful capabilities for production scheduling.

At X-Pact® MES 4.0 from SMS group the capacity scheduling is performed by the Advanced Planning System, which reserves the required durations for production of each product. These predictions are made by the Technical Order Generator, where technological rules are applied to calculate the maximum possible process speeds. In the Production Sequencing System, sequences are formed by selecting slabs or strips from the order backlog. It also optimizes the production order within a sequence for maximum yield.

SMS group improved its MES by application of state-of-the-art artificial intelligence methods. The main benefits are easier handling and improved results of the sequencing step in the Production Sequencing System. The selection of product items for a sequence is done automatically, which saves time and improves yield. For this selection a combination of technological rules with advanced machine learning methods is applied.

Another improvement is the continuous monitoring of remarkable coincidences between production situations and production efficiency or quality. In case that suspicious events are identified, the system generates messages that help to identify the root cause of the yield or quality losses. This is done by applying statistical and artificial intelligence methods.

Finally the scheduling precision is improved by continuous and autonomous usage of machine learning methods. Different data models are trained and evaluated. The best one for each product type and process step is then deployed in the live system. The technological rules in the Technical Order Generator are supported by learning from the historic production data.

Oxygen steelmaking: Automation and on-line process analyses I (25 June / 14:00 - Room 2)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 2:

A customizable robotic cell for maintaining the ladle sliding gate

V. Colla
(Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy)

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Title: A customizable robotic cell for maintaining the ladle sliding gate


Author:
V. Colla

Company:
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy

Co-Authors:
M. Vezzola

Abstract:
Valentina Colla1, Ruben Matino1, Andrea Faes2, Mauro Schivalocchi2, Lea Romaniello3, Antonius Schroeder4
1Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, TeCIP Institute – ICT-COISP Center, Pisa, Italy
2“Polytec Robotics” brand of BM S.p.A – Borgo Chiese – Trento, Italy
3ILVA S.p.A. Taranto Works, Taranto, Italy
4Technische Universität Dortmund, Sozialforschungsstelle, Dortmund, Germany

Abstract
The paper depicts a robotic cell, which has been ad-hoc developed in order to be installed in the steel shop and support the operators during inspection, cleaning and replacement of the refractory components of the ladle sliding gate. This device is allowing opening the bottom of the ladle so that the liquid steel can run into the tundish of the continuous caster. The developed robotic cell represent an innovative attempt to create a cooperative environment where the technicians and a robot interact in a safe and ergonomic way. The most cumbersome operations to the robot are left to the robot, while the capability of the operators to monitor and control the whole process are enhanced with respect to the current manual procedure through the exploitation of a vision system and a smart human-machine interface. This system, which is installed and tested in an Italian integrated steelworks, allows improving both the health and safety condition of the workers and the quality and repeatability of the operations.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 2:

New automation concept for operation of a BOF steelmaking process

J. Thomasberger
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: New automation concept for operation of a BOF steelmaking process


Author:
J. Thomasberger

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Gebert, P. Pietzka

Abstract:
New automation concept for operation of a BOF steelmaking process

As part of a modernization in Canada, the complete process automation of the steel plant has been revamped. The new automation system was able to reduced interventions and improved the synchronization between different Operators. That has led to more reproducible and cost optimized production. All relevant Modules, from Blast Furnace up to Caster, are communicating within existing Level 1/Level 3 automation and were integrated with in the local data cloud. The data cloud provides a safe, standardized and future proof data exchange between old and new parts of the total automation landscape of our costumer.

The integration sequence were followed – also named as the plug and work concept:
1. Software development (including Basic & Detail Engineering)
2. Integrated Test at “Test Center” including costumer training
3. Shadow Mode (PGS runs in parallel to existing system)
4. Hot commissioning (switching to new automation system)

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 2:

In situ continuous measurement of melt temperature for advanced control of liquid steelmaking processes

T. Lamp
(Minkon GmbH, Germany)

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Title: In situ continuous measurement of melt temperature for advanced control of liquid steelmaking processes


Author:
T. Lamp

Company:
Minkon GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
B. Kleimt, T. Kordel, M. Potter, S. Petry

Abstract:
Within the research project RECOBA, which was funded in the SPIRE part of the HORIZON 2020 research programme, the fibre optical temperature measurement system DynTemp for in-situ continuous temperature measurement of the steel melt temperature was successfully applied at different liquid steelmaking processes in secondary metallurgy.
The DynTemp measurement system has an extremely short response time and high precision. Fibre feeding via the top stirring lance at an Argon stirring station allowed a continuous melt temperature measurement throughout the complete stirring treatment. At the RH degasser fibre feeding was performed via a specially armed probe lance to follow the melt temperature evolution for several minutes especially in the beginning of vacuum treatment.
For an enhanced through process temperature control the DynTemp measurement was combined with dynamic predictive process models, to ensure an energy and resource efficient achievement of the narrow target temperature window at the end of the process chain of secondary metallurgy, to deliver the steel melts at a predefined time to the continuous casting plant.
The sensor development was performed by MINKON Poland with support of VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut, which was also responsible for the development and application of process models as well as the set-up of the control techniques. The sensors, process models and control concepts were developed with the support of thyssenkrupp Steel Europe.

Authors:
Mark Potter (Minkon Sp.Z o.o)
Torsten Lamp (MINKON GmbH)
Tobias Kordel, Bernd Kleimt (VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH)
Stefan Petry (thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG)

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 2:

Direct Tapping Model based on artificial neural network

M. Antônio Viana Júnior
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: Direct Tapping Model based on artificial neural network


Author:
M. Antônio Viana Júnior

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The direct tapping is a procedure to tap the molten steel without waiting for end of blow sample result. This process assumes the risk to out of range chemical composition, mainly regarding phosphorus.
This project is about the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) model associated with a decision making algorithm to predict the correct decision to be taken by the BOF operator in the last phase of processing. The decision of direct tap, wait for sample results or reblow the heat is supported by the software. Long and short term process data is used in the process of training the neural and decision making algorithm. The software have completed more than one year supporting the operational decisions and demonstrated to be reliable with an error rate less than 0,5%.

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25 June / 15:20 - Room 2:

The Efficient Control of the BOF Process Under Conditions of Permanent Changing of Technological Parameters

A. Kharchenko
(Zaporizhzhya National University, Ukraine)

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Title: The Efficient Control of the BOF Process Under Conditions of Permanent Changing of Technological Parameters


Author:
A. Kharchenko

Company:
Zaporizhzhya National University, Ukraine

Co-Authors:
R. Sinyakov

Abstract:
The paper presents description of the main functions and capabilities of a computer-aided design system “DesigningMelt” and its operation in a technological control system for BOF from the start of heat to the production of a semi-product with specified parameters. Design begins with a heat task specification. Further, taking into account information about used equipment and materials, the control actions and the process trajectory are computed: changes in the chemical composition and mass of the metal, slag and gas, and their temperature. As actual information on the process flow is received by means of express analysis and temperature measurement, the future state of the process is forecasted: chemical composition of metal and slag and system temperature. Immediately upon, design of the remaining part of the heat is recalculated and control actions are generated: position of the oxygen lance, oxygen blow intensity, the type, mass and time of the input of materials, etc. On this basis, an optimal control is achieved and instantly maintained. System allows to obtain metal and slag simultaneously with a target chemical composition and temperature. Presented computer-aided design system has been implemented as part of BOF heat control system at XuanSteel metallurgical works (PRC).

Rolling: Cold strip rolling and processing lines I (25 June / 14:00 - Room 12)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 12:

Cold rolling strategies for improving the magnetic properties of non-grain-oriented electrical steel

A. Krämer
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Cold rolling strategies for improving the magnetic properties of non-grain-oriented electrical steel


Author:
A. Krämer

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
X. Wei, G. Hirt

Abstract:
Non-grain oriented (NGO) electrical steel is generally used for the production of stators and rotors of electric engines due to its excellent soft magnetic properties. Especially for efficient engines at high speeds, electrical steel with high permeability and low core losses is required. These properties are affected not only by final thickness of the NGO electrical steel sheets, but also the microstructure, in terms of grain size and texture. In order to improve the magnetic properties, the whole process chain of producing electrical steel sheets should be considered, including hot rolling, cold rolling, annealing and shear cutting. Among the process chain, cold rolling determines the final thickness and affects the final microstructure by providing driving force for recrystallization. By using proper cold rolling strategies, the magnetic properties of NGO steel can be improved. Traditionally the cold rolling is done in a symmetrical rolling mill at room temperature. In this study, two innovative cold rolling strategies, namely asymmetrical rolling and rolling at temperatures between 50 °C and 400 °C, are investigated using common electrical steel with 2.4 wt.-% silicon content. The grain size and texture resulting from these strategies are quantitatively analyzed through the process chain. Finally, the rolling strategies are compared with traditional cold rolling, and their influence on microstructure and magnetic properties (permeability and core loss) is discussed. The result shows, by using appropriate cold rolling strategies, grain size after annealing is mostly unaffected and the favorable texture components are intensified, in turn improving magnetic properties of the investigated NGO electrical steel.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 12:

Development of a strip temperature profile measurement system to improve strip flatness after cold rolling

J. Kremeyer
(VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Development of a strip temperature profile measurement system to improve strip flatness after cold rolling


Author:
J. Kremeyer

Company:
VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
G. Mücke, T. Reichardt, C. Pinno, J. Polzer, S. Böhlke, C. Warias, J. Hinzpeter, A. Ahlrichs

Abstract:
Strip flatness is a crucial quality characteristic and important in each processing stage for a safe and stable process operation. Current cold rolling mills are therefore equipped with flatness measurement systems like BFI-type shapemeter rolls which ensure good flatness during rolling. However, strip flatness is very often unsatisfactory when reaching subsequent process steps or when strip is sold directly. Increasing market demands for even better strip flatness can often not be fulfilled.

Major reasons for this are temperature gradients within strips during rolling. Current flatness control systems only consider strip flatness directly during rolling. However, when cooling down after rolling, strips shrink irregularly according to their temperature profile. This physical effect generates subsequent flatness defects which have not been present during rolling. In the case of steel, a strip temperature gradient of 10 °C results in flatness defects of more than 12 I Units.

BFI has improved their well-established shapemeter roll to provide high resolution live and continuous measuring of strip temperature distribution over strip width and length during rolling. This type of measurement does not only provide valuable information about the mill’s cooling system and thermal influence on the strip but also allows predicting flatness changes of each strip during cooling process. The new information can be used to adapt target flatness during rolling in order to obtain desired flatness when the strip has cooled down or even to improve selective work roll cooling.

A prototype of the new temperature measurement roll has been tested thoroughly in semi industrial environment in an experimental rolling plant. The first industrial application has been proved successfully during cold rolling in a steel plant. The new technology paves the way for a new level of strip quality by addressing a physical influencing factor which is neglected in current flatness measurement systems.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 12:

Improvement of productivity based on DNN Set-up in cold rolling

G. Song
(POSCO Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)

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Title: Improvement of productivity based on DNN Set-up in cold rolling


Author:
G. Song

Company:
POSCO Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Recently, automobile companies have benn increasing consistantly the usage of high strength steel and giga steel to cope with environment restrictions and collision safty. The high strength steel and giga steel lead to a decrease in productivity during cold rolling due to material deviations of hot rolled strip. Increased production of giga steel reduces the productivity of mild steel. Therefore, to improve productivity in cold rolling is very importanrt. To respond this problem, a set-up model based deep learning(DNN)was developed to increase the prediction accuracy of rolling force of high strength steel and to obtain optimal load distribution of motor in consideration with operation conditions of hot rolling, chemical composition of hot rolled strip and operation conditions of cold rolling. As a result of field application, prediction accuracy of rolling force of high strength steel is improved 3.3%, productivty is increased 1.6%, spare rate of motor load during cold rolling is decreased 6% and manual operation rate of a set-up to modify reduction is decrease nearly 0 percent.

Rolling: Maintenance: plant availability and condition monitoring I (25 June / 14:00 - Room 13)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 13:

High quality predictive maintenance advance analytics

K. Stohl
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: High quality predictive maintenance advance analytics


Author:
K. Stohl

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
J. Davis, B. Li, K. Stohl

Abstract:
The Condition and Health status monitoring of equipment in metal production plants is of steadily growing importance, as statistics and white papers are demonstrating clearly. Primetals Technologies is a preferred partner in the industry since many years with a big number of clients and installed systems and has increased its portfolio by a reinforced partnership with ITR LLC in the US.

Beside the classical approach of limits and gradient limit checks nowadays also machine learning methods are applied to further improve efficiency and accuracy in prognosis and ruling out of failures and failure causes of rotating devices and machinery. Machine learning methods allows Primetals to react even faster and more precise than nowadays done with standard tools and methods. Such newly developed tools are an essential support even for most experienced analysts.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 13:

Novel method for measuring anomalies and detecting defects in drive trains

A. Nkwitchoua Djangang
(VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Novel method for measuring anomalies and detecting defects in drive trains


Author:
A. Nkwitchoua Djangang

Company:
VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
A novel method for monitoring drivetrains with respect to upcoming defect situations is presented. It uses defined electrical signals, which are artificially injected into the bearing. The subsequent system answer following this signal injection depends on the precise electromagnetic characteristics of the lubricants (oil or grease). Based on this answer, imminent defects of the bearing can be detected very early in advance. The talk reviews existing technologies for drivetrain surveillance and defect detection, to contrast them against the new concept. It identifies the warning lead time as a crucial, quantitative key performance indicator. Together with the more qualitative aspect of ease of deployment – meaning here, how easy the new technology can be integrated or retrofitted into existing drivetrains –, a basis is set for the scientific evaluation of such equipment. The talk also explores upcoming possibilities to include the new sensor as Industry 4.0 component. Such a system could continuously predict the probability of failure for the drivetrain, feeding this into the larger Big Data context of the plant operation. It enables novel predictive maintenance approaches and allows lifetime prognostics.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 13:

Novelty detection and predictive maintenance in steel production plants

S. Klanke
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Novelty detection and predictive maintenance in steel production plants


Author:
S. Klanke

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Monitoring the condition of critical equipment is a key factor in reducing unplanned downtime. Still, for many types of faults, optimally adjusting alarm thresholds remains an open problem: A too sensitive system quickly loses its credibility due to false alarms. At the other extreme, faults are detected too late, if at all. Moreover, in steel production, single machines are often unlike any other regarding their make and operating conditions, so there is very little a-priori information about how a fault might show in the measurements.
In the context of Industry 4.0 we demonstrate how to tackle this problem with machine learning: We use novelty detection algorithms in order to model the joint distribution of process variables (e.g., rolling speed), measurements (e.g. temperature), and statistics derived from measurements (e.g. amplitudes in a vibration spectrum). Such models are trained separately for each machine, based on data taken in healthy condition. Later on, these models can score newly taken data, in effect yielding a measure of how far the machine has deviated from health. As a by-product, a similar calculation on marginal distributions prevents raising alarms only because the machine briefly operates with previously unseen process parameters (e.g. higher speeds than those in the training data), and conditional distributions can yield a cleaned-up version of any derived trend graph.
By combining machine learning with our know-how about the equipment, the process and classical condition monitoring, we can effectively monitor a large number and a wide variety of machines, while still presenting the results in a familiar form. We apply a novelty detection algorithm to automatically warn us when certain calculated characteristics at the beginning of a bearing fault become unusually high given the process conditions. The corresponding warning is shown including the usual marked vibration spectrum, immediately giving reassurance to the maintenance personnel.

Oxygen steelmaking: Slag treatment (25 June / 14:00 - Room 14)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 14:

Digitalization drives performance of next generation slag retention system

B. Voraberger
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Digitalization drives performance of next generation slag retention system


Author:
B. Voraberger

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
G. Wimmer, P. Oberhumer, S. Ollila, T. Palovaara, J. Rosner

Abstract:
The separation of steel and slag during tapping is a crucial part in BOF converter steelmaking to improve steel product quality, steel cleanliness and reduce costs for ladle treatment.
Primetals Technologies innovative pneumatic slag retention system, the Vaicon Stopper, makes it possible to almost completely prevent the carry-over of slag at the end of the tap. For slag detection in the tapping stream the Vaicon stopper is combined with the SlagMon, an infrared camera which enables fully automated operation with no manual interaction and therefore maximum operational safety. Due to the customer benefits of a reliable and fully automated operation the Vaicon stopper is the leading slag retention system in converter steelmaking.
In a continuous improvement process the feedback from operation of close to 150 references was used for the development of an updated, improved version of the Vaicon Stopper. Comprehensive CFD and FE simulations were performed to prove the functionality of the new retaining procedure and to optimize the design. Before market introduction a prototype of the new patent-pending slag stopper was successfully tested at an European steel plant. Considering its more compact design, the further reduced maintenance and cleaning effort and the longer lifetime, the new generation slag stopper opens the door for new BOF customers with no or outdated slag retention systems.
Combined with new and advanced automation packages for automated tapping, ladle freeboard measurement and fast converter upright solutions, the new Vaicon Stopper and the SlagMon are an integral part of Primetals Technologies fully automated steel plant.
The present paper will give an overview of the recent Vaicon Stopper references, the development and testing of the new next generation slag stopper and the related automation packages to meet the requirements of steelmaking in the age of industry 4.0.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 14:

Modeling on secondary refining process of steel

D. You
(University of Leoben, Austria)

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Title: Modeling on secondary refining process of steel


Author:
D. You

Company:
University of Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Under the background of Industry 4.0 and Integrated Intelligent Manufacturing, the process models of secondary refining of steel are necessary to realize the smart production. In the present study, the models of Ladle Furnace (LF) and Ruhrstahl Heraeus (RH) refining are developed based on the concept of linking practical metallurgical models to thermodynamic database. In the modeling, thermodynamic library–ChemApp and ChemSage data-file are applied to perform equilibrium calculation. The ‘effective equilibrium reaction zone (EERZ)’ method is used to account for the interfacial reactions. For LF model, ‘tank–in–series’ model is used to simply consider the mixing phenomenon. The steel/slag reaction, lining dissolution, alloy addition and air absorption are also accounted for. On RH modeling, three reaction sites in RH vessel are defined: bath surface, inside bath and argon (Ar) bubble surface according to the decarburization and degassing mechanism. The treatment on the reactions in the ladle during RH refining process is similar with that in the LF modeling. The proposed models are separately validated by the already published plant data and laboratory experiments. The models also can be linked to each other to simulate the refining process. In the future, the simulations using the developed models are expected to offer reference towards the online operations of the through process quality control of steel refining.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 14:

Successful application of Lhoist's innovative lime based slag conditioner in the BOF process at Dillinger

K. Kortzak
(AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany)

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Title: Successful application of Lhoist's innovative lime based slag conditioner in the BOF process at Dillinger


Author:
K. Kortzak

Company:
AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Noldin, H. Lachmund, M. Nispel

Abstract:
The BOF steelmaking route accounts for the majority of steel production globally, producing sophisticated steel grades for challenging applications. Despite all the advancements observed in the last decades, BOF operators need to daily face increasing cost pressure, more stringent environmental regulations and scarcer access to good quality raw material. Innovation in BOF steelmaking remains vital to keep steel as the material of choice, from equipment, to process model and more efficient use of challenging raw materials.
In such scenario Lhoist launched the development of a new lime based slag enhancer – Booster – to improve BOF steelmaking by increasing the metallurgical effectiveness of slag.
This paper discusses the results of the pilot trials carried out in a 6 t universal converter in BOF mode at MEFOS and successful application using the product in the 190 t BOFs at Dillinger under industrial conditions.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 14:

Modeling and control of the BOF process: Challenges, solutions and latest developments in SMS group

S. Khadhraoui
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Modeling and control of the BOF process: Challenges, solutions and latest developments in SMS group


Author:
S. Khadhraoui

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Odenthal, F. Krause, N. Uebber, W. Klos, P. Monheim, K. Hack, M. To Baben

Abstract:
For an optimal design and control of the BOF converter process, a deep understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the refining reactions is essential. The dynamic of the BOF process is complex, as reactions take place between multi-component and multi-phase systems and involve several reaction zones.

In the present work, an attempt is made to clarify the controversies with respect to the priority of oxidation reactions in the BOF process and why it can be affected by a modification in the blowing conditions. It is found that in many cases, the observed retardation in the onset of decarburisation is not thermodynamically determined but is rather due to CO-nucleation difficulties. Even though the decarburisation delay promotes early slag formation and early dephosphorisation, it increases the risk of excessive foaming and the occurence of slopping. It is suggested in this work that thermodynamic approaches must include a barrier for CO-nucleation for a successful modeling of the initial stage of blow.

In addition, the contribution of the slag to decarburisation kinetics is discussed. It is found that the role of surface tension and the precipitated solid phases may be more significant in the retardation and onset of decarburisation than assumed so far.

Finally, process control strategies developed lately by SMS to ensure a flexible control of decarburisation rate and avoid slopping occurrence based on those findings are presented.

Oxygen steelmaking: Fundamentals, Converter charge materials and their preparation (25 June / 14:00 - Room 15)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 15:

Value creation of dolime compared to MgO alternatives for BOF application

M. Nispel
(Lhoist Recherche et Developpement S.A., Belgium)

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Title: Value creation of dolime compared to MgO alternatives for BOF application


Author:
M. Nispel

Company:
Lhoist Recherche et Developpement S.A., Belgium

Co-Authors:
E. Perrin

Abstract:
For BOF application, the addition of MgO into the converter is a common practice to reduce the refractory wear with the goal to increase the productivity by reducing the standstill times for refractory repairs.
This paper investigates the potential added value of different MgO sources (i.e. raw Dolomite, calcined Dolomite, raw Magnesite, calcined Magnesite, recycled sintered MgO) according to their dissolution kinetics into the slag. This affects the ability to saturate the steelmaking slag with MgO, which influences the chemical erosion of the refractories at the end. It also impacts the thermal balance of the BOF. The additional energy needed to dissolve certain types of MgO sources might force the need to increase the hot-metal ratio or to introduce heating agents such as carbon or ferro-silicone into the converter. The impact on the CO2 footprint of the BOF process is also affected by such modification.
A static and industrially calibrated BOF charge model based on the thermodynamics and metallurgical reactions inside the converter was developed by Lhoist. It was used to calculate the needed amounts of selected input materials at optimized cost to reach certain predefined targets in terms of steel and slag composition, steel quantity and steel temperature. This model bridges the measured refractory protection capabilities, the energies required to dissolve the material and the different CO2 footprints of the individual processes with the economics of the different raw materials to produce steel via the BOF route. Every MgO source calculation was performed keeping the same metallurgical and temperature output targets.
This approach enabled us to evaluate the economical and technical impacts of various MgO sources according to their physical and chemical properties, potential differences in CO2 emission and material cost to determine the most cost efficient MgO source.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 15:

The new highly efficient primary melter CONPRO

A. Frankenberger
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: The new highly efficient primary melter CONPRO


Author:
A. Frankenberger

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The newly developed CONPRO process is opening up new prospects to switch from environmental harmful processes using hot metal to a process using higher percentages of recycling materials (scrap) eventually combined with virgin materials. Thus this process will allow production of all grades of high-quality steels.
With CONPRO proven technologies of both Basic Oxygen Furnace and Electric Arc Furnace have been combined allowing steel production in the most efficient and flexible manner with regard to combination of metallic charge materials and energy sources.
Steelmakers using conventional blast furnace-BOF converter route are facing problems to scope with their CO2-footprint and future requirements on low emission production of steel.
The new CONPRO process is enabling these steelmakers to step out of the environmental harmful process using hot metal for a certain time as charge material, reduce it stepwise down to zero, enabling finally the shutdown of blast furnaces by using the melting equipment CONPRO. High demands on steel quality and cleanliness may be granted by using scrap and solid virgin charge material at the stage of production without hot metal.
With the CONPRO process steelmakers are able to react flexible on large price fluctuations in metallic charge materials, rising costs for CO2 emissions and increased availability of scrap.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 15:

Evaluation of mixing and mass transfer at Ternium Brazil's BOF through cold model experiments

M. Ribeiro
(Federal University of Minas Gerais/ University of Leoben, Austria)

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Title: Evaluation of mixing and mass transfer at Ternium Brazil's BOF through cold model experiments


Author:
M. Ribeiro

Company:
Federal University of Minas Gerais/ University of Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:
D. Carvalho, J. Schenk, B. T. Maia, R. S. Salgado, D. C.O. Silveira

Abstract:
The bottom blowing in the BOF process provides higher metal bath agitation, improving the refining reactions. Steel–slag mass transfer is a key step in the reaction of different steel components, such as phosphorous, manganese and others. In the present work, experiments were carried out in a cold model of Ternium Brazil BOF converter aiming to evaluate bath homogenization and mass transfer. Based on similarity criteria, it is possible to transpose the laboratory results to the industrial practice. It was evaluated the influence of tuyères flow rate and configuration on processes that involve a mass transfer between metal and slag.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 15:

Material monitoring by acoustic fingerprint analysis

A. Rohrhofer
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Material monitoring by acoustic fingerprint analysis


Author:
A. Rohrhofer

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
F. Hartl, A. Husakovic, A. Mayrhofer

Abstract:
Intuitively, living beings use sounds in the environment to gain information from it. With Acoustic Expert Primetals Technologies use this seldom applied but very bionic approach for process monitoring in metals industries. One application of this flexible 24/7 acoustic monitoring system is supervision of materials on conveyor belts. Sounds emitted at take over points are recorded and analyzed to get real time information on type and quality of materials. Using several example installations the method is described in detail. Achieved results are provided as well. An outlook about integration in Primetals Technologies condition monitoring system concludes the paper.

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25 June / 15:20 - Room 15:

Mathematical modelling of the effect of reagent particle size distribution on the efficiency of hot metal desulphurisation

V. Visuri
(University of Oulu, Finland)

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Title: Mathematical modelling of the effect of reagent particle size distribution on the efficiency of hot metal desulphurisation


Author:
V. Visuri

Company:
University of Oulu, Finland

Co-Authors:
P. Sulasalmi, T. Vuolio, T. Paananen, T. Haas, H. Pfeifer, T. Fabritius

Abstract:
Sulphur is one of the main impurities in steel. Hot metal desulphurisation constitutes the primary desulphurisation step in blast furnace-based ironmaking and is typically conducted in a ladle or in a torpedo car, using pneumatic injection of desulphurisation reagent with a submerged lance. The ability to predict the course, end-point and thus the efficiency of hot metal desulphurisation treatment is important for process optimisation. To this end, a novel mathematical model was developed, based on the thermodynamic-kinetic fundamentals associated with hot metal desulphurisation in a ladle. In this model, the system is divided into permanent and transitory reaction mechanisms, which differ in terms of kinetic and thermodynamic properties. The objective of this work was to employ the model to study the effect of reagent size distribution on the hot metal desulphurisation, using experimental data for two different lime reagents. The predicted final sulphur contents were in reasonably good accordance with the measured values. The results suggest that with a finer reagent particle size distribution the desulphurisation efficiency of the reagent is higher. For large particles the change of the rate-controlling step was found to take place at higher sulphur contents than for small particles. The results support the previously-postulated general notion that solid-state diffusion is the rate-limiting step at high sulphur contents, while external mass transfer controls the desulphurisation rate at low sulphur contents.

Electric steelmaking: Equipment (25 June / 14:00 - Room 16)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 16:

Increasing the safety and reliability of the EAF: Installation of the EAF roof designed and manufactured with Spray-Cooled™ technology

M. Abel
(tripleS GbR, Germany)

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Close25 June, Room 16 ( 14:00 )
Title: Increasing the safety and reliability of the EAF: Installation of the EAF roof designed and manufactured with Spray-Cooled™ technology


Author:
M. Abel

Company:
tripleS GbR, Germany

Co-Authors:
L. Wilson, S. Ferguson, F. Boman

Abstract:
In order to increase the availability and safety of its 100t EAF, the Swedish steel producer Ovako Hofors decided to replace its tubular water-cooled roof with a spray-cooled roof. In June 2017, the order was awarded to Systems Spray-Cooled with a short lead time for design and delivery of only six months. Due to market conditions, the winter shutdown was cancelled, and the installation was shifted to the summer shutdown 2018, where the equipment was successfully commissioned on August 10.

The paper will both describe the project and cooling technology and present the results of the installation.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 16:

Development of burner and injector systems for the steel and non-ferrous metals industry

E. Islamoglu
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Development of burner and injector systems for the steel and non-ferrous metals industry


Author:
E. Islamoglu

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Niekamp

Abstract:
Burner and injector systems are used right across the process chain in the steel and non-ferrous metals industry. This paper provides an overview of the various systems developed by SMS group and illustrates their possible applications. The combined SIS Plus (SMS group Injection System) burner injector systems is primarily used for melting scrap, DRI, and HBI, and for superheating the steel melt in the electric arc furnace. When used in an AC or DC EAF with various sizes and product ranges (stainless steel, structural steel, etc.), the system have been operating with successful results all over the world. In the non-ferrous metals industry, too, SIS is an efficient means of introducing process gases and melting raw materials.
The PROX burner is well suited for flexible applications, e.g. heating, melting and superheating a vast range of charge materials. Conventional burners for metallurgical applications are usually designed for a particular power level and a combination of fuel (e.g. natural gas, LPG) and oxidizer (oxygen or air). What makes PROX burner special is its adjustable nozzle openings for the fuel and oxidizer. The adjustable nozzle design allows the flow rate of the relevant medium to be controlled independently of the burner output or air ratio. As a result, different types of gas with varying calorific values can be used effectively. The high-speed oxygen burner is ideally suited for high-temperature applications as well as for heating and melting steel scrap. The melting power of oxygen burners is much greater due to the higher thermal radiation and better energy efficiency. Furthermore, these burners enable a wide variety of air-oxygen mixes to be used as an oxidizing gas.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 16:

Development of pulverized coal burners for electric arc furnace

Y. Miwa
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

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Title: Development of pulverized coal burners for electric arc furnace


Author:
Y. Miwa

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The production of steel scrap in Japan totals approximately 30 million tons per year. Electric Arc Furnaces (EAFs) are commonly used to produce new steel by utilizing such scrap as the raw material iron source. However, the electric power consumption rate is in reality too high for continued efficient EAF operation.
To reduce the electric power consumption rate, auxiliary burners (CxHy, oil, etc.) have conventionally been applied for EAF operation. Nevertheless, EAF operational costs remain high. Considering energy security, pulverized coal (PC) has been proposed as an inexpensive alternative source of energy, and PC-oxygen-air burners have been developed for this purpose. However, unstable combustion process has been detected in PC-oxygen-air burners.
Thus, in this study, a new PC-LNG (liquefied natural gas)-oxygen burner has been developed to address such stability concern and replace conventional burners in EAFs. It is characterized by a nozzle assembly that features a triple tube annular structure through which PC, LNG and oxygen flow. The structure of the nozzle assembly has been modified to include a flow line and combustion fields for LNG in order to improve the flame stability of the burner. Steel plate with heating test was conducted to simulate scrap melting. The test was conducted using PC for blast furnace (PC-BF) and PC of lignite (PC-Lignite). It was found that: 1) PC-BF burner and PC-Lignite burner were confirmed stable combustion without misfiring. 2) PC-BF burner and PC-Lignite has a higher scrap melting ability than LNG burner. 3) PC-BF burner has a higher scrap melting ability than the PC-Lignite burner.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 16:

Development and operation experience of HTT Oxymo TM burner / oxygen injector with moving flame and moving supersonic oxygen jet in two modern electric arc furnaces

J. Brhel
(HTT Engineering spol. s r.o., Czech Republic)

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Title: Development and operation experience of HTT Oxymo TM burner / oxygen injector with moving flame and moving supersonic oxygen jet in two modern electric arc furnaces


Author:
J. Brhel

Company:
HTT Engineering spol. s r.o., Czech Republic

Co-Authors:
S. Lui, A. Viotto, M. Teuber, M. Fennert

Abstract:
Chemical energy efficiency and burner / injectors tools reliability is topic of constant interest of EAF steel makers. HTT developed the new technology to significantly improve efficiency of burner flame as well as of injected oxygen. HTT OxymoTM burner name stands for Oxygen and Motion combination. It enables controlled wide range motion of the flame and supersonic oxygen jet inside the furnace area, while burner body remains static and sealed in the furnace wall. This brings substantial advantages of EAF operation as volume of the scrap preheated by flame increase due to flame ability to move and flame can be better directed to the required spots in the furnace. Further to this, ability to move supersonic oxygen jet speed up scrap cutting in period of transition from solid the liquid phase. These benefits are reached while furnace is still tight sealed and burner body inside the furnace is not moving. This new patented technology has been installed and tested at two major European EAF steel plants - Ferriere Nord in Italy and Feralpi Stahl in Germany. The paper will describe technological principles as well as practical results and experience gained during EAF operation with HTT OxymoTM technology in these two plants.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Blast furnace construction and design (25 June / 14:00 - Room 17)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 17:

Hot blast system development: Technology, operations, campaign management

J. Bak
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

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Title: Hot blast system development: Technology, operations, campaign management


Author:
J. Bak

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Engel

Abstract:
The hot blast system is key ancillary plant equipment with respect to safe and stable operations during a long blast furnace campaign. Hot blast stove designs have been optimized to such an extent that in some cases, their lifetimes have surpassed the campaign lengths of the associated blast furnaces by a substantial margin, with the exception of the burner and a few critical areas.

This article presents recent developments with respect to designing, building new and operating existing hot blast systems for a long lifetime and at optimized performance. These developments include fundamental improvements such as dome combustion designs as well as increasingly comprehensive packages for inspection, assessment and maintenance techniques. Examples of such techniques are burner replacement with the hot blast system at operating temperature, improved double shell approaches and TOFD measurement applications.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 17:

One of the largest blast furnaces in India has started operation

E. Capra
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: One of the largest blast furnaces in India has started operation


Author:
E. Capra

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
P. Ghosh , D. Srivastava, A. Chatterjee , A. Bajaj, R. Ghosh , A. Garg, F. Garbugino, M. Bassetti, L. Spadoni, K. Dutta

Abstract:
In 2010, within the frame of their long-term development strategy for own steel supplies for growing India, the country’s state-owned Steel Authority of India, Ltd. (SAIL) awarded to Paul Wurth and Larsen & Toubro an order for the construction of a brand new blast furnace ironmaking plant for additional 2.8 million tons of hot metal capacity. At Bhilai Steel Plant where the existing BF plant consists of seven mid-size furnaces of Soviet design (built in the 1950-1980ies), this new unit was to become Blast Furnace No. 8.
The paper will highlight the latest technological solutions adopted and the main challenges met during the project, in particular all the required plant units had to be arranged within the allocated area for this brownfield installation and especially the layouts of the main charging conveyor, of the racks for utilities pipes and cable and of the railway tracks had to be finalized with unconventional solutions. This was to ensure the maintainability and accessibility of the surrounding areas during construction and for the future operations of the plant.
With an inner volume of 4,060 m3, a hearth diameter of 13.4 meters, 4 tapholes and 36 tuyeres blast furnace No. 8 is one of the largest blast furnaces in India with a nominal daily production of 8,030 tons of hot metal.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 17:

Compact blast furnace technology, plant engineering and modernization

R. van Laar
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

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Title: Compact blast furnace technology, plant engineering and modernization


Author:
R. van Laar

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. Engel

Abstract:
Traditional routes for large scale steelmaking include either BF – BOF or EAF technology. Compact blast furnaces are of particular interest for new plants given their relatively low CAPEX costs and low operational risks.

This paper addresses modern compact blast furnace ironmaking plant engineering and technology, which ensures lowest cost of hot metal at a high efficiency, high availability and a long campaign life. This includes a reliable reactor and hot blast system design, pulverized coal injection system, top charging unit and dry gas cleaning plant. A comprehensive process instrumentation and monitoring system is a pre-requisite for efficient operations and may be extended with a level 2 system. Additionally, recent experiences in modernizing existing compact blast furnace plants are presented.

Cokemaking: Coal blending practise; Fundamentals in coke making I (25 June / 14:00 - Room 18)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 18:

A novel approach to quantify the effect of oxidized high fluidity coal on coke strength after reaction(CSR)

K. Ko
(Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)

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Title: A novel approach to quantify the effect of oxidized high fluidity coal on coke strength after reaction(CSR)


Author:
K. Ko

Company:
Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:
K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Seo, S. Shin, K. Kim

Abstract:
Coal is highly susceptible to oxidation if exposed to a normal atmosphere for prolonged period even at room temperature. The oxidation is the major heat source responsible for the self-heating leading to spontaneous combustion of coal. The oxidation of coal is also considered as one of major causes to worsen coke properties and working condition by toxic gas emission. In order to quantify the effect of oxidized coal on the coke properties, a new prediction method with a combination of two indices, which are reflectance and blendability between coals in blend was used. Based on new indices, CSR linearly increases with an increase in new reflectance index up to a critical point, and then subsequently is saturated beyond that point. In the case of the blendability of blend, chemical reaction is quantified based on a pair of reaction that occurring between the highest fluidity coal to others in the blend. The combination of indices originally works at a normal coking condition for prediction of coke properties(e.g. CSR), but it can be also adopted to quantify the effect of intensive coking condition as well as oxidized high fluidity coal on the coke properties. Coke at the intensive coking condition shows higher CSR by 1.3% on average as compared with normal condition. However, coal property more importantly plays a dominant role in determining coke properties. In the case of blends with oxidized high fluidity coal, it shows the same trend of CSR obtained from coke with low grade high fluidity coals. Therefore, it means that blending the oxidized coal is more than a decrease in fluidity of blend.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 18:

Findings of inter laboratory study on coal dilatation under ISO/TC27 and importance of correcting experimental dilatation results to a reference coal mass

T. Todoschuk
(ArcelorMittal Dofasco, Inc., Canada)

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Title: Findings of inter laboratory study on coal dilatation under ISO/TC27 and importance of correcting experimental dilatation results to a reference coal mass


Author:
T. Todoschuk

Company:
ArcelorMittal Dofasco, Inc., Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Dilatation is a quality parameter used in coking coal product specifications and for predicting quality models for coal blending and coke strength. These models require dilatation to be determined in a standard manner under rigidly controlled test conditions.
This paper focuses on the main findings of a recent Inter Laboratory Study (ILS) organised by Canada on coal dilatation under ISO/TC27, Solid Mineral Fuels under the sponsorship of the Canadian Carbonization Research Association. The study’s purpose was to demonstrate that reporting experimental dilatation results to a reference coal mass of 2.5 g, %SD2.5, is a robust means to reconcile the Audibert-Arnu and Ruhr coal dilatation methods, which by the nature of these tests and equipment used, yield different dilatation results. The ILS consisted in the preparation and distribution of eight different coal samples from Australia, Canada, China, Poland, South Africa and the USA having a wide range of rank (Ro 0.65-1.54) for testing by international laboratories using different dilatation methods. The Inter Laboratory Study and statistical evaluation of the data conclusively demonstrated that correcting experimental dilatation results to a fixed coal mass of 2.5 g dry-basis resolves differences between laboratories that fall outside the reproducibility (R) limit of ISO 23873.
As dilatation is also an important index in supplier specification sheets and in coal marketing contracts, expressing dilatation results to a reference/normalised coal mass basis of 2.5 g, %SD2.5, will eliminate issues pertaining to uncertainty pertaining to the reporting of experimental dilatation data.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 18:

Characterization of coal blends using CGA, an optical image analysis system

P. Hapugoda
(Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia)

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Title: Characterization of coal blends using CGA, an optical image analysis system


Author:
P. Hapugoda

Company:
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
For economic and operational considerations, coals of different ranks and petrographic compositions are often blended together to produce the feed to the coke ovens. These coals maybe sourced from different coal basins/coal measures from different countries and to optimise blends it is important to know the compositions and size distributions of each coal, and proportion of each coal in the blend including the proportion of each coal which will fuse during the coke making process. Generally coal petrography information is acquired manually or imaging system to determine the petrographic composition of the individual coals and to predict the characteristics of the blend. As any individual particle in a coal blend only come from a single coal, obtaining information on each individual particle is key to accurately analysing coal blends.
CSIRO have developed an optical reflected light imaging system, Coal Grain Analysis (CGA), which provides reflectance and compositional information on each individual coal particle. This system collects a large number of high resolution contiguous images that are mosaicked together to enable detailed millimetre and micron scale information to be obtained on coke oven feed particles, which may be up to 4mm in size. This system has been enhanced to characterise inertinite components within each particle to establish a split between fusible and infusible inertinite based on a defined fusible inertinite reflectance range.
This paper presents the capability of the recently modified CGA particle analysis system (ParIS) to cluster particles based on the reflectance fingerprint of each individual particle to enable the analysis of simple binary and tertiary blends. This capability allows the system to provide details on (a) maceral composition of each coal including breakdown of inertinite into fusible and infusible inertinite, (b) the blend proportions, (c) overall size distribution of the coals including size distributions of their individual grain types.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 18:

Coal rheology - a practical approach for industry

T. Todoschuk
(ArcelorMittal Dofasco, Inc., Canada)

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Title: Coal rheology - a practical approach for industry


Author:
T. Todoschuk

Company:
ArcelorMittal Dofasco, Inc., Canada

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
For metallurgical coals, rheology is routinely measured to understand their respective caking ability during the coking process. Both fluidity and dilatation parameters can be used to establish coals freshness and is to monitor any aging phenomena when coals are stockpiled. At ArcelorMittal Dofasco, coal brands can be stockpiled up to 4 months when the shipping season is closed, so coal rheology is measured on a weekly basis to establish if any potential coal aging issues arise. This paper will propose a practical approach to the rheology data to help improve interpretation of these test results for coke plant operations.

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25 June / 15:20 - Room 18:

Characterization of coke surface using topographic and specific surface area measurement techniques

A. Bhattacharyya
(University of Leoben, Austria)

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Title: Characterization of coke surface using topographic and specific surface area measurement techniques


Author:
A. Bhattacharyya

Company:
University of Leoben, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The properties of coke play a crucial role in the blast furnace process. Coke, a highly cost intensive raw material, is the most important reducing agent for the furnace. During the burden descend inside a blast furnace, coke undergoes several macro and microscopic changes in its structure due to the combined effect of chemical and mechanical process conditions inside the furnace. A strong and stable structure of coke is necessary in order to secure smooth movement of the burden as well as to maintain the bed permeability. The surface properties of coke play an important role to influence coke properties. Previous research works have demonstrated the effect of slag penetration in the coke structure due to the change of coke surface caused by Boudouard reaction. In this work, several blast furnace coke samples of different qualities (in terms of their CRI and CSR values) are investigated microscopically in order to characterize the topographic nature of their surface. Coke samples before and after CRI tests have been tested and their surface roughness and other topographic parameters are measured along with successive correlation to their reactivity indices. The samples are also analyzed using BET technique to measure their specific surface areas and these values are correlated with the topographic parameters. The results reveal a better understanding of the changes of surface properties of coke caused by similar conditions as blast furnace.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Injection of auxiliary reductants (coal, oil, gas, plastics) and oxygen I (25 June / 14:00 - Room 20)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 20:

Intensifying the PC conversion by means of coke oven gas

A. Babich
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Intensifying the PC conversion by means of coke oven gas


Author:
A. Babich

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Simoes, R. Lin, F. Hippe, D. Senk

Abstract:
Among numerous measures to accelerate the PC conversion within the blast furnace (BF) raceway, local increase of oxygen concentration is the most common one. On the other hand, the presence of cold media (oxygen) in the vicinity of the coal stream might affect its ignition and combustion negatively. A minor amount of coke oven gas (COG) may increase the temperature and hence improve the coal conversion.
To examine this effect, laboratory trials were performed using the Multifunctional Injection Rig for Ironmaking (MIRI) under blast furnace simulating conditions. The results testified an improved conversion degree of coal while adding the COG. The temperature increase is measurable in the reaction chamber and the off-gas stream. Optical microscopy of the original PC particles and residues after reaction confirm the findings of the off-gas analysis and the increase in temperature during the experiments with addition of COG.
The thermogravimetric analysis was applied to determine and to compare the behavior of coal in different atmospheres including an atmosphere with COG.
Furthermore, a stand at one tuyere at a modern BF was erected and tests were performed targeting the observation of the ignition behavior of coal at different COG rates, using a camera image analysis system.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 20:

Simulation of lance design and combustion behavior of pulverized coal in the blast furnace

R. Santos Ferreira
(ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France)

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Close25 June, Room 20 ( 14:20 )
Title: Simulation of lance design and combustion behavior of pulverized coal in the blast furnace


Author:
R. Santos Ferreira

Company:
ArcelorMittal Maizières Research S.A., France

Co-Authors:
P. de Seta Cosentino , A. Daelman, P. Negro

Abstract:
Auxiliary fuel injection is an established practice in the blast furnace process. Through the use of auxiliary fuels, part of the coke can be replaced. As result it can lead to better financial and environmental performance. Many initiatives led to the improvement of the Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) practice in the furnaces throughout the world. Other fuels as natural gas, coke oven gas and biomass have also been used. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the behavior of these fuels in the blast furnace raceway. Looking to overcome that, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the combustion mechanisms of pulverized coal in the raceway. With the model it is possible to evaluate how the modification of design parameters in the injection system can impact on the inner conditions of the raceway. It gives access to data like temperature profiles, fluid velocity, particles trajectories and combustion behavior. Due to that, insights about the phenomena which happen in the raceway become possible.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 20:

PCI upgrades from static to dynamic distribution in dilute phase by Paul Wurth IHI

D. Michels
(Paul Wurth IHI Co., Ltd., Japan)

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Title: PCI upgrades from static to dynamic distribution in dilute phase by Paul Wurth IHI


Author:
D. Michels

Company:
Paul Wurth IHI Co., Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:
P. Mahowald, E. Censi, S. Edamura, Y. Ueki

Abstract:
Paul Wurth IHI (PWIHI) was founded as an equal joint venture between IHI Corporation (Japan) and Paul Wurth S.A. (Luxembourg) in 2012 with the goal of combining the two companies’ technical competences for servicing the Japanese and South East Asian market. One major focus for PWIHI has been to adapt Paul Wurth’s pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology for local customers, with a specific challenge in the Japanese market being the high prevalence of dilute phase PCI plants with low equal distribution accuracy between the injection lines.

In order to test the applicability of dynamic distribution to existing dilute phase plants, PWIHI performed extensive CFD tests and built a pulverized coal conveying test plant in the IHI laboratory located in Yokohama, Japan. This test plant features two independent DN25 conveying lines equipped with Paul Wurth GRITZKO® flow rate control valves and capacitive flow meters. The coal flow rate can be set independently from the nitrogen flow rate in order to achieve exactly the same flow conditions encountered in a full scale PCI plant. Two different Armco type distributors were designed, built and installed in the test plant specifically for studying the applicability of coal flow rate control directly downstream of these distributors.

The test results were positive and several dilute phase upgrade projects have subsequently been successfully executed by PWIHI in Japan. In these projects the installation of Paul Wurth GRITZKO® flow rate control valves downstream of the existing distributors lead to excellent distribution accuracy well within the contractual guarantee values.

This paper will present the concept of dynamic distribution and show the background as well as the results from the extensive test series which have been performed by PWIHI specifically for adopting dynamic distribution to existing Armco type dilute phase PCI plants.

Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Energy savings and energy efficiency optimization (25 June / 14:00 - Room 21)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 21:

The energy saving activities at JFE Steel Corporation West Japan Works (Fukuyama)

A. Higuchi
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

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Title: The energy saving activities at JFE Steel Corporation West Japan Works (Fukuyama)


Author:
A. Higuchi

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
We have been conducting energy-saving activities since 1973 at Fukuyama Works. The target of the latest energy-saving activity is to reduce the amount of CO2 emission at our Works. This paper is a report on the latest energy-saving activity at our works, a high-efficiency replacement of an air-compressor which are used blast furnace and a replacement of an oxygen-compressor which optimizes the supply pressure to blast furnace and sintering plant. In addition, we describe other examples which are improving of oxygen supply facilities at our Works.

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 21:

Development of innovative, regeneratively heated radiant tubes with low diameter for more flexibility in heat treatment furnaces for the press hardening process

L. Giesler
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Close25 June, Room 21 ( 14:20 )
Title: Development of innovative, regeneratively heated radiant tubes with low diameter for more flexibility in heat treatment furnaces for the press hardening process


Author:
L. Giesler

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Wünning, E. Cresci, J. Schneider, H. Pfeifer, C. Schwotzer, N. Schmitz

Abstract:
Development of innovative, regeneratively heated radiant tubes with low diameter for more flexibility in heat treatment furnaces for the press hardening process

Linda Giesler1, Nico Schmitz1, Christian Schwotzer1, Herbert Pfeifer1,
Julia Schneider2, Enrico Cresci2, Joachim G. Wünning2

giesler@iob.rwth-aachen.de

1RWTH Aachen University, Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering,
Kopernikusstr. 10, 52074 Aachen, Germany

2WS Wärmeprozesstechnik GmbH, Dornierstr. 14, 71272 Renningen, Germany

In the automotive industry, press hardening is a favored process for the manufacturing of high-strength lightweight chassis-components. It includes the heating of parts in industrial furnaces with defined protective gas atmospheres. Heat treatment of components is an expensive process in a highly competitive industry, therefore a constant need for the development of new heating- and furnace-concepts to increase economic profitability exists. Fluctuating energy markets call for more flexibility regarding the choice of energy sources for the heating furnaces. This can be offered by installing burners and electrical heating elements at the same time, however the bigger size of this layout increases furnace size. Therefore the development of smaller radiant tubes is required to fully exploit the potential of both approaches.
The presented research project by the Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering at the RWTH Aachen University and the WS Wärmeprozesstechnik GmbH is the development of innovative, regeneratively heated radiant tubes for the integration in compact furnaces. The goal is to design radiant tubes with less than half the diameter of conventional models to substitute electrical heating elements. The regenerative burners’ intended design includes staged combustion over the entire length of the radiant tube, resulting in homogeneous surface temperatures on the radiant tube surface comparable to electrical heating elements. Flameless oxidation is integrated into the combustion process to reduce NOx-emissions and ensure compliance with future emissions regulations. High combustion air temperatures due to regenerative air preheating guarantee efficient combustion. During the project, a numerical

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 21:

Verification of energy saving effect by introducing dilute oxygen combustion burners

Y. Kawaguchi
(Godo Steel Ltd., Japan)

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Title: Verification of energy saving effect by introducing dilute oxygen combustion burners


Author:
Y. Kawaguchi

Company:
Godo Steel Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:
K. Miyagawa, S. Taguchi

Abstract:
The air combustion burners of Funabashi Works that preheat the ladle for refining were converted into the Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners. The purpose of this conversion was to reduce production of NOx, consumption of combustion gas and preheating time. The DOC burners inject oxygen and combustion gas at high speed separately and produce recirculating flow in the ladle. This recirculating makes diffuse combustion with uniform temperature. High temperature flame inside the ladle which is formed by the oxygen combustion burners does not exist. In addition, the DOC burners have temperature rise mode and heat retention mode. This heat retention mode cuts excess energy by controlling volume of combustion gas according to the temperature inside the ladle. As a result, this conversion from the air combustion burners to the DOC burners achieved the reduction of combustion gas consumption by 54%. Also, the preheating time required for rising temperature was half of that with the air combustion burners.
Consequently, shortening the preheating time enabled to reduce the number of burners from three to two.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 21:

Combustion 4.0 for better environmental footprint

A. Genaud
(Fives Stein S.A.S., France)

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Close25 June, Room 21 ( 15:00 )
Title: Combustion 4.0 for better environmental footprint


Author:
A. Genaud

Company:
Fives Stein S.A.S., France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Combustion 4.0 for better environmental footprint

Since decades, burner manufacturers have been continuously developing design and technologies to improve burner efficiency and lower environmental footprint. The paper describes different progress made by Fives with its AdvanTek® combustion system to reach an efficiency above 80% with recuperative type burners.
Being at this very high efficiency level, it appears quite difficult to gain an additional percent to improve efficiency by only developing a burners’ shape or other “analogical solutions”.
This is the reason why we are implementing smart control to our combustion system today to allow a much higher accuracy of combustion and better efficiency.
The paper describes methodology and results reached in terms of efficiency due to burner individual digitalization technologies (Smart Burner Control) while keeping emission parameters far below legal requirements as well.
Above enhanced efficiency, this smart control allows to manage other operational aspects, such as fuel gas LCV change (for instance, when a plant is using several sources for fuel gas) while keeping best possible efficiency and operating costs.

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25 June / 15:20 - Room 21:

Development of a mathematical temperature model for batch annealing of cold rolled steel coils

C. Chang
(China Steel Corporation, China)

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Close25 June, Room 21 ( 15:20 )
Title: Development of a mathematical temperature model for batch annealing of cold rolled steel coils


Author:
C. Chang

Company:
China Steel Corporation, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
A mathematical model for predicting coil temperatures during batch annealing was developed to minimize fuel consumption and maintain the uniformity of the coils’ mechanical properties. The model’s accuracy was verified by measuring the temperatures of the hot and cold spots of low-carbon steel coils. The results revealed that the prediction errors of the coil temperatures were within 3% of the actual temperatures. The new model was also applied to the bath annealing furnaces at the China Steel Corporation. The results there showed that the annealing cycle time can be reduced by more than 30 min and the production rate can be increased by about 1%.

Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: New and alternative technologies (25 June / 14:00 - Room 22)

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25 June / 14:00 - Room 22:

Zinc production from EAFD at Cape Gate with the EZINEX® Process. A case study.

M. Maccagni
(Engitec Technologies S.p.A., italy)

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Close25 June, Room 22 ( 14:00 )
Title: Zinc production from EAFD at Cape Gate with the EZINEX® Process. A case study.


Author:
M. Maccagni

Company:
Engitec Technologies S.p.A., italy

Co-Authors:
E. Guerrini, J. Nielsen, F. Picciolo

Abstract:
Steel producers dedicate significant resources to the handling and management of Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD) from their mini-mill operations.
Until now, 3rd party recyclers or landfilling have been the steel producers’ primary disposal options. To reduce disposal costs, the possibility of recycling the dust in the EAF has been explored, but it proved to negatively affect meltshop operations and conversion costs.
The EZINEX® process to produce zinc from the direct treatment of EAFD was developed by Engitec Technologies in Milan, Italy. This process is a hydrometallurgical approach that produces high quality zinc and other salable products from the EAFD without the generation of additional wastes.
Cape Gate (Pty) Limited investigated the EZINEX® process to convert their zinc rich dust into zinc metal for their galvanizing unit. Cape Gate generates a high zinc content dust from their EAF and regional zinc prices carry a premium above LME.
This paper will discuss a successful 500 kg/day EZINEX® Demo Plant trial conducted by Cape Gate and Engitec Technologies. The goal of the campaign was to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the process for a future industrial project. Can the EZINEX® Process reduce the cost of production for galvanizing operations and effectively recycle internal wastes?

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25 June / 14:20 - Room 22:

Energy flow network optimization model for steel plants based on linear programming

Z. Hu
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Close25 June, Room 22 ( 14:20 )
Title: Energy flow network optimization model for steel plants based on linear programming


Author:
Z. Hu

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
There are many kinds of energy media in iron and steel process, and the use of different energy exchange media affects each other. At present, the design of energy flow network in iron and steel enterprises mainly depends on experience, lacking of systematic optimization methods. Taking the typical steel production process as the research object, aiming at the optimization and design of the energy flow network, the linear programming model of the static energy flow network of steel process is set up with the goal of the maximum economic benefits per ton of steel in the energy conversion process. The model involves more than 20 kinds of energy media such as gas, steam, technical gas and more than 30 processes or equipment including the main production processes such as ironmaking and steelmaking, combined cycle power plant (CCPP), combined heat and power (CHP) and other energy conversion processes. The example analysis shows that the optimal design scheme of energy flow network in iron and steel enterprises can be obtained by using this model, and the optimal utilization schemes of various energy media can be determined. The economic benefits of energy media utilization are improved, and the validity of the model is verified. In addition, the influence of the configuration of different energy conversion equipment on energy system and its economic benefits is analyzed.

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25 June / 14:40 - Room 22:

Improvement of environmental protection and energy savings by suitable material handling systems

F. Reddemann
(Aumund Fördertechnik GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Improvement of environmental protection and energy savings by suitable material handling systems


Author:
F. Reddemann

Company:
Aumund Fördertechnik GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Today, one of the main goals in optimization of the iron and steel making processes is the consideration of environmental protection and energy saving in every plant area. Not only the processing from iron ore, reducing agents and additives has to be taken into consideration but also the handling and conveying of the materials between the different process steps. This paper provides some sustainable solutions for the iron and steel industry.
For example, the application of closed raw material yards in form of silos or enclosed stockpiles requires suitable compact stacking and extracting Systems. The use of large size silo systems allows a significantly increased storage volume on the same footprint as a conventional stockpile. Each silo can be used for different material qualities and with the use of the AUMUND rotary discharge machines travelling underneath the silos, every required blend can be extracted by requirement. Such closed storage and material extraction solution suppresses any dust development. No special dust control, no risk of material losses and no fugitive dust pollution or ground water pollution can occur.
Another example is the transport of hot sinter from the sinter crusher to the sinter cooler. The wide-spread application of vibrating feeders leads to the generation of fines due to the vibration movement besides the resulting maintenance requirements. With the use of the AUMUND high temperature resistant pan conveyors no additional fines are being generated as there is no relative movement between the conveyor and the hot sinter meanwhile significantly reducing equipment wear.
A significant contribution to energy savings effect is the thermally insulated transport of Hot DRI in a non-oxidizing inert atmosphere. Today hot charging is expected by customers operating a DR-Shaft Furnace-EAF route. Practically all new plants are equipped with this feature. Older Plant configurations are being examined for hot charging upgrades.

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25 June / 15:00 - Room 22:

What is green steel? - Towards a strategic decision tool for decarbonising EU steel

V. Vogl
(Lund University, Sweden)

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Title: What is green steel? - Towards a strategic decision tool for decarbonising EU steel


Author:
V. Vogl

Company:
Lund University, Sweden

Co-Authors:
M. Åhman

Abstract:
The climate debate has sparked an interest for alternative steelmaking processes within the European steel industry. For the steel industry the Paris Agreement means it must undergo large-scale technological change. Public funding for research and demonstration projects has been successful in nurturing a variety of technology innovation projects, such as projects aiming to use renewable hydrogen in the direct reduction process, or to produce chemicals from steel off-gases via carbon capture and utilisation. If these technologies can be demonstrated successfully, their commercialisation will require further public support in the form of demand pull policy to create a market for these technologies in which they can mature and reach competitiveness.
In respect of the large sums of public support required for the push and pull of climate-friendly steelmaking technologies, support decisions must be based on a project’s compatibility with climate goals and avoid carbon lock-in. The aim of this paper is thus to analyse the implications the Paris Agreement has for future investments in the EU steel industry. We do this by reviewing technological pathways and suggest a methodology to determine if investments are in line with climate goals. The methodology is based on the carbon footprint of steel and we review the main choices that have to be made in a life cycle analysis for alternative steelmaking processes. We conclude that the technological options to reach zero emissions by mid-century are limited. The early articulation of support for high-ambition investments has the potential to create stable long-term market expectations and form the basis of a demand pull for green steel. Our insights can inform policy makers to bring innovation policy in line with long-term climate goals.

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25 June / 15:20 - Room 22:

Model-based optimisation for efficient use of resources and energy

H. Helaakoski
(VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Finland)

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Title: Model-based optimisation for efficient use of resources and energy


Author:
H. Helaakoski

Company:
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Finland

Co-Authors:
S. Ollila, S. Wasbø, T. Rotevatn, S. Moreira, M. Schlautmann, J. Backman

Abstract:
This paper presents an approach for adopting new software tools for model-based predictive control, multi-criterial through process optimisation and quality management with overall process coordination in steel industry. The work is being conducted in EU funded Morse project including the model and software development work as well as implementations and demonstrations for testing the results in real industrial environments. Morse software tools are aiming for process improvements - reducing the use of raw material and energy while increasing the high quality and production rates.
Morse approach is to use a set of software tools as building blocks for developing more comperehensive tool to manage and optimise the whole production chain of complex processes in steel industry. The used software tools have already been validated in different process steps in blast furnace, liquid steel making and hot rolling mills. Morse aims to integrate different tools starting from unit process level up to plant-wide optimisation level and therefore provide better optimisation for steel production bottlenecks.
The optimisation system developed in Morse will be implemented in three different steel plants; carbon steels and stainless steel both working on a large-scale production level, and cast steel in a foundry working on a small-scale production level. The purpose of Morse optimisation system is that it should be applicable for many different types of plants and industries, having similar and common requirements.
This paper describes detailed the Morse architecture, related models and software components. It will also describe the use cases setting the the requirements for the developments work. With the enhanced Morse tools companies of the process industry will be enabled to optimise the use of raw materials and energy by coordinated prediction and control of resource input and product quality along the entire process route from raw material and energy intake to customer delivery.

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25 June / 15:40 - Room 22:

Sustainable steelmaking toolbox: An LCA-based approach for increasing the sustainability of electric steelmaking

M. Klein
(IFU Hamburg GmbH, Germany)

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Close25 June, Room 22 ( 15:40 )
Title: Sustainable steelmaking toolbox: An LCA-based approach for increasing the sustainability of electric steelmaking


Author:
M. Klein

Company:
IFU Hamburg GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Steel-making is an energy-intensive process. With steel being the backbone of many industries, its contribution to climate change is high. The project EcoSteel (funded by BMBF) aims to develop a tool that enables steel works, especially those with electric arc furnaces, to reduce the carbon footprint of their products and foster the SDG 13: Climate Action.

A prototype tool is developed within the project. It consists of a material flow model combined with a library of furnace and supporting technologies, that can be adjusted to the specific requirements of a steel work. An optimization engine allows the computation of the most efficient set-up concerning carbon footprint and economic indicators.

Close collaboration with steel works ensures that the tool is applicable in their daily work and can be used continuously. The presentation will focus on the current status of the tool and how requirements of cooperating steel works are implemented.

Oxygen steelmaking: Current status and new developments in converter technology and shopfloor management I (25 June / 15:10 - Room 1)

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25 June / 15:10 - Room 1:

Slag splashing: Proposal of blow parameters equationing

B. Totti Maia
(Lumar Metals, Brazil)

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Close25 June, Room 1 ( 15:10 )
Title: Slag splashing: Proposal of blow parameters equationing


Author:
B. Totti Maia

Company:
Lumar Metals, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The method of repair / prevention of refractories of converters called Slag Splashing has operational aspects such as lance height (DBL), flow of nitrogen blow, static or moving lance, and geometric aspects such as number of lance holes, hole angle, dimensions of the converter, which must be controlled for their highest efficiency. Cold studies carried out, considering a converter with a nominal capacity of 340 tons of the company Ternium Brasil, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, show that at a lance height greater than 3 meters the jet could not reach the surface of the slag, and that when this lance height is decreased, the mass of slag moved increases, which launched the theory about a new factor that would generate a slag bath in the refractory walls of the converters instead of projection. It also increases the mass of slag moved: the increase of the angle of the holes and the increase of the nitrogen flow, but for the effectiveness of the Slag Splashing process to be real, specific analyzes for each case of converter must be made in order to implant procedures like the movement of the lance ("io-iô" effect) that project slag in the most worn areas.

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25 June / 15:30 - Room 1:

Danieli Converter Technology: Joint know-how creating unique opportunities

G. Staudinger
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

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Title: Danieli Converter Technology: Joint know-how creating unique opportunities


Author:
G. Staudinger

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
M. Skorianz, U. Bezerra de Oliveira, E. Engel

Abstract:
Danieli entered the BOF business in 2011 and ramped up rapidly in this highly demanding market. Currently, five converter vessels are operating world-wide and another two are in the project execution phases. Since July 2018 the converter technology is fully integrated into Danieli Corus. With this new set-up of joining experts from iron- and steel-making at the same location, synergies are used and existing technologies can be combined and optimized which is a great opportunity for customer of both disciplines.

On the BOF market, there is growing demand for integrated system responsibility. Which means optimizing converter- and refractory life-time as a system. This is a new challenge for all parties involved (operation of steel plant, supplier for converter hard ware and refractory).

Under this scenario Danieli can offer important features and improvements to the market:
• Maximum increase of converter size respectively inner reaction volume by keeping the main dimensions of the existing plant.
• With the target of keeping components as simple as possible, Danieli developed and patented a new horizontal suspension element. The key parts are flat plates which compensate the thermal expansion of the vessel by elastic deformation.
• For the life time of the vessel shell, Danieli applies in a recent project the features of high creep resistance converter shell material, converter air- and water cooling.
• For monitoring the temperature, Danieli Corus further developed the second generation of the temperature monitoring system Q-temp.
• Another feature is the Danieli Conditioning Monitoring System (DCMS), which is now applied in a converter tilting drive. This system is giving online feedback of the actual condition of the gear components and defines the optimum timing for overhauling, repair or exchange.
• Actually Danieli Corus is further developing the ASCON system (Advanced Slag Control). This detects the slag level inside the BOF and takes countermeasures in case of risk of slopping.

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25 June / 15:50 - Room 1:

Oxygen lance - multiple functions during tap to tap

B. Totti Maia
(Lumar Metals, Brazil)

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Close25 June, Room 1 ( 15:50 )
Title: Oxygen lance - multiple functions during tap to tap


Author:
B. Totti Maia

Company:
Lumar Metals, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The oxygen lance is well known for its fundamental work in the primary steels refining. This lance over the years began to perform other relevant activities, before and after the blow, to the steelworks productivity, among them: converter sole control, slagsplasing, mouth cleaning. The present work presents and discusses these new blowing lance functions.

Rolling: Hot strip rolling (25 June / 15:30 - Room 26)

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25 June / 15:30 - Room 26:

X-Shape-Hot - new flatness measuring system for hot rolling process

F. Gorgels
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Close25 June, Room 26 ( 15:30 )
Title: X-Shape-Hot - new flatness measuring system for hot rolling process


Author:
F. Gorgels

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Buhr, O. Jepsen, A. Kastner, P. Siemann, J. Kremeyer, G. Mücke

Abstract:
Flatness defects are critical in relation to the stability of the rolling process and the quality of the rolled product. Whereas flatness measurements in cold rolling are well established, the measurement of flatness during hot rolling is limited to parts of the strip that are not under tension. The reasons behind this lay not only in the rough conditions but also in the challenges of signal evaluation. With the continuous hot rolling of steel in particular, the steady strip tension makes flatness control without measurements almost impossible. As a result of growing markets for direct-sold, hot-rolled strip and related thinner finished thicknesses, flatness control is becoming a fundamental element of the hot rolling process.

In terms of measuring systems for hot rolled strip under tension, this gap has now been closed with the new product developed by SMS group that brings the proven X-Shape technology, which is based on the world market leading BFI flatness measurement concept, to the hot rolling process. In cooperation with BFI and ArcelorMittal, the prototype has been successfully installed and operated at ArcelorMittal’s hot rolling mill in Eisenhüttenstadt. Installed downstream between the cooling section and side guides, the measurement system offered a detailed insight into the effects of flatness in the finishing mill when rolling with tension, as well as the effects of laminar cooling.

The system offers a reliable and robust method of measuring flatness. The results of the measurement can be used for both profile and flatness control and for cooling line adjustment. In the CSC model the signals can be used to adapt the edge masking system settings and make inline corrections. The flatness information now available is opening up new ways of optimizing the hot rolling process.

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25 June / 15:50 - Room 26:

Determination and implementation of requirements in hot rolling mill in order to produce high quality API steel strip

S. Mani
(Mobarakeh Steel Company, Iran)

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Close25 June, Room 26 ( 15:50 )
Title: Determination and implementation of requirements in hot rolling mill in order to produce high quality API steel strip


Author:
S. Mani

Company:
Mobarakeh Steel Company, Iran

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Some steel grades need different design and production procedure in hot rolling mill due to their special final properties. One of the special steel grades which we are going to produce much more qualified, is a kind of API steel that has specific mechanical properties. This type of steel is mainly used for pipe production for oil & gas industries.

The major special property of this type of API steel is percentage of ductility. The needed value of ductility is offered by the customer, regarding the piping production condition standards. The final ductility result of the strip is measured via specific test which is named DWTT. In this test, sample is impacted by a drop weight at a specified temperature and finally the situation of the broken area is investigated as a criteria to define the percentage of ductility. The main specific point of ductility result is that it cannot be measured and evaluated during hot rolling and should be measured later (few days after rolling) in laboratory, however finishing temperature and coiling temperature are two other main quality parameters that affect mechanical properties and those can be measured (& modified) during rolling.

So, In order to ensure about final quality conditions of this special product in advance (during rolling; before DWTT test being done), we have to define a special procedure for rolling this type of steel in hot rolling mill.

In this paper, we are going to describe the implemented determinations in different parts of hot rolling mill as a special procedure in theory & practice to obtain qualified API steel strip in stable rolling condition.

Key words: API steel, hot rolling, piping steel ductility

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25 June / 16:10 - Room 26:

Transfer bar cooling system significantly improves production capacity at Tata Steel Port Talbot's hot strip mill

L. Pichler
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Close25 June, Room 26 ( 16:10 )
Title: Transfer bar cooling system significantly improves production capacity at Tata Steel Port Talbot's hot strip mill


Author:
L. Pichler

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Seilinger, A. Rimnac, F. Lettner, K. Weinzierl, J. Milbredt

Abstract:
Recently, a Transfer Bar Cooling system supplied by Primetals Technologies was commissioned in the hot strip mill of Tata Steel´s Port Talbot. The purpose of the new cooling system, installed after the roughing mill, is the precise control of the strip temperature before it enters the finishing mill, without having to slow down the roughing mill or to increase the finishing mill entry temperature. This can significantly improve the productivity at the hot strip mill and still ensures a finishing rolling below recrystallization temperature, especially for thick thermo-mechanically rolled products.
The Transfer Bar Cooling system is based on Primetals Technologies´ Power Cooling technology in combination with a full-fledged state-of-the art automation system. It employs a total of 9 pairs of spray headers and has a total length of approximately 10 meters. In order to cope with a large variety of steel grades and process requirements, especially the minimum surface temperature of the bar during cooling, the flow rates of the Power Cooling headers are adjustable over a wide range. Therefore a lower cooling intensity is also achievable as required for each individual product. The benefits of Primetals Technologies’ Transfer Bar Cooling technology and first operational results from the hot strip mill of Tata Port Talbot are presented in the paper.

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25 June / 16:30 - Room 26:

A study on width control head & tail ends of slab a hot rough rolling using learning method

J. Jung
(Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)

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Close25 June, Room 26 ( 16:30 )
Title: A study on width control head & tail ends of slab a hot rough rolling using learning method


Author:
J. Jung

Company:
Hyundai Steel Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea

Co-Authors:
Y. Lee, H. Han, H. Kim

Abstract:
Control of slab width is achieved by sizing press process and vertical rolling process, and various researches were carried out. Recently, various researches performed to reduce the width defect of head and tail ends of slab. For improving width quality, many factories are using SSC, and it is open loop control using programmable logic control system. Nevertheless, because factories produce various sizes and various types of steel, there is limitation to improve the width quality using open loop control. These days, customers demanded high quality and guarantee narrow range of coil width. In this study, core technology is developed of the new short stroke control using dynamic width control instead of open loop control.
In order to decide which SSC is applied, using roll gap and roll force of vertical roll is judgement standard. If roll force is applied before SSC setup roll gap is worked, the SSC is not applied. On the other case, SSC is applied.
To judge the width head and tail ends of slab after roughing mill, we use the width gauge at the roughing mill exit. From the measured width information, the head and tail portion is designated, and the width tendency is judged within the range. The width can be classified into four types; width normal, over, under, and simultaneous situation. If the SSC is normally applied and the head end is judged to be width over, the compensation value is determined by calculation. This compensation value is used to the next identical material and conditions such as same coil thickness and width, and width draft.
In this study, we have secured the technology to automatically control the width of the head and tail by using width learning technology.
In the conventional control, the judgment and the manipulation are directly performed by the New SSC.

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25 June / 16:50 - Room 26:

Integrated temperature model

A. Sprock
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Close25 June, Room 26 ( 16:50 )
Title: Integrated temperature model


Author:
A. Sprock

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
C. Hassel, K. Grybel, H. Hof, W. Fuchs

Abstract:
Integrated Temperature Model (ITM)

The production of hot strip at conventional Hot Strip Mills is divided in individual process steps, starting from reheating, rolling at roughing mill and finishing mill, strip cooling at run out table and coiling. All the process steps run in principle one after the other and independently.
In this way, each individual processing step is optimized in isolation while adhering to the individual set values. This conventional procedure does not attain the best overall result as the optimization of one process step may have adverse consequences for another process step, i.e. the interaction between them is neglected. The Integrated Temperature Model (ITM) of SMS group completely remedies these disadvantages. By using the temperature setpoints from the traditional strategy an integrated, higher-level temperature profile from the furnace to the coiler is determined. This profile is updated cyclically; the individual process steps interact via this profile. Possible deviations from the temperature profile due to disturbances are corrected by controller actions of the Integrated Temperature Model (ITM) under consideration of the plant limits and the microstructure. The coupled microstructure model calculates the components and the mechanical properties of the hot strip as a result of its thermal and mechanical load in the overall process. This concept extends the possibilities to improve the desired mechanical properties with the Microstructure Properties Optimizer. The advantages of additional plant components, such as a transfer bar cooling system, thermal heat panels and compact cooling, may be analyzed and optimized quantitatively by this integrated temperature model in order to realize a gain in production and product quality.

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25 June / 17:10 - Room 26:

Advanced technologies of process control to hot strip rolling mill

N. Shimoda
(Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Japan)

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Close25 June, Room 26 ( 17:10 )
Title: Advanced technologies of process control to hot strip rolling mill


Author:
N. Shimoda

Company:
Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:
H. Imanari, A. Suzuki, M. Sano, K. Ohara

Abstract:
In the hot strip rolling mill, process control technology of rolling is being advanced as higher accuracy for dimension and material quality of product is required. In recent years, stable rolling and highly performed control becomes increasingly important in order to produce steel sheets with higher strength and weight saving against the background of increased production of steel sheets for automobiles, structural steel, pipeline steel, and so on.
Meanwhile, since the 1990s, a number of hot rolling plants have been built mainly in East Asian countries such as China, South Korea, Taiwan and others. We have responded to the requirements for higher qualities of product by applying control technology making full use of the features of diverse equipment configuration.
In this paper, we introduce the recent application trend of process control technology contributing to hot strip rolling in so-called “conventional mill” line. First we introduce technology of strip width control. It is important to study various factors of width changes such as width spread by thickness reduction, dog-bone recovery by edger rolling, and tension effect in finishing tandem mills rolling. Synergy with accurate prediction model of width changes and dynamic control along a bar contributes to high performance of product width which is close and uniform to aimed width.
Second we introduce technology of strip temperature control. A finite difference method (FDM) is applied to calculate the change of strip temperature by each time step and temperature distribution of a bar. The node was originally split in thickness to calculate surface and inside temperature of a bar separately. Nowadays it is also split in width direction to enable to estimate and evaluate the temperature drop around strip side edge.
We also show example of calculation and control result applied to the online system of hot strip rolling mill.

Rolling: Plate Rolling (25 June / 15:30 - Room 28)

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25 June / 15:30 - Room 28:

Large-scale expansion of equipment and product range: Modernization of NLMK DanSteel's heavy plate mill

M. Breuer
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Close25 June, Room 28 ( 15:30 )
Title: Large-scale expansion of equipment and product range: Modernization of NLMK DanSteel's heavy plate mill


Author:
M. Breuer

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In Frederiksvaerk, Denmark, NLMK DanSteel A/S is operating a 4.25-m heavy-plate mill supplied by SMS group in 2012, together with a hot-plate leveler. In order to extend the product range further especially in terms of grades and sizes, NLMK DanSteel decided to revamp and expand the heavy-plate rolling mill. End of December 2017, NLMK DanSteel placed a corresponding order with SMS group. The large-scale expansion and modernization comprises a new laminar plate cooling system with water treatment equipment, new heavy plate cooling bed and a revamp of the existing cold-plate leveler.
The new plate cooling system will allow NLMK DanSteel to produce high-strength plate for various applications, like e.g. line pipe, shipbuilding and offshore wind parks. Also possible is thermomechanical rolling and manufacture of heavy plate, supported by the X-Pact® cooling model. The new water treatment system will filter and cool the cooling water and feed it back into the process in a closed circuit.
A new cooling bed for thick plate is to be installed downstream of the laminar cooling system and existing hot-plate leveler. The plate will be delivered automatically to the cooling bed, which will be able to handle plate weights of up to 40 tons and more. The X-Pact® electrical and automation system calculates the cooling time for plate removal as a function of the plate temperature and dimensions. The existing cold-plate leveler will also undergo a comprehensive revamp.
In order to reduce shutdown times to a minimum, suitable installation strategies and optimized erection schedules were developed on the basis of a 3D laser survey. The paper will provide insights in the partly highly complex modifications and implementation strategy. It is intended to prepare the paper jointly with NLMK DanSteel.

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25 June / 15:50 - Room 28:

Application of the upgraded cooling system in CSC plate mill

W. Lo
(China Steel Corporation, Taiwan)

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Close25 June, Room 28 ( 15:50 )
Title: Application of the upgraded cooling system in CSC plate mill


Author:
W. Lo

Company:
China Steel Corporation, Taiwan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
To meet the demand for ultra-high strength steel from customers, China Steel Corporation (CSC), the only one hot rolled steel plate producer in TAIWAN, had revamped the controlled cooling facility with the aim to increase the essential cooling rate and temperature accuracy for the required steel grades. New cooling headers (MULPIC®) were installed upstream to the existing laminar cooling headers. Thanks to the effective integration between associated automation systems, the upgraded cooling system can utilize both type of header at the same time and successfully extends CSC’s plate producing technology into direct quenching (DQ) standard. New products based on martensitic microstructures, which were unable to produce due to insufficient cooling capability, are now being developed in the form of abrasion-resistant steel as well as quenched and tempered structural steels. To make most of new cooling system, efforts also being taken on quality improvements of existing TMCP products. It was demonstrated that by employing the ‘hybrid’ accelerated cooling process and proper adjustment of flow actuators, notable benefit from more uniform properties and less plate distortion could be achieved by this upgraded cooling system.

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25 June / 16:10 - Room 28:

MultiFlex®-Quench: Setting new standards for plate cooling in heavy plate heat treatment lines

D. Schmidt
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Close25 June, Room 28 ( 16:10 )
Title: MultiFlex®-Quench: Setting new standards for plate cooling in heavy plate heat treatment lines


Author:
D. Schmidt

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
SMS group has been successful in establishing a new technology for plate cooling in heat treatment lines in the markets. It is called MultiFlex®-Quench. Flexible cooling strategies allow standard and special materials to be produced as well as newly developed grades with high quality demands. In 2016, the new MultiFlex®-Quench at SIJ Acroni in Jesenice, Slovenia processed the first heavy plate. To this customer, SMS group supplied a complete, new heat treatment line designed for an annual production of 80,000 tons of heavy plate. At the beginning of 2020, the new treatment line of Ilsenburger Grobblech GmbH, a subsidiary of Salzgitter Group, will start operation. The production capacity there will be more than 200,000 tons per year.
Two “cutting-edge” heavy-plate heat treatment lines are using - respectively are going to use MultiFlex®-Quench technology. From an economical point of view, the production of heavy plate will be particularly efficient, if it can also serve the growing market of new special steels and quarto plates. The high-strength and ultra-high-strength plates are used in the growth sectors of wind energy, power technology, tubes and pipes, mechanical engineering and crane building as well as the construction industry. At the same time, these applications, demanding excellent ductility and good weldability combined with perfect flatness, push the advancement of the material steel. To produce state-of-the-art heavy plates all process parameters, from austenitization to targeted cooling at optimized cooling speeds and further to adapted tempering temperatures and times, must be in perfect harmony in order to tap the full potential of the material steel.
In the paper, various aspects of the new plate cooling technology will be discussed, including.
• Development of the new cooling technology
• Flexible cooling with numerous options
• Models and process development
• Operating results of the first installation

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25 June / 16:30 - Room 28:

Optimization of work roll change intervals through data-driven roll wear models

B. Wiegand
(AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany)

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Close25 June, Room 28 ( 16:30 )
Title: Optimization of work roll change intervals through data-driven roll wear models


Author:
B. Wiegand

Company:
AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Prediction of roll wear in heavy plate rolling is essential to control the target thickness of the rolled plates, ensure even plate surfaces and economically schedule roll changes. Physical roll wear models demand deep domain-specific knowledge and input from special sensors and physical simulations.

This paper shows that data-driven roll wear models using techniques from the field of machine learning are able to outperform a simple physical roll wear model. Three alternatives to include roll wear models into the process of roll change scheduling are proposed. The flexibility of these methods enables their application in any process with accumulating wear and with wear measurements only available at the end.

Blast furnace ironmaking: Fundamentals in blast furnace ironmaking I (25 June / 15:40 - Room 17)

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25 June / 15:40 - Room 17:

Carburisation and melting behaviour of iron ore pellet bed under nut coke mixed charge conditions

D. Gavel
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

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Close25 June, Room 17 ( 15:40 )
Title: Carburisation and melting behaviour of iron ore pellet bed under nut coke mixed charge conditions


Author:
D. Gavel

Company:
Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
Y. Yang, R. Boom, J. Sietsma, J. Stel, A. Adema, C. Kwakernaak

Abstract:
Carburisation and melting behaviour of iron ore pellet bed under nut coke mixed charge conditions

Dharm Jeet Gavel1, Cees Kwakernaak1 Jilt Sietsma1, Rob Boom1 and Yongxiang Yang1
1 Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

Allert Adema2, Jan van der Stel2
2 Research and Development, Tata Steel Europe, IJmuiden, The Netherlands



The carburisation and melting behaviour of an iron ore pellet bed were examined under simulated blast furnace conditions. The effect of nut coke addition with iron ore pellet was investigated through a series of quenching and dripping experiments. The iron carburisation level of the pellet shell was found to control the melting temperature of the bed. Simultaneous and layer-wise melting were observed for the pellet bed with and without mixed nut coke charging, respectively.
In the case of the pellet bed mixed with nut coke, the liquid dripping starts at a lower temperature (1500 oC) compared to the case without nut coke (1518 oC). A steady rate of liquid dripping was observed for the pellet bed mixed with nut coke. However, in the case of the pellet bed without nut coke, most of the liquid drips at a higher temperature of ~1550 oC. The difference in carbon content of the quenched pellets and the dripped metal reveals that a substantial iron carburisation occurs when liquid iron flows over the regular coke particles. Due to the presence of a thicker regular coke layer, a higher carburisation was detected for the case of the pellet bed without mixed nut coke. These results give support for more extensive use of nut coke as a replacement of the regular coke in the ironmaking blast furnace.

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25 June / 16:00 - Room 17:

Evaluation technique of gas permeability in granulated slag particle bed using softening and melting simulator with micro CT scanning

K. Ohno
(Kyushu University, Japan)

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Title: Evaluation technique of gas permeability in granulated slag particle bed using softening and melting simulator with micro CT scanning


Author:
K. Ohno

Company:
Kyushu University, Japan

Co-Authors:
S. Natsui, S. Sukenaga, K. Kunitomo, T. Maeda

Abstract:
Low carbon operation of blast furnace is demanding from environmental point of view in all over the world. Low carbon operation could be thought as equal to low coke ratio operation. This situation changes gas permeability condition in blast furnace to severe situation because coke layer performs as gas slit in cohesive zone. In other words, correct knowledge about gas permeability of iron burden layer with softening and melting behavior is necessary. Newly developed softening and melting simulator is applied for understanding about gas permeability behavior. The simulator can operate with rapid heating and quenching in 1000-degree C/min. This ability can allow to focus on only softening and melting temperature range of sample layer. In order to simplify complex situation around cohesive zone, gas permeability in granulated slag particle bed layer without iron oxide was investigated in softening and melting temperature range. The about 5 mm slag particles were packed into graphite crucible. The crucible has 3mm holes for gas flow from bottom part, and their inner diameter and height are 35mm and 35mm, respectively. The packed slag samples were heated up to 1200 degree C with 1000 degree C/min, then gradually heated up to 1500 degree C with 10 degree C/min. Inert atmosphere was kept by N2 flow, and 0.1MPa load was added during experiment. Pressure drop and shrinkage degree were measured during the softening and melting test, and quenched sample was made at maximum pressure drop point. The quenched sample was provided as sample for micro CT scanning observation. The CT observation provided 3D shape information of gas path in fusing slag sample layer. From this shape's information, gas pressure drop could be estimated with fanning's equation without Ergun’s equation. The estimation values were well consistent with measured maximum pressure drop.

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25 June / 16:20 - Room 17:

Reduction of iron ore pellets, sinter and lump ore under simulated blast furnace conditions

A. Heikkilä
(University of Oulu, Finland)

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Title: Reduction of iron ore pellets, sinter and lump ore under simulated blast furnace conditions


Author:
A. Heikkilä

Company:
University of Oulu, Finland

Co-Authors:
H. Bartusch, T. Fabritius, M. Iljana

Abstract:
A blast furnace (BF) is the dominant process for making iron in the world. The blast furnace is charged with coke and ferrous materials including iron ore pellets, sinter and lump ore. While descending in the blast furnace the charge materials reduce. The ferrous burden should reduce fast and remain in solid form until as high temperatures as possible. This research focuses on the reducibility of iron ore pellet, sinter and lump ore in the blast furnace shaft. The experiments were carried out isothermally with the Blast Furnace Simulator (BFS) high-temperature furnace at four different temperatures (700 oC, 800 oC, 900 oC and 1000 oC) with a holding time of 300 minutes. The experimental gas consisted of CO, CO2, H2, H2O and N2 simulating the conditions in a blast furnace shaft. It was found out that lump ore is the slowest to reduce at all temperatures. The reduction degree of sinter and iron ore pellets converges in the terms of reduction behavior the higher the temperature gets.

Steel materials and their application: High strength steels for flat products for the automotive industry (25 June / 15:50 - Room 27)

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25 June / 15:50 - Room 27:

New quasi single-phase microalloyed bainitic precision strip qualities

M. Nagel
(Thyssenkrupp Hohenlimburg GmbH, Germany)

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Title: New quasi single-phase microalloyed bainitic precision strip qualities


Author:
M. Nagel

Company:
Thyssenkrupp Hohenlimburg GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
H. Bröker, A. Tomitz, M. Kaizik, S. Kovacs, G. Gevelmann, A. Höhne

Abstract:
The development and industrial application of hot rolled steel grades is accelerated by the automotive industry's focus on cost reduction and lightweight design. Additionally modern part designs require more sophisticated forming und cutting properties of cold formable steel grades. thyssenkrupp Hohenlimburg GmbH developed a new quasi-single-phase bainitic steel grade family.
These hot rolled bainitic steels are based on micro-alloyed steel concepts and can be produced in different strength classes, starting from min. 600 MPa up to min. 1000 MPa, thus extending the already available strength class of conventional micro-alloyed steel grades. The paper presents the production and special features of this new steel grade family.
The steel families low carbon equivalents leading to good overall weldability and their specific joining properties according to tests performed by SEP 1220 are shown. The reduced edge crack sensibility of punched edges is demonstrated by the hole expansion test. The steels low temperature toughness and crash behavior are demonstrated. Favorable fields of use and application examples in automotive components of these steel grades are described.

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25 June / 16:10 - Room 27:

A component oriented method for the examination of toughness values of sheet metals

M. Henrich
(RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: A component oriented method for the examination of toughness values of sheet metals


Author:
M. Henrich

Company:
RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Könemann, S. Münstermann

Abstract:
The resource-saving use of construction materials has led to the development of high-strength steels in recent years. The aim is to minimize the sheet thickness of components without impairing the properties of the structures. Particularly in the automotive industry, the use of high-strength steels contributes to achieving increasingly restrictive regulations. So far, no suitable examination method has been available to examine the impact toughness of sheets with low thicknesses. At the same time, it is known from the Charpy-V-notch test that this test provides values that are only of limited informative value for the final use in the component. Therefore, the article presents the tensile impact test, which can be used for toughness testing of thin sheets. Furthermore, a method based on this test will be presented, which allows the examination of the material toughness according to the component. Numerical simulations can be used in this method to identify highly stressed points and to define stress states that characterise these points. In a sample catalogue created for the tensile impact test, a sample can then be selected which is congruent with the stress state in the component. Thus, the potential of the material can be tested quickly and without great effort. The article shows the test procedure and presents the sample catalogue. The embedding of the test in simulation-based investigations is also presented.

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25 June / 16:30 - Room 27:

Effect of alloying elements on mechanical properties and microstructure of modified TRIP Steels

K. Yang
(China Steel Corporation, China)

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Title: Effect of alloying elements on mechanical properties and microstructure of modified TRIP Steels


Author:
K. Yang

Company:
China Steel Corporation, China

Co-Authors:
J. Tu, L. Chiang, W. Cheng

Abstract:
Recently, extensive efforts were paying attention to develop advanced high strength steels (AHSS) to improve combinations of strength and elongation for lightweight and crashworthiness of vehicle. Formability of dual phase steel is significantly limited with being subjected to severe cold forming while the strength reaches the grade of 980MPa. The modified TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity) steels with the same grade of 980MPa provide higher elongation to improve the formability. In this research, the base Fe-C-Mn-Si steel with various additions of Si, Mn and Al was applied. The influence of these alloying elements on the phase transformation further affecting the mechanical properties and microstructure after experiencing different annealing treatments was investigated. These microstructures were analyzed via Optical Microscope (OM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD). The suitable chemical composition has been developed with the appropriate modified TRIP process to provide steel with tensile strength and elongation over 980MPa and 20%, respectively. The mechanical properties of this developed modified TRIP steel meet the requirement of high formability keeping high strength of 980MPa level.

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25 June / 16:50 - Room 27:

Application of artificial neural network for the determination of local material properties of welded steel structures

E. Javaheri
(Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology, Germany)

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Title: Application of artificial neural network for the determination of local material properties of welded steel structures


Author:
E. Javaheri

Company:
Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Rethmeier, B. Graf, A. Pittner

Abstract:
Knowledge of the mechanical properties of steel materials such as strength or ductility is a subject of high interest for the majority of companies in both metal processing and production, as well as for the users and developers of numerical simulation software. The material parameters can be obtained by performing the tensile test on the samples made from a part of a component. In some cases, it is highly expensive to produce the tensile specimens especially for the welded steel structures, which contain different type of microstructure such as weld seam or heat affected zone in an extremely small area. Therefore, a novel method is described in this paper to determine the material parameters of high strength steel structures locally and without any additional effort to perform the tensile test. In this method, instrumented indentation test (IIT), an indenter is pushed on the flat surface of a specimen in a certain period of time and simultaneously the applied force and the corresponding indentation path are measured. The data related to the force-indentation diagram is given as input to a trained artificial neural network (ANN) to obtain the material parameters such as strain hardening parameters as outputs. The ANN was trained in this work by generating large qualitative data sets with numerical simulation of the IIT procedure. The simulation was run several times with the different material model parameter sets to generate the numerous force-indentation diagrams as the inputs of ANN. Then, the trained ANN was validated by performing the IIT on dual-phase steels and comparing the obtained material parameters from ANN with tensile test results. Consequently, the mechanical properties of high strength steels and the welded joints can be determined by performing the IIT and evaluating the resulting data by the validated ANN.

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25 June / 17:10 - Room 27:

Development of alloying concepts and process strategies for the production of safety-relevant lightweight body components with increased residual formability in press hardened condition

Y. Sparrer
(Steel Institute; RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

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Title: Development of alloying concepts and process strategies for the production of safety-relevant lightweight body components with increased residual formability in press hardened condition


Author:
Y. Sparrer

Company:
Steel Institute; RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Co-Authors:
K. Bissa, A. Tenié, J. Lian, W. Bleck, S. Münstermann

Abstract:
New emission standards, stricter environmental requirements, and increasing fuel consumptions have led to a change of mindset in the automotive industry within the last years. In order to reduce the CO2 footprint of the vehicles, car manufacturers focus on decreasing the vehicle weight by adopting the lightweight design concept of the bodywork components. In order to fulfill these demands, a wide range of high-strength steels has been developed within the last years, e.g. dual-phase (DP) steels, transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, etc. However, In addition to sustainability, passenger safety also plays an important role in the design of novel cars. Therefore, current research deals with the development of quenching & partitioning (Q&P) steels that provide promising material properties for the use in safety-relevant bodywork components, e.g. the B pillar.
In this study, a 0.2C-2.0Mn-0.3Si steel and a 0.2C-4.5Mn-1.7Si steel were processed following the DP and Q&P heat treatment scheme, respectively. By varying the process parameters of the different heat treatments, the microstructure and thus the mechanical properties of the steels can be expediently modified. In order to investigate the influence of the selected process parameters, quasi-static tensile tests were conducted and compared to the results of a press hardened 22MnB5 steel (reference material). Subsequently, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the different steels are discussed.
It can be shown that the Q&P steel offers promising mechanical property profiles, while the DP steel does not lead to an improvement of the mechanical properties compared to the reference material. Eventually, by applying a custom-made Q&P heat treatment the total elongation was doubled (from 6-8% to 12-19%) while maintaining the strength level (1300-1500 MPa) compared to the reference material.

Industry 4.0 - II (25 June / 15:50 - Room 01)

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25 June / 15:50 - Room 01:

Capturing, analyzing and documenting big data for continuous process improvement

U. Lettau
(IBA AG, Germany)

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Title: Capturing, analyzing and documenting big data for continuous process improvement


Author:
U. Lettau

Company:
IBA AG, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Due to the convergence of automation technology with IT technologies, there will be changes in the industrial environment, which will greatly affect many industrial sectors due to new business models. In future, more complex products will be required, which must be manufactured economically and with very high quality in very small batch sizes in order to meet the requirements of global markets in terms of sustainability, flexibility and efficiency. The resulting complexity of manufacturing technology can only be mastered with data-based approaches over the entire life cycle of a plant.

The presentation introduces a four-step data model that enables production, process and quality data to be delivered on a digital platform. This enables plant operators to make complex production processes transparent. Also, it is then possible to autonomously monitor, analyze and optimize the plant production.

Based on the experience that different user groups need data in completely different representations, a unified procedure is shown, which is based on a central acquisition of raw data directly at their sources of origin (controls, sensors, measuring instruments ...) and the subsequent calculation of information for different purposes in the form of characteristic values or performance indicators. Thus a consistent system of different performance indicators can be provided. Deviations of these characteristic values from the normal behavior indicate abnormalities in the production process at a very early stage and can be used to initiate a predictive maintenance. In order to find the root cause of the conspicuous behavior it is possible to drill down on the raw data and thus allow an in depth analysis by experts.

Finally, it will be shown how to understand and control effects that cannot be detected by the sensors of the automation system by means of video recordings that are in synchrony with the measured data.

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25 June / 16:10 - Room 01:

Smart Maintenance Solutions for the metallurgical industry

C. Häusler
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Smart Maintenance Solutions for the metallurgical industry


Author:
C. Häusler

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In 2015 acatech published a position paper „Smart Maintenance for Smart Factories, POSITION 10/2015”. They in general explained the effect and targets of digitalization for the plant of the future as well as the roll of maintenance in particular. Even a self-optimizing plant has to be maintained and repaired by a maintenance team, but by the use of modern methods and tools the quality and efficiency can be increased sustainably by smart maintenance.
How can a general model of a Smart Factory including Smart Maintenance be transferred to the steel industry? The concept of SMS Smart Maintenance Solutions delivers an approach. This paper is going to explain the concept and will describe a possible way by the use of existing tools and solutions.

Keywords: Smart Maintenance, digitalization, learning steel plant, Smart Factory

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25 June / 16:30 - Room 01:

Quo Vadis, automation? - From intelligent products and machines to machine learning control

M. Neuer
(VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Quo Vadis, automation? - From intelligent products and machines to machine learning control


Author:
M. Neuer

Company:
VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Kremeyer, M. Loos, A. Wolff

Abstract:
In the challenging international steel market, European steel producers must face strong competition. Technological leadership, especially regarding production process optimization helps companies to be ahead of the market game. One key enabler is modern process automation, which aims for yield increase, better energy efficiency, constant or improved quality and of course cost-effective production. Throughout recent years and driven by the Industry 4.0 umbrella, several new concepts emerged: digital twins of products and machines, smart logistic optimization approaches, Big Data analytics and finally machine learning, all of which are highly relevant for the underlying control layers. They allow for a new kind of through-process optimization for steel industry, that is in the focus of recent research projects. These technologies lead to the fusion of dynamic scheduling and rescheduling approaches, process control, process optimization and machine learning. The paper will show how information from product oriented data storages can be utilized for automation purposes. It presents existing applications of digital twins and their optimization potential for the daily steel production, including the replay of large numbers of twins for machine learning.

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25 June / 16:50 - Room 01:

Advanced systems for future steel grade development

A. Rimnac
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Advanced systems for future steel grade development


Author:
A. Rimnac

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
W. Hackl, N. Champion, T. Pfatschbacher

Abstract:
The world steel market is in a phase of maturity. The situation has changed from a supplier driven to a customer driven market. Customer requirements are increasing and margins are getting tighter. This challenge is being addressed with increasing levels of digitization and a more service orientated customer focus. Alongside this the delivery of higher quality products, introduction of new steel grades and further customization of high-end products to cover niche markets are of prime importance to maintain or increase market shares. To successfully operate in this challenging business environment the role of the research and development department is becoming even more important. The development cycle time to market for new products needs to be minimized but increasing pressure on development budgets requires even more efficient and effective R&D work.
Addressing these challenges in terms of the operational practice is achieved with a combination of physical simulation, numerical simulation and digitalization all of which are driven by metallurgical know-how as a complete system. This combination provides increased understanding as the basis for efficient development and production of new steel grades.
Increasingly the role of the plant supplier is to develop and provide solutions to support steel producers in achieving these objectives for fast and efficient process development, including mechatronic systems, metallurgical know-how and simulation technologies.
This paper will discuss the structure and requirements for this integrated system approach described above and the current technologies to deliver it. The benefits of a digitized product development cycle fostering the intrinsic ideas of Industrie 4.0 to the customers operations in terms of efficiencies in development of new, higher value products and in the use of metallurgical know-how will also be presented.

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25 June / 17:10 - Room 01:

Internet of Materials: verified origin and properties based on blockchain technology

S. Grüll
(S1Seven GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Internet of Materials: verified origin and properties based on blockchain technology


Author:
S. Grüll

Company:
S1Seven GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
STEEL but SMART® is unleashing blockchain’s potential to steel industry and a digitally integrated, collaborative supply chain.

The EN 10204 specifies the various types of inspection certificates that must be provided to each delivery to prove compliance with the terms of the order and European standards. These certificates contain technical data on the product and mandatory test results. In all subsequent stages of further processing, these certificates are the central point of quality assurance and declaration of performance in commercial transaction.

Through blockchain technology it is possible to provide this certificates electronically and fully machine readable with all the features of a tamper proof document and more: From the genesis set of data, subsets are being created as material moves along the supply chain. This means the data stays connected, cross-company and beyond the usual corporate boundaries. Redundancies of double and triple testing of one and the same material are replaced by a verified log on existing results and documented procedures. In case of quality issues with a specific batch of material, steel producers can actively track down and recall applications where the affected material has been used elsewhere.

In addition to the set of data required for an inspection certificate, there is already much more information collected at each step of production and testing. This additional data represents outstanding value for downstream steel processor - enabling optimized engineering, processing and use of steel. This data can be processed with STEEL but SMART® the same way so not only the full DNA of the physical product gets available digitally but the innovative and unique product attributes become transparent resulting in visible competitive advantages. This not only refers to the product performance itself but also to the it’s production process and its environmental footprint.

Rolling: Cold strip rolling and processing lines II (25 June / 15:50 - Room 12)

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25 June / 15:50 - Room 12:

steelytics® Hot Rolling - calculation of steel properties over strip length

T. Baron
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: steelytics® Hot Rolling - calculation of steel properties over strip length


Author:
T. Baron

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
A. Latz, S. Schreiber

Abstract:
steelytics® Hot Rolling enables the simulation of the hot rolling process and the calculation of steel properties over strip length using real process data. In contrast to many other simulation systems this new modular approach is able to bring together process data and new enhancements in physically based and empirical microstructure simulations. The system is designed to be easily extendable to new data sources, processes and products. A modern web application makes the simulations usable for a wide range of user groups e.g. technical customer service, quality management and steel developers. The combination of physical approaches and data driven modelling makes well-founded estimates and optimization of alloy concepts and process parameters for improved material properties of hot rolled strips possible. Compared to state of the art process controls with neural network this approach gives insight to the microstructure in every single process step like, reheating, rolling, cooling and coiling. Here we will demonstrate the validity of the system for a wide range of steels from deep drawing steels over carbon steels to complex phase steels.

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25 June / 16:10 - Room 12:

Recent developments in on-line setup and control of Tata Steel's cold mills

C. Hol
(Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands)

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Title: Recent developments in on-line setup and control of Tata Steel's cold mills


Author:
C. Hol

Company:
Tata Steel Europe Ltd., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Tata Steel is one of the largest steel producers in the world. Tata Steel has several cold mills in Europe. Outstanding process control of these mills is vital, as it determines to a large extent the off-gauge performance, shape performance and mill throughput, and it enables the rolling of new steel grades. The required rolling forces, torques, speeds, reductions and powers are calculated at these cold mills using an online setup model. This model is an in-house development of Tata Steel. It consists of a common core and mill-specific code in the shell. The setup application contains sub-models for the material properties, roll flattening, friction and shape and profile. The desired setup is calculated using an online optimization routine.
New cold rolled products expand the well-known banana diagram towards ultra-high strength steels, with higher formability in combination with higher strength. These grades are typically more difficult to produce, stretching the capabilities of the mills. Furthermore the product mix gets more and more varied and the cold mill setup must be flexible enough to cope with these variations. New sensors are being developed and added to the cold mill, which give extra information. Finally, the mills are becoming interconnected with the upstream and downstream process through more elaborate data communication. The recent developments to cope with these trends are briefly addressed in this paper.

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25 June / 16:30 - Room 12:

Concept for contactless roll cleaning during skin-pass milling and first operating results

M. Blumenau
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: Concept for contactless roll cleaning during skin-pass milling and first operating results


Author:
M. Blumenau

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
D. Roggenkämper, G. Faak, R. Nüssen, U. Zocher, O. Moll

Abstract:
Today’s automotive engineering strives to higher surface quality for exposed parts. This development raises increasing demands on avoiding surface defects during the production of strip steel, which is typically used by OEMs for outer panel applications. Aim of this presentation is to illustrate how thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG (tkSE) meets this requirement by the example of using a contactless cleaning device at the in-line skin-pass mill (SPM) of its continuous annealing line (CAL):

This SPM operates without using any liquid medium for cleaning neither working nor back-up rolls in order to avoid rust dots on the uncoated steel surface. Due to that, dirt appears and may result in dents into the strip surface, which represent major quality defects. To reduce surface defects caused by dirt while keeping the SPM operating in the wanted dry mode a contactless cleaning device has been developed by tkSE. This device combines a precision blowing on the SPM’s roll surface with a high-performance extraction. In recent years, this procedure of contactless cleaning was successfully implemented and industrially tested at the tkSE's CAL in Dortmund. Today, an automatized contactless cleaning device is continuously operating in this line with a positive effect on dirt-related surface defects. The use of this contactless cleaning device is not only advantageous in terms of improving the steel’s surface quality, but also regarding economic and environmental concerns (use of enviromental air as cleaning medium).

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25 June / 16:50 - Room 12:

Advanced cold rolling for silicon and stainless steel (DMS EcoMill)

A. Duchene
(Fives DMS S.A., France)

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Title: Advanced cold rolling for silicon and stainless steel (DMS EcoMill)


Author:
A. Duchene

Company:
Fives DMS S.A., France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
In the field of stainless steel flat product cold rolling and silicon steel flat product cold rolling, the 20-Hi mill has clearly proved its technological superiority compared to other rolling mill types such as 6-High rolling mill. However, nowadays, steel producers are under considerable competitive pressure. They are asked for perfect management of Capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operating expenditure (OPEX) but addressing meanwhile the new humans and environmental challenges such as safety, human factor, environmental pollution and energy consumption.

Fives DMS has integrated in its rolling mill design number of new features addressing these new challenges:
• New design of strip and work roll spraying
• New design of strip wipers SCP® 3.0
• Improvement of fume exhaust
• New concept of flatness actuators
• New concept of mandrel greasing

This pioneering 20-Hi mill concept, named as DMS EcoMill, warrant steel producers to operate with the state of the art rolling technology.

Rolling: Maintenance: plant availability and condition monitoring II (25 June / 15:50 - Room 13)

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25 June / 15:50 - Room 13:

Changing the reality of proactive maintenance

D. Phillips
(Regal Beloit Corporation, United States)

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Title: Changing the reality of proactive maintenance


Author:
D. Phillips

Company:
Regal Beloit Corporation, United States

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Performing maintenance on equipment only when the condition warrants it has been proven to be the most cost-effective strategy for industrial organizations. However, efficiently determining the condition can be challenging and often relies on experienced analysts to interpret the data and make recommendations on corrective actions. This usually results in a significant lag between the time when a fault is identified and when action is taken. Automated prescriptive analyses shaped by domain expertise can provide clear direction on the timing of specific actions that need to be completed, easily understood throughout all levels of the organization, and ensuring proactive alignment with business objectives.

Further streamlining of proactive maintenance can be achieved by converging the physical asset with its digital representation. Augmented reality provides the means to accomplish this, eliminating the need to sort through disparate databases, alleviating the struggle to interpret complex machinery data, and providing a more efficient alternative to lengthy O&M manuals.

A case study on the deployment and use of these technologies on a metal forming machine will be included.

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25 June / 16:10 - Room 13:

Evaluation of a vision technique to detect small motions in steel process machinery

J. Niemi
(Swerim AB, Sweden)

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Title: Evaluation of a vision technique to detect small motions in steel process machinery


Author:
J. Niemi

Company:
Swerim AB, Sweden

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
We present the development and evaluation of a vision technique for small motion detection in a sequence of images. The developed vision system can identify and measure very small motions that cannot be perceived by the human eye or by conventional image processing techniques. The base in the vision system is an image processing algorithm developed and provided by MIT, USA. The algorithm amplifies very small sub-pixel motions in a video to pixel regions, allowing image processing algorithms to detect and analyse the motions in the images. With the method, one can potentially measure µm level motions or vibrations in a construction. The technique provides information about all motions in x-y directions contained in the images. The motion microscope technology has been found to be very well suited for the tested application. The technique measured the deflection in the frame of a roller straightener during straightening. The optical measured deflection was compared with a conventional laser triangulation sensor and was found to be comparable. The outcome from the vision system is a plot showing the motions from the selected area and a video with the amplified motions. The tested measurement technique could be relevant for the steel industry as there are many similar tasks. In rolling mills interesting areas for investigations are stability in continuous lines, elongations in the frame and other asymmetrical behaviour in the process machinery. The tested vision technique can contribute to better process control and also provide a basis for maintenance by detecting malfunctions.

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25 June / 16:30 - Room 13:

Chatter management at cold rolling mills today

S. Richard
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Chatter management at cold rolling mills today


Author:
S. Richard

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
M. Krüger, K. Rues

Abstract:
In cold rolling mills vibrations of mechanical parts and/or strip can interfere several quality parameters like thickness, shape, surface quality and others. Since vibrations occur at higher speeds in most of the cases rolling speed of single- or multi-stand mills for steel and aluminium has to be limited quite often.

Among other mechanisms at cold rolling mills the so-called 3rd Octave and 5th Octave Chatter are the most important vibration issues. They are introduced by explaining related mechanisms and showing results of operational measurements.
Subsequently well-known measures against Chatter issues and their consequences are listed and explained, along with practical examples:
• Online Chatter monitoring with Auto-Slow-Down (ASD-) functionality,
• Mill design optimization,
• Optimized maintenance / service practice.

After giving a general survey about vibration issues in cold rolling mills and related conventional counter measures a new, promising approach is introduced. An active vibration damping system has recently been developed at SMS group. The system uses piezo electric elements as actuators which are located in an actuator box placed underneath the bottom backup roll chocks of a mill stand.
The active damping system comprises also a special control technology which uses the signals of conventional accelerometers. Using these signals and adaptive filter technologies the control system calculates actuator signals capable to induce additional damping into the mill stand. Apart from the 3rd Octave Chatter vibrations the additional damping can be allocated to other vibrations in parallel in order to reduce the corresponding amplitudes as well.
A first pilot installation using the new active damping technology was started in 2017 at an operating 4-stand Aluminum Tandem Cold Mill built by SMS group. After some optimization steps the system provided an increase of the rolling speed which creates significant potential of increase to the mill’s production.

Oxygen steelmaking: Plant operation experiences (25 June / 16:00 - Room 14)

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25 June / 16:00 - Room 14:

The 5 mtpy Project for Ternium Brazil BOF - "Challenges & Results"

H. Gomes
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: The 5 mtpy Project for Ternium Brazil BOF - "Challenges & Results"


Author:
H. Gomes

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:
D. Carvalho, L. Demuner, H. Castro, M. Viana

Abstract:
Intensive process and technology improvements related to the BOF converter - the key process to increase Steel Plant productivity and stability - have been performed at Ternium BR. This paper details the roadmap for process developments and investments in equipment technology as well as the results achieved.
The main topics of this development are the process control and optimization systems, slag forming model, oxygen blowing pattern, end of blow point control and slag carryover control. The outcomes of this development are improvements in the reblow rate, end-of-blow oxidation, direct tapping, slag carryover, slopping ratio, metallic yield, lining life and improved productivity.

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25 June / 16:20 - Room 14:

Combined development of high performing ladle slide gate refractory and new generation ladle slide gate mechanism to maximize benefits to customers

S. Sen
(Vesuvius plc, United States)

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Title: Combined development of high performing ladle slide gate refractory and new generation ladle slide gate mechanism to maximize benefits to customers


Author:
S. Sen

Company:
Vesuvius plc, United States

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Slide gate mechanisms are a well-established technology used on ladles in steel making facilities to provide safe operation during flow control of molten metal. Within the refractory stack-up of such mechanism, slide gate plates are subjected to more rigorous wear because of direct steel impingement and frequent throttling. This often limits the plate life, which causes additional downtime of the ladle. Keeping safety as the key attribute, it is therefore important to prolong the life of plates to ensure that ladle cycling is least interrupted. This is also key to reducing energy consumption, as ladles require re-heating to compensate for heat losses due to frequent holding in the make-up area. Furthermore, keeping ladles hot and reducing the extent of thermal cycling has a positive impact on the life of refractory linings, which in turn increases the campaign length and improves operational efficiency.

Our extensive research has shown that there is a strong influence of the mechanism design on the refractory performance. Our vast experience in the field also validates the necessity for a combined approach in which both refractory and mechanism are developed together with the common objective of enhancing operational efficiency.

Vesuvius R&D has developed a series of new designs and materials to further augment the offerings beyond addressing fundamental needs. The main objective was to develop a superior, reliable slide gate refractory composition that can be combined with an FEA-optimized shape in a mechanism that is designed to maximize contact area around the throttling zone. The refractory composition has been carefully tailored to offer strong throttle path integrity to prolong service life. The mechanism on the other hand has been developed to maximize safety by adding new features like infiltration inhibitors, fail-safe refractory installation as well as a force balancing concept with multiple springs.


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25 June / 16:40 - Room 14:

Influence on cleanness level during the ladle opening with immersed shroud in liquid steel for one-strand tundish during continuous casting process

M. Alharbi
(Hadeed Pvt., Ltd., Saudi Arabia)

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Title: Influence on cleanness level during the ladle opening with immersed shroud in liquid steel for one-strand tundish during continuous casting process


Author:
M. Alharbi

Company:
Hadeed Pvt., Ltd., Saudi Arabia

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
A reverse taper ladle shroud would allowed an immersed steel bath opening of a new ladle, which helps to reduce the re-oxidation during the new ladle opening in comparison with the conventional open stream above tundish steel bath. This would lead to enhance the slab quality by minimizing non-metallic inclusions entrapment in liquid steel. However, immersed flow might drag some tundish slag to the liquid steel bath and affect the slab quality. Therefore, in this work a mathematical simulation model was developed to evaluate the influence of this shroud design on the cleanness level of the produced steel slab. The model results were used to conduct the comparison between the influence of reverse taper shroud design and the currently used conventional shroud design in the plant. A 3D multi-phase mathematical simulation model results were discussed in this paper; several immersion depths of a ladle shroud in liquid steel were examined.

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25 June / 17:00 - Room 14:

BOF gas cleaning system upgrades for increased efficiency and off-gas quality

M. Meyn
(Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands)

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Title: BOF gas cleaning system upgrades for increased efficiency and off-gas quality


Author:
M. Meyn

Company:
Danieli Corus BV, The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
R. Herold, P. Klut, E. Engel

Abstract:
With the consolidation of Danieli group technological expertise on Blast Furnace Ironmaking and BOF Steelmaking within Danieli Corus, experts from both areas have teamed up to accelerate development in gas cleaning for BOF Plants. This article presents the latest results in this area. Jointly, an improved scrubber design based on wet scrubbing technology (RSE–type), widely applied and proven in Blast Furnace Ironmaking is presented. The straight gas flow through wide passages avoids redirection and unwanted pressure drop. Water injection through quick–exchangeable Spiral type nozzles allows for less stringent water quality requirements at improved scrubbing performance. Application of special internal coatings reduces clogging and abrasion, main disadvantages commonly known from Venturi–scrubbers. Also, the application of an advanced, multi–stage mist eliminator design with proven track record in other industries is presented. The effective droplet–separation further reduces particulate emissions and helps with operational problems and damages of Induced Draft fans. The elaborated design offers great advantages over conventional axial droplet–separators.

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25 June / 17:20 - Room 14:

Oxygen lance blowing stage - advances at Ternium Brazil

B. Cerchiari
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: Oxygen lance blowing stage - advances at Ternium Brazil


Author:
B. Cerchiari

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:
D. A. G. Carvalho, W. R. Lima, M. S. L. Guerra, F. S. Garajau, B. T. Maia, R. Formage, P. R. Neves

Abstract:
Ternium Brazil has two BOF converters with tapping capacity of 338t with a good geometry and specific volume, however, displays typical steelworks problems related to the oxygen lance skulls formation. This paper describes the main actions to reduce these effects through improvements in the operational practices and introduction of new technologies such as Slagless associated with slag removal device. Lance life has been increased, promoting operational safety due to the reduction of lance skulls as well as the reduction in the lance exchange ratio.

Oxygen steelmaking: Modelling and simulation (25 June / 16:00 - Room 16)

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25 June / 16:00 - Room 16:

Ladle circuit optimization through simulations for reduced refractory wear, energy consumption and carbon emissions

S. Chatterjee
(Dastur Innovation Labs, India)

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Title: Ladle circuit optimization through simulations for reduced refractory wear, energy consumption and carbon emissions


Author:
S. Chatterjee

Company:
Dastur Innovation Labs, India

Co-Authors:
A. Mukherjee, A. Adak, K. Sinha, T. Mandal, A. Senguttuvan, A. Biswal

Abstract:
The continuity in ladle circulation across various steelmaking unit operations is critical for the attainment of operational efficiency of a plant. Every steel plant with a certain capacity, process flow, operations philosophy and product mix has a certain velocity of flow across the steel circuit. Disruption in the flow velocity due to external and internal events leads to suboptimal operations in terms of thruput, quality, costs, energy and emissions. Any delay event, such as purging failure, ladle puncture, extended nozzle/porous plug cleaning amongst others, can cause major roadblocks to smooth steelmaking operations. These events disrupt ladle circulation leading to increase in steel residence time, steel/slag/refractory interaction, refractory & energy consumption, temperature drop, carbon emission as well as decrease in productivity and yield, which makes it important to identify and minimize ‘delays’. A simulation-based framework, consisting of an extensive process & operations database along with embedded heat transfer and logistics models, has been developed to evaluate impact of delays and to predict production, ladle holding times, ladle turnaround time, percentage utilization of resources, temperature drops, energy & refractory consumption, carbon emission and associated cost impact. The results allow formulation of operating recommendations that help achieve the target levels of refractory consumption, energy consumption & carbon emission that are possible for a certain plant configuration while maintaining the flow through the steel circuit at its optimum level.

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25 June / 16:20 - Room 16:

A mathematical model for AOD refining process of 80t 20Cr-8Ni stainless steel casting

Q. Wang
(University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)

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Title: A mathematical model for AOD refining process of 80t 20Cr-8Ni stainless steel casting


Author:
Q. Wang

Company:
University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Heavy stainless steel castings, e.g. 80t 20Cr-8Ni stainless steel casting, are commonly used for important industries. However, during melting of castings, especially AOD refining process, large size inclusions sometimes appear resulted from unreasonable decarburization and deoxidation, which reduce mechanical property and shorten service life. So, higher standards on steel cleanliness have been put forward. In this article, a mathematical model for AOD refining process of 80t 20Cr-8Ni castings would be proposed and validated based on data of two trails steel from industry. And the oxygen content and inclusions after decarburization in AOD would be compared and discussed. As the results showing, the temperatures of two trails after decarburization in AOD are 1797℃ and 1668℃ separately, oxygen contents are 0.12% and 0.052%, and inclusions are mainly Cr2O3. Through deoxidation of AOD refining process, the oxygen contents are 0.0049% and 0.0045% separately, and inclusions quantities of two trails are 13.44mm-2 and 3.4mm-2, especially 0.34mm-2 and 0.16mm-2 for inclusions larger than 8μm. Those mean that a mathematical model could control steel composition and temperature accurately, lower oxygen content, decrease quantity of inclusions, especially large size inclusions, and lead to improvement of steel cleanliness.

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25 June / 16:40 - Room 16:

Hybrid model associating thermodynamic calculations and artificial neural network in order to predict molten steel temperature evolution from blowing end at BOF for secondary metallurgy.

M. Antônio Viana Júnior
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: Hybrid model associating thermodynamic calculations and artificial neural network in order to predict molten steel temperature evolution from blowing end at BOF for secondary metallurgy.


Author:
M. Antônio Viana Júnior

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The developed model is an association of thermodynamic calculations for dissolution of alloys, slag formers and deoxidation reaction in the molten steel with two artificial neural networks (ANN) models trained with industrial data, to predict the molten steel temperature drop from the blowing end at BOF until the first measurement at secondary metallurgy. To calculate the associated energy for deoxidation, an experiment was designed to set up the parameters for oxygen partitioning among deoxidants, with the aluminum timing of addition during teeming being the main parameter. The temperature control in the teeming stage presented a standard deviation for the error of prediction of 5.46 oC, for transportation from rinsing station to the secondary metallurgy of 2.79 oC and the association of all calculations presented an error standard deviation of 7.49 oC. The operational validation presented a superior accuracy compared with the current method for controlling the temperature, resulting in a reduction in the aluminum consumption for heating at secondary metallurgy with a potential economy of U$ 4.07 million per year for a steel shop producing 5 million tons of steel yearly. The artificial neural network model confirmed its capacity for modeling a complex multivariable process and the separation of thermodynamic calculation provides a better adaptability to different steel grades with different teeming strategies.

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25 June / 17:00 - Room 16:

CAE in metallurgical plant engineering

H. Odenthal
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: CAE in metallurgical plant engineering


Author:
H. Odenthal

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
N. Vogl, D. Mangler, F. Krause, A. Kemminger

Abstract:
Steelmaking processes are so complex that it is almost impossible to gain a detailed insight into the metallurgical processes while production is underway. Today, plant suppliers and operators are using computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools; sub-fields are, among others, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA). Both methods are indispensable tools to design plants and develop new technologies. As a result of the huge increase in computational capacity and the continuous refinement of algorithms it is now possible to simulate phenomena which would have been unimaginable some years ago. In this work, the huge potential of CAE is discussed by means of selected metallurgical processes: Inert gas stirring in the steelmaking ladle, stress formation in the mold induced by thermal loads, atomization of hot metal for powder production, and NOx formation of a burner-injector-system.

Cokemaking: Latest developments in coke oven plant technology (25 June / 16:00 - Room 18)

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25 June / 16:00 - Room 18:

Control methods to reduce cokes oven pressure variations

J. Schuurmans
(DotX Control Solutions B.V., The Netherlands)

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Title: Control methods to reduce cokes oven pressure variations


Author:
J. Schuurmans

Company:
DotX Control Solutions B.V., The Netherlands

Co-Authors:
E. ten Napel, J. Dekker, A. Besseling, P. de Jong

Abstract:
This paper presents a novel approach to the control of coke oven pressure control, applied to cokes plant 2 at Tata Steel, IJmuiden. The coke pressures used to be controlled by PI controllers. We applied a systematic model based tuning method using the PID Tuning tool. This tool obtains its model from a simple black-box open loop identification method, during production. Better PID tuning led to a considerable reduction in pressure variations of 30%. In addition, we added self-learning feedforward control to the PID loops that output their feedforward actions when ovens are charged. Measurements of the controlled pressures in the cokes ovens of Tata Steel, before and after application show that pressure variations reduced by 50%.

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25 June / 16:20 - Room 18:

RPR SL application for the treatment of microcracks in the refractory lining of coke ovens

M. Leheut
(FIB-Services International S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: RPR SL application for the treatment of microcracks in the refractory lining of coke ovens


Author:
M. Leheut

Company:
FIB-Services International S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
O. Di Loreto, J. Tirlocq

Abstract:
Beyond all the operational considerations, coke plant managers have been forced to improve the environmental performance of their coke ovens during the last two decades: reduction of direct emissions to the air, treatment of waste water, treatment of waste, soil decontamination.
Engineers, technicians and designers have quickly adapted the offer of the engineering companies to the actual demand for clean production technologies: filters, hoods, dry quenching, individual control of the pressure in the ovens, sealing of the doors, bigger coking chambers, charging car with telescopic filling tube, among others are a part of the most recent improvements in the cokemaking sector.
Most of the above listed technologies have allowed to better control the fugitive emissions linked to the coking process such as the emissions during the charging operation, the pushing operations, the quenching operations and the handling operation, as well as the leakages at the doors, at the ascension pipes and at the charging holes.
Nevertheless, another kind of emissions focuses all the attention: the emissions at the stack due to the leakage of raw gas and fine particles from the coking chamber to the heating flues of the coke ovens. Usually, presence of such leakages will result to a dark / black smoke emission at the stack. Even though such emissions used to have a negative impact on the environmental performance of the battery, their visible presence is simply definitional of disorder in the battery: refractory lining in bad conditions, disturbance in the heating regulation, problem with pressure, small cracks and open joints in the heating wall can be considered as the origin of such emission, among others.
A new technology have been developped to seal these microcracks quickl and efficiently. This paper will provide detail of the technology and industrial assemssements

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25 June / 16:40 - Room 18:

Comparison between industrial and laboratory IGP measurements

M. Schulten
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: Comparison between industrial and laboratory IGP measurements


Author:
M. Schulten

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
V. Stiskala, M. Grimm

Abstract:
Reducing raw materials costs due to their crucial impact on production costs in combination with fulfilling both quality targets and operational requirements is one of the essential responsibilities of coke plant operators. Cost saving measures typically lead to enlarging the portfolio of coals in use. Simple adoption of a new coal for industrial use can give rise to critical situations in the operations. Besides quality issues the use of untested coals in industrial blends may cause significant damage to battery brickworks due to development of excessive internal gas pressure in particular. Therefore, the integration of new coals into standard coal portfolio calls for implementation of comprehensive test programs in order to avoid the occurrence of undesired events.

Test programs developed for the adoption of a new coal should include routine lab analysis as well as quality investigations using small scale test facilities. Though a complete test program can only be supportive if the employed test ovens produce reproducible data and test results. Hence, the results generated by the test facilities in use should be benchmarked with industrial ones on regular basis. To address this particular topic concerning industrial and laboratory IGP measurements thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG (tkSE) is participating in the European research project BINGO in order to gain additional knowledge on factors influencing IGP development and the results as measured both in the lab and the operations.

The paper outlines the steps that have been taken in the project to broaden the knowledge base in the area of factors having remarkable influence on IGP. It is not only focusing on industrial process parameters but it is also covering studies benchmarking the results achieved within tkSE testing capacities and the results delivered by industrial operations as much as other small scale facilities participating in the project. The paper also describes measures which have been adopted in order to optimize correlations between industrial and laboratory IGP measurements.

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25 June / 17:00 - Room 18:

Reconstruction of Kurashiki No.2 coke oven battery

D. Imai
(JFE Steel Corporation, Japan)

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Title: Reconstruction of Kurashiki No.2 coke oven battery


Author:
D. Imai

Company:
JFE Steel Corporation, Japan

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Most coke oven batteries in JFE Steel Corporation have worked for more than 40 years, and they are degrading with age. Therefore, JFE Steel has rebuilt deteriorated coke oven batteries in a planned way.
At JFE Steel West Japan Works (Kurashiki), No.2 coke oven battery was rebuilt and it has been working since March 2017.
There are three functional improvements:
ⅰ)the coke oven’s stiffness improvement due to the support structure design at the top of flue chamber.
ⅱ)fastening structure improvement due to equipped springs and cross tie rods protected against heat.
ⅲ)NOx reduction due to two stage combustion and exhaust gas recirculation.
To verify the combustion condition, an analytic model was developed and it shows the temperature is equivalent to the past data of the other reconstructed coke oven (Kurashiki No.1A coke oven battery).
Kurashiki No.2 coke oven battery achieved the following goals:
・Working ratio: 140%
・NOx emission under coke oven gas combustion≦170ppm

This paper describes contents about the reconstruction of No.2 coke oven battery and its operational result.

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25 June / 17:20 - Room 18:

INternal gas pressure in coke ovens

T. Rozhkova
(CPM Group, France)

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Title: INternal gas pressure in coke ovens


Author:
T. Rozhkova

Company:
CPM Group, France

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Internal Gas Pressure and its consequences on swelling pressure are not a new problem and have already been investigated in the past by most research centres, especially in Europe. The reason is that Europe has been importing, for many years, coking coals from overseas as a number of big steel plants are located on seashore and seaborne imports are cheaper than inland transport for big tonnages. American, Canadian and Australian coals are representing the majority of coking coals imports.
Among coking coals, low volatile coals are interesting because they can potentially produce good coke (mechanical strength and reactivity) with a high coke yield. But low volatile coking coals can develop high pressure during coking. The measurement of Internal Gas Pressure (IGP) in industrial coke ovens is necessary to obtain experimental data on the expansion behavior of the coal charge and the risk of potential oven wall damage. So, the present study aims at increasing coke plant service life by controlling Internal Gas Pressure in industrial ovens. In the frame of a RFCS project, different solutions were studied to improve the measurements in terms of safety, installation of the probes and accuracy of the measurements. The new solution was implemented in coke plant with the assistance of CPM team to evaluate their efficiency.

Environmental and energy aspects in iron and steelmaking: Energy savings and energy efficiency optimization (25 June / 16:00 - Room 21)

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25 June / 16:00 - Room 21:

Energy artificial intelligence for effective energy imbalance cost reduction in the steel industry

C. Zaugg
(Alpiq Digital AG, Switzerland)

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Close25 June, Room 21 ( 16:00 )
Title: Energy artificial intelligence for effective energy imbalance cost reduction in the steel industry


Author:
C. Zaugg

Company:
Alpiq Digital AG, Switzerland

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Renewable energy sources play a key role to achieve global CO2 emission targets. However, the increasing penetration of solar and wind generation impacts short-term volatility and grid stability, ultimately resulting in higher imbalance penalties for large industrials. Such uncontrolled price fluctuations impose risks for steel plants with an electric arc furnace as the imbalance cost is a significant cost driver.

Alpiq and Swiss Steel established a convenient solution to reduce imbalance volume using artificial intelligence and real-time IoT. The core of the method is a self-learning algorithm predicting the plant’s power consumption for the next few hours based on real-time metering, day ahead forecast and further data. The forecast continuously predicts a 15-min profile which reflects latest available data, hence considering any deviations from the planned production schedule. The prediction is then applied as correction schedule and the differential volume placed as intraday re-nomination, unless overridden by Swiss Steel. We obtain a fully automated information flow with industrial IoT-gateways collecting data, a cloud-algorithm and automated communication between EDM-systems.

With the new practice an imbalance volume reduction of up to 20% is achieved, effectively reducing cost and protecting against unpredictable imbalance prices. State-of-the-art technology enabled an attractive payback time. On top of the immediate benefit, the setup paves the way for future improvements, e.g. forecast horizon and performance, since algorithm and connected data streams are fully modular. Furthermore, valuable process and performance insights beyond energy may be obtained in the future thanks to systematic real-time data availability and automated analytics.

Besides the cost saving advantage for the steel plant the concept also leads to better absorption of renewable energy in the market. This demonstrates how digital energy technology creates tangible value for power consumers while catalyzing the clean-energy transition. The best practice emphasizes the innovation spirit of the industry and increases its competitiveness.

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25 June / 16:20 - Room 21:

Optimization of waking beam furnace by the advanced Oxipyr®-Direct Heating System

M. Potesser
(Messer Group GmbH, Austria)

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Title: Optimization of waking beam furnace by the advanced Oxipyr®-Direct Heating System


Author:
M. Potesser

Company:
Messer Group GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The oxygen combustion technologies are lowering the production costs of many processes since the energy costs are continuously raising. Oxygen is used more and more in the combustion systems technology like oxygen burners, oxygen lancing or oxygen enrichment, in order to increase the capacity or save energy of particular furnaces, Oxyfuel is used to provide discrete oxygen rich areas in a furnace to allow complete combustion separately from a reducing zone or lower the emission volumes. This article analysis the possibilities and the advantages of oxygen application in different furnaces used for steel production on base of Messer results in a walking beam furnace with Oxipyr®-Direct and literature review.

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25 June / 16:40 - Room 21:

The blast furnace in view of past, current and future CO2 saving technologies

K. Kinzel
(Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg)

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Title: The blast furnace in view of past, current and future CO2 saving technologies


Author:
K. Kinzel

Company:
Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg

Co-Authors:
A. Agrawal, L. Micheletti, H. Kappes, P. Bermes, C. Castagnola, B. Rösner

Abstract:
Authors: Anand kumar AGRAWAL, Björn RÖSNER, Horst KAPPES, Dr.-ING (INPL) Klaus-Peter KINZEL, Philipp BERMES, Lorenzo MICHELETTI, Cristiano CASTAGNOLA

Blast furnaces are widely employed today for iron production all around the world, with a total production capacity of around 1.2 billion tons per year. Its operating principle, which relies on usage of coke to ensure the permeability in the reaction vessel, ensures its flexibility of operation and acceptability for varying qualities of iron ores. The blast furnace route is widely considered as the most economic and efficient route of iron production.

The blast furnace route has undergone significant development in terms of energy efficiency in the last decades, which led to a substantial reduction in the use of fossil reduction materials. Being an energy intensive process, competitiveness and cost saving in the blast furnace plant was always strongly related to the saving of energy and hence reduction of CO2 emissions. In addition to this, EU emissions trading system (EU ETS) as a cornerstone of the EU's policy in response to climate change has set new “challenges” for iron production in Europe.

Paul Wurth is deeply involved in the development of energy saving technologies for blast furnaces for many decades. In the following, a review of energy saving achievements developed in the last decades will be presented and the potential of available CO2 saving technologies will be summarized. Additionally, an outlook about the potential of future technologies, concepts and their impact on the blast furnace and the steel plant’s energy balance will be discussed.

Finally, the replacement of carbon by hydrogen as reduction agent in the steel plant will be reviewed, with special focus on a comparison of costs and incentives.

Keywords:
CO2 emission, iron and steel making, blast furnace, energy saving technologies, hydrogen steel making, carbon capture and storage

Oxygen steelmaking: Automation and on-line process analyses II (25 June / 16:05 - Room 2)

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25 June / 16:5 - Room 2:

Recent developments in reducing AOD converter vibrations

C. Imiela
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Close25 June, Room 2 ( 16:5 )
Title: Recent developments in reducing AOD converter vibrations


Author:
C. Imiela

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
During blowing with tuyeres AOD converters are subject of vast vibrations which result in severe damage like failure of bearings, bullgears, pinions and foundation at plants all over the world. The AOD converter is excited by bath movements with a broad spectrum which hit the resonance frequency of the vessel and trunnion ring combination, which is typically between 2.5 and 3.5 Hz. Therefore the plant will be operated at resonance condition which is definitively not desirable.
In this paper, a brief explanation of the theoretical reasons for the vibrations will be given. Furthermore the existing approaches like damping and free movement will be discussed. Finally, a newly developed electro hydraulically torque retainer will be presented and the results in real life application will be shown.
This torque retainer reduces the dynamic vibration of the vessel during blowing by a hydraulic cylinder by regulation with force control and underlying position control. During tilting, the cylinder is under fixed position control which provides an exact positioning during tilting and tapping. This system provides a reduction of dynamic torque up to 75% compared to a stiff torque retainer.

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25 June / 16:25 - Room 2:

Novel condition monitoring & predictive services for LD/BOF melt shops

B. Voglmayr
(Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria)

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Close25 June, Room 2 ( 16:25 )
Title: Novel condition monitoring & predictive services for LD/BOF melt shops


Author:
B. Voglmayr

Company:
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:
A. Haschke, K. Stohl, R. Stadlmayr

Abstract:
In addition to the robust mechanical design of steel melt shop equipment the installation of an online condition monitoring system (CMS) is an important measure to maintain the equipment availability at an optimal level. The presented CMS solution is based on a modular package concept, which allows to monitor the addressed equipment and equipment groups at different level of detail. This paper focuses on equipment for converter steel making especially the converter main bearings.
The CMS example addresses the main sources of converter bearing failures which include loss of lubrication and sealing failure due to high grease temperature, steady point loads on the outer bearing raceways, reaching of mechanical limits or locked position of the expansion bearing, violation of the admissible inclination of the trunnion pin which cannot longer be compensated by the bearing and omitted maintenance activities defined by the bearing supplier.
For each failure source dedicated evaluation packages (EPs) are designed to inform the maintenance team in case of irregular operation and violation of design limits. In addition to evaluation of bearing temperatures, a measuring system for detection of axial displacement and calculation of trunnion pin inclination are presented, which helps to prevent from reaching a mechanical limit for instance. Beyond sensor based EPs also software based EPs are implemented to give a more comprehensive view on the equipment use. For example, an extended odometer function summarizes information on the load profile and the effective bearing rotation in a long-term view.
Advanced analysis techniques and tools for slowly rotating bearings demand deep expert knowledge which is accessible via on-demand supplementary support and customized service agreements. A valid service contract guarantees a short response time to the customer avoiding repeating purchase processes and providing continuous and reliable information on equipment status.

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25 June / 16:45 - Room 2:

Operation technology - process analytics across the steel lifecycle to improve performance

A. Adak
(M. N. Dastur & Co. Pvt. Ltd., India)

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Close25 June, Room 2 ( 16:45 )
Title: Operation technology - process analytics across the steel lifecycle to improve performance


Author:
A. Adak

Company:
M. N. Dastur & Co. Pvt. Ltd., India

Co-Authors:
A. Mukherjee, A. Das

Abstract:
There is a significant headroom for improvement in operational efficiency, even for the best-in-class steel plants. In the current competitive scenario, steel plants face continuous operational challenges to exceed expectations in energy, yield, quality, productivity, customer service and cost. Unlike in the past, unit processes in Steel Plants e.g. Blast Furnace, Steel Converter or Rolling Mills are far more visible and large volumes of data are available today which can be used with a combination of computational fluid dynamics, chemical reactions and deep-learning AI models to generate improved set of guidelines and so forth. State-of-the-art hardware and gathering of large volume of data alone is however, no guarantee for high improving performance in steel plants today. Success and excellence would increasingly depend on Process Analytics coupled with auto learning features using the appropriate combination of data analytics and metallurgical science.
Process Analytics can be applied to a particular unit with respect to a single key parameter such as residual phosphorus from BOF when phosphorus inputs are high. Or prediction of an important metric like sulphide capacity, which is a measure of the sulphur removing power of the slag. Though a reasonable amount of metallurgical knowledge exists in this area, complex influence of a large number of variables makes predictions or prescriptions extremely difficult or humanly impossible. This paper shows a Process Analytics framework to improve the quality and cost parameters in steel making and demonstrates its applicability using phosphorous and sulphur control in steel making.

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25 June / 17:5 - Room 2:

Sublance improvements at Ternium Brazil

H. Gomes
(Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil)

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Title: Sublance improvements at Ternium Brazil


Author:
H. Gomes

Company:
Ternium Brasil Ltda., Brazil

Co-Authors:
D. Carvalho, P. Sasso, F. Cipriani , R. Salgado, P. R. Neves, G. P. Marques, D. Soares

Abstract:
Measure and sampling steel on the BOF process are essential for the product and process quality and it's fundamental to increase the BOF productivity.
A good sublance measurement and the sampling without slag inclusion or correct filling, particularly for inblow measurement, depends especially on the correct sampler project and measurement setup (e.g.: sublance speed through the bath, immersion depth and stoppage time while measurement).
This paper describes the developments to improve the sublance sampling availability. This optimization was based on literature research, and a six-sigma work based on intensive onsite survey. Inblow sampling refusal rate was reduced by 50%.

Electric steelmaking: Current status and new developments in EAF technology (25 June / 16:20 - Room 15)

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25 June / 16:20 - Room 15:

Sustainable Electric Arc Furnace Operations - practical examples for improving material and energy efficiency

S. Baumgartner
(Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Sustainable Electric Arc Furnace Operations - practical examples for improving material and energy efficiency


Author:
S. Baumgartner

Company:
Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
F. Gökce, S. Wohlfahrt , D. Schreiber

Abstract:
In 2017, 28.0% of the global crude steel output were made in an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). Within the next five years, the EAF share in global production will increase to over 31% according to forecasts. Already today in China, many integrated mills (partially) convert their operations to EAF technology.

EAF operations are very flexible in terms of raw material used and steel grades produced. In order to be competitive a good material efficiency (metallic yield, but also process material consumptions like electrodes or refractories) and a good energy efficiency (electrical and chemical energy) are essential. In addition, this needs to be achieved, while minimizing the environmental footprint and understanding the impact of various raw material sources and/or energy sources on productivity and steel production costs.

This paper gives an overview of the latest global EAF performances in terms of material and energy efficiency in the different regions and for different technologies (e.g. conventional EAF vs. pre-heating EAF).

Furthermore, it describes several industry examples how to improve material and energy efficiency in EAF operations based on new methodologies (e.g. Finite Network Method) or by applying profound process and technology expertise for optimization. The examples are based on operational practice of BSW’s highly efficient EAFs (>95% scrap based), but also other EAF operations with varying technology and raw material input.

In conclusion, an outlook about future EAF operations and performance will be given.

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25 June / 16:40 - Room 15:

ILTEC - Revolutionary and safe cooling solution for the iron and steel industry

M. Hanel
(Mettop GmbH, Austria)

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Title: ILTEC - Revolutionary and safe cooling solution for the iron and steel industry


Author:
M. Hanel

Company:
Mettop GmbH, Austria

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
It is the increasing demand for an economic and cost saving operation mode that requires effective cooling in order to achieve low refractory wear and good furnace lifetime, which is making cooling technology an important aspect of furnace operation. In addition, the requirements for safety are getting more and more into focus. However, the use of water - today’s standard cooling medium - has major drawbacks as it can cause problems both during furnace start up and operation, namely hydration problems, corrosion, and explosion. Not to forget the severe personal as well as economical damage in case of a malfunctioning water cooling system.

With Mettop’s new patented cooling technology ILTEC it is possible to overcome the disadvantages of water by using an alternative cooling medium, namely the ionic liquid IL-B2001. SMS group and Mettop signed an exclusive cooperation agreement for the utilization of this revolutionary cooling system. The main characteristics, which makes IL-B2001 so favourable, are the neglectable vapour pressure, the wide liquidus range and the not flammable, not explosive and atoxic behaviour.

The fact that no explosion occurs when the ionic liquid gets in contact with molten metal; leads to a revolutionary solution for the metallurgical industry in terms of safety. So far industrial scale realized projects will be highlighted (blast furnace tap hole at ArcelorMittal, Bremen, cooling of flanges of a RH-facility at voestalpine, EAF sidewall cooling, side wall and tuyére zone in non-ferrous industry...) and future projects for improving cooling AND safety with ILTEC will be discussed.

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25 June / 17:00 - Room 15:

Integrated EAF safety concept of Badische Group

R. Schweikle
(Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Integrated EAF safety concept of Badische Group


Author:
R. Schweikle

Company:
Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
J. Blank , M. Breithaupt , A. Haferkorn

Abstract:
Badische Stahl-Engineering (BSE) is an engineering & consulting company belonging to the Badische Group with its own steel plant Badische Stahlwerke (BSW), one of the world’s most productive Electric Arc Furnace steel plants. Due to the high priority and focus on safety and safe operation, BSW and BSE together established an integrated EAF safety concept.

For safe EAF operation, the first focus has to be put on the process itself. The right set-up of the EAF, regarding input and output requirements, with its technological sections and the related auxiliary equipment is a main precondition for safe operation. Design and set-up of electrical and chemical power input, as well as set-up of cooling equipment of the EAF will be highlighted as important examples.

Secondly, with the right equipment set-up according to the process requirements operational reliability with minimized delay rates need to be achieved by definition of operational standards to gain efficiency as well as process and working safety. Important aspect in this matter is also the right set-up of maintenance frequencies to achieve the most efficient level regarding costs and off-times of preventive maintenance.

After reaching the above-mentioned conditions, the third level of safety at the EAF can be achieved by implementing special supplementary safety equipment. Development and implementation of such safety equipment determines actually a major part of today’s BSE activities at BSW as well as other mini mills all over the world.

Such special safety equipment concerns the temperature & sampling taking, as well as the insight shell inspection by cameras. The automation of the tapping-process, either spout- or EBT-system, are of high interest for automation to gain higher working safety levels. For all mentioned topics, concepts and installed reference systems will be shown.

Oxygen steelmaking: Current status and new developments in converter technology and shopfloor management II (25 June / 16:40 - Room 1)

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25 June / 16:40 - Room 1:

Vacuum converter provides superb stainless steel and ferroalloy refining power for highly demanding applications

T. Kleier
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Vacuum converter provides superb stainless steel and ferroalloy refining power for highly demanding applications


Author:
T. Kleier

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:
U. Thiedemann, M. Paluszak

Abstract:
The vital importance of producing sophisticated final products at the lowest possible cost to evade the growing pressure of competition has led SMS group to develop a new metallurgical unit, the vacuum converter, which combines the superior productivity of the AOD process with the unparalleled ability to produce the highest purity grades from the VOD process.

Based on SMS’s numerous references in AOD, VOD and also VOD converters, the newly developed process enables the production not only of stainless, acid-resistant and heat-resistant steel grades but also of high-alloy special steel grades. In addition, the converter can be used for in-house refining of ferromanganese and ferrochrome to low-carbon grades.

The process minimizes the argon consumption of the conventional AOD whilst achieving the lowest carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen content levels. Utilizing these advantages, producers can get ahead of the competition with unique, high-margin final products at minimized investment and conversion costs.

As a leading player in the production of special steels, voestalpine Böhler Edelstahl decided to implement the SMS group vacuum converter in their new highly automated, pioneering special steel plant in Kapfenberg, Austria. Within this plant setup, the converter will be used for both applications: the production of special steels and the refinement of ferroalloys to low-carbon grades.

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25 June / 17:00 - Room 1:

Connecting lean principles, operational and leadership excellence in the steel industry

J. Schmidt
(thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany)

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Title: Connecting lean principles, operational and leadership excellence in the steel industry


Author:
J. Schmidt

Company:
thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Germany

Co-Authors:
T. Münzhardt, V. Hillen, I. Knopp, T. Brand

Abstract:
The strive for process excellence and on-going improvement is deeply rooted in the iron and steel industry and put forth several reinventions and innovations throughout the last decades and centuries. As a next step to expand lean principles, thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG started an initiative called „tk production system“ in 2017.This approach focusses not only on operational excellence projects and the optimization of the value stream, but also to a new approach of leadership.

Working on operational excellence (OpEx) projects and value stream mapping (VSM) involving employees with shopfloor background differs greatly to any improvements of key processes made on an office-based level. It not only affects everyday factory business, but also raises motivation of the workforce. By active voluntary participation of employees with individual shopfloor backgrounds, acceptance and sustainability of the project outcomes can be increased. Goal of both – OpEx and VSM - is to lower waste, reduce the capital employed and raise the delivery performance.

The drastic change of daily meeting routines by introducing Shopfloor-Management (SFM) ReKo’s was the most visible change. With this and the integration of as many employees as possible in this process, a new kind of “bottom-up” problem solving approach was reinforced. In addition, a redefinition of leadership roles at all levels, from technical-supervisors to engineers up to team and group leaders, was conducted. .

With the tools of SFM which are mentioned below, especially structured SFM-Boards for the daily meeting routines got relocated close to the shopfloor (i.e. the caster). Leaders throughout the organization communicate their KPI’s to their employees. By this, implementation of a short cycle deviation management, information, tasks and priorities became more transparent, concrete, and consistent throughout the different hierarchy levels. Deviations of KPI’s, immediate as well as sustainable countermeasures are recorded on the SFM boards and are

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25 June / 17:20 - Room 1:

Slagless Clean Up® solution to reduce tap to tap time

B. Totti Maia
(Lumar Metals, Brazil)

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Title: Slagless Clean Up® solution to reduce tap to tap time


Author:
B. Totti Maia

Company:
Lumar Metals, Brazil

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
The optimization of the BOF converter tap-to-tap cycle times is a perennial pursuit of the steelmakers. Cycle interruptions for operational maintenance can mean at the end of a day, loss equivalent to one or more heats. The converter's mouth cleaning task is one of these interrupts. This paper presents the results obtained using Slagless Clean Up® technology. The technology allows the blow heat and simultaneously through post-combustion cleaning mouth. The interruptions for mouth cleaning have been reduced, as well as time of change and cleaning lance, adding valuable contribution to tap-to-tap reduction.

Rolling: Rod and bar rolling (25 June / 17:00 - Room 28)

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25 June / 17:00 - Room 28:

Intelligent robotic coil trimming for wire rod mills

R. Kirkwood-Azmat
(Primetals Technologies USA LLC, United States)

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Title: Intelligent robotic coil trimming for wire rod mills


Author:
R. Kirkwood-Azmat

Company:
Primetals Technologies USA LLC, United States

Co-Authors:
S. Teegavarapu

Abstract:
One requirement in wire rod production to achieve uniform material properties throughout a finished coil is trimming head and tail ends to eliminate those rings with property variations. Installing in-line trim shears prior to coiling at the laying head has been the only automatic option, but this requires space in the rolling line and the shears are difficult to operate and maintain.

Therefore most mills rely on manual operator trimming at a coil inspection station ahead of the coil compactor, which is a labor-intensive and potentially dangerous task. Manual trimming also results in variations in yield, since the number of rings to be removed is usually subject to operator judgement. In wire rod lines such tasks will be eliminated as operators will have a more sophisticated skill set and focus on more value added functions.

A new Autonomus Robotic system system has been developed for trimming within the coil handling area. A The robotic system is guided with a “Intelligent” vision-assisted system and the robot equipped with a ring separator and trimmer can identify, trim and remove unwanted rings. As a self-contained, accurate and repeatable system, it provides provides superior performance and control of the process, and thus improves efficiency and coil quality.
The new system’s capabilities are presented with results from a pilot facility and an operating wire rod mill.

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25 June / 17:20 - Room 28:

Interstand tension measuring technique for bar mill and its application

S. Yanagi
(Kobe Steel, Ltd., Japan)

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Title: Interstand tension measuring technique for bar mill and its application


Author:
S. Yanagi

Company:
Kobe Steel, Ltd., Japan

Co-Authors:
M. Kobayashi, H. Nakamura, T. Taira, Y. Morimoto

Abstract:
Online interstand tension measuring technic was developed for bar mill. To calculate the interstand tension, the current change that is generated when the head of the bar is rolled into the downstream stand is detected and is converted into interstand tension. The rolling model for wire rolling is used in this procedure. A clustering method is used to obtain the reliable tension estimation out of the noisy current data. The calculated interstand tension is displayed in real time on the monitor screen that is installed in the bar mill operating room. This tension monitor helps the bar mill operators recognize the interstand tension easily and adjust the roll speed to obtain the suitable tension level, including no tension state, that is required for the stable rolling.

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25 June / 17:40 - Room 28:

Peak performance for billet and large bar rolling mills

T. Maßmann
(SMS group GmbH, Germany)

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Title: Peak performance for billet and large bar rolling mills


Author:
T. Maßmann

Company:
SMS group GmbH, Germany

Co-Authors:

Abstract:
Billet Mills are one of the oldest products of the entire rolling mill industry reaching back to times when continuous casting was a dream of far future. Casted ingots had been converted to square billets required for wire rod or bar production in order to ensure a high reduction ratio and lowest possible internal defects. The same has been done later with casted blooms. Today semi-finished products such as blooms, billets or even large round and square dimensions are produced on billet mills and large bar mills. These applications require the most reliable and strong equipment available on the market. Therefore, SMS group has developed a new generation of ultra-rigid closed-type housing Compact Stand (CS stands). For closest tolerance requirements, also HCS stands with hydraulic screw down are available. In combination with SMS group’s PROGAUGE laser gauge system, these stands automatic size control (ASC®) for high-quality large round bars.
Today the CS and HCS stands have been implemented in various rolling mills. In some cases they have been used in to replace old reversing blooming mills with continuous mills in order to increase feed sizes and productivity. Other applications are finishing mills for billets and bars.
By unifying the solidity of 20th century equipment with the latest technology and automation available SMS group´s billet and large bar mills can be a benchmark for the coming decades.